Arnica montana / Valkruid

Arnica montana L. is nu één van onze bekendste geneeskruiden. In de klassieke oudheid echter was Valkruid, die tot de familie der Asteraceae behoort, blijkbaar niet bekend. Waarschijnlijk is het Hildegard von Bingen geweest die voor het eerst het gebruik van Arnica beschreven heeft. Zij heeft het over een ‘Wuntwurz’, een wondwortel, te gebruiken bij kneuzingen en blauwe plekken, dé indicaties waar Valkruid later voor bekend werd.

WERKING

Werkzame bestanddelen:
• In de bloemen bitterstoffen waaronder sesquiterpeenlactonen als helenaline en dihydrohelenaline; arnicaflavonen, arnicine (bitterstof), etherische oliën (0.3-1%) als thymol, azuleen, palmitinezuur en laurinezuur; choline, betaïne, slijmstoffen, cumarinen, phytosterolen, flavonglycosiden als astragaline en isoquercetine; carotenoïden en arnidiol (saponine) 
• In de wortel looistoffen (maximaal 6.3%), etherische oliën, polysacchariden en harsen

Werkingsmechanisme
De literatuur beschrijft dierstudies waaruit blijkt dat helenaline en dyhydrohelenaline (sesquiterpenen) pijnstillende, antibiotische en ontstekingsremmende eigenschappen bezitten. De ontstekingsremmende werking van Arnica is overduidelijk aangetoond in onderzoeken naar het effect van de plant bij chronische artritis. Men vermoedt dat door remming van enzymen welke een rol spelen bij het ontstekingsproces, de ontstekingsremmende en pijnstillende eigenschappen van het valkruid te verklaren zijn. Hoewel sesquiterpeenlactonen waarschijnlijk de grootste rol spelen in het werkingsmechanisme, zijn er toch ook aanwijzingen dat andere componenten -waaronder flavonglycosiden, polyacetylenen en koffiezuurderivaten- voor een groot bijdragen in het geheel. Een antibacteriële werking is aangetoond tegen Listeria monocytogenes en Salmonella typhimurium. Dierstudies bewezen een immunostimulerende activiteit welke de onderzoekers toeschreven aan helenaline. In vivo bleken de polysacchariden eveneens een immunostimulerende werking uit te oefenen. Vervolgonderzoeken zullen zich vermoedelijk richten op de cytotoxische werking van Arnica montana. Verschillende auteurs noemen eveneens de invloed op het cardiovasculaire stelsel. 
Arnica zou zwak analeptische eigenschappen bezitten, het slag- en minutenvolume verhogen, de coronaire doorbloeding verbeteren en de perifere weerstand verlagen. Bij coronaire sclerose en angina pectoris zou volgens deze auteurs de uitwerking van Arnica vergelijkbaar zijn met Crataegus oxyacantha of Convallaria majalis. De ESCOP noemt als hoofdindicaties behandeling van kneuzingen en verstuikingen, gingivitis en aften, ontstekingen veroorzaakt door insecten en symptomatische behandeling van reumatische aandoeningen.

Praktische toepassing
Arnica heeft een pijnstillende werking. Bij het verlichten of verzachten van pijn ten gevolge van een ongeval of operatie, zou niet alleen gedacht moeten worden aan een uitwendige behandeling met bijvoorbeeld een zalf, crème, gelei of emulsie, maar moet tegelijkertijd en bij voorkeur zo snel mogelijk een homeopathisch geneesmiddel met Arnica worden ingenomen. Frequent doseren tot de pijn vermindert en daarna minder vaak tot de klachten zijn verdwenen, is aan te raden.

•    Extern kan Arnica worden ingezet bij bloeduitstortingen en zwellingen door stompe traumata of valpartijen. Arnica heeft een regenererende en granulatiebevorderende werking. Bij open wonden mag Arnica uitwendig niet gebruikt worden. Bij reumatische aandoeningen kan Arnica uitwendig gebruikt worden als lokaal ontstekingsremmend en pijnstillend middel.
•    Intern staat het kruid bekend als haemostypticum, antiflogisticum en analepticum. Bij inwendige bloedingen, bijvoorbeeld door een operatie, kan men Arnica toepassen. Als pré- en postoperatief geneesmiddel verdient het tevens waardering. Arnica kan narcosebijwerkingen miniseren en het herstel sterk bespoedigen.

Contra-indicaties
Arnica mag inwendig allen in daarvoor geschikte homeopathische verdunningen gebruikt worden. Bij uitwendig gebruik kunnen allergische huidreacties optreden. De gebruiker moet dan onmiddellijk de therapie staken. Arnica mag uitwendig -bijvoorbeeld als zalf of crème- alleen op een niet-beschadigde huid worden toegepast. Extra voorzichtigheid is geboden bij personen die overgevoelig zijn voor planten van de composietenfamilie, bij hen kunnen eerder ongewenste huidreacties optreden

Bijwerkingen
Arnica is giftig bij inwendig gebruik. Het irriteert de slijmvliezen en inname kan fatale gastro-enteritis tot gevolg hebben. Ook spierverlamming, versnelde of vertraagde hartslag, hartkloppingen of kortademigheid kunnen na inname optreden met de dood als gevolg. Helenaline -één van de belangrijkste werkzame bestanddelen- kan deze toxische gevolgen teweeg brengen. Bij inname van 30 milliliter Arnica tinctuur van 20% treden al ernstige -maar niet fatale- symptomen op. Uitwendig gebruik van Arnica kan bij daarvoor gevoelige personen sterke huidirritaties veroorzaken. De sesquiterpenen roepen als contactallergenen deze reacties op. Zonlicht versterkt deze reacties nog meer.

Schroder, H. et al. 1990. Helenalin and 11 alpha, 13-dihydrohelenalin, two constituents from Arnica montana L., inhibit human platelet function via thiol-dependent pathways. Thromb Res 57(6):839–845. Kaziro, G.S. 1984. Metronidazole (Flagyl) and Arnica Montana in the prevention of post-surgical complications, a comparative placebo-controlled clinical trial. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 22(1):42–49. Monografie Arnica montana. Herboristen Opleiding 'Dodonaeus. Maurice Godefridi




Arnika
Hilft bei Schwellungen, Prellungen oder Verstauchungen
Arnika (Arnica montana) ist eine vergleichsweise junge Heilpflanze. Erst seit dem 18. Jahrhundert wird die Gebirgspflanze intensiv als Heilpflanze genutzt. Arnikaprodukte werden primär äußerlich angewendet: Als Salbe oder Tinktur aufgetragen, wirkt Arnika schmerzlindernd, keim- und entzündungshemmend und hilft bei Schwellungen, Prellungen oder Verstauchungen. Weiter wird Arnika beispielsweise zur Therapie von Blutergüssen, Einschränkungen des Bewegungsapparates oder Venen- und Zahnfleischentzündungen empfohlen. Sowohl die Kommission E als auch die ESCOP erkennen viele der heilenden Eigenschaften der Arnika an. Medizinisch relevant ist ausschließlich die Blüte; hier besonders der Inhaltsstoff Helenalin sowie verschiedene Flavonoide und ätherische Öle. 

Bei welchen Anwendungen hilft Arnika? Und was ist bewiesen?
Die traditionelle Anwendung als entzündungshemmendes, schmerzlinderndes und antiseptisches Mittel wurde bestätigt. Bei äußerer Anwendung sind die Gefahren und Nebenwirkungen gering, von einer innerlichen Anwendung rät die Kommission E ab. In der Homöopathie können allerdings für innerliche Anwendungen höhere Verdünnungen (D4) eingesetzt werden.

Anwendungen unterteilt nach Wirksamkeit
Gesicherte Wirksamkeit  B
Für diese Anwendungsgebiete liegen eindeutige klinische Studien vor, um von einer Wirksamkeit auszugehen. Die Wirksamkeit wurde von mindestens einer der maßgeblichen Bewertungskommissionen (Kommission E/ESCOP/HMPC/WHO) verbindlich festgestellt.
  • Entzündungen der Mundschleimhaut und des Zahnfleisches, Aphten
  • Furunkel
  • Insektenstiche
  • Venenentzündung, oberflächliche
  • Verletzungen und Unfallfolgen (z.B. Bluterguss = Hämatom, Prellungen, Quetschungen, Distorsion, Schwellung bei Knochenbrüchen = Frakturödem)
  • rheumatische Muskel- und Gelenkschmerzen (wird vom BfArM nicht mehr akzeptiert, was nach Meinung der Kommission E unberechtigt ist)
Wirksamkeit laut Erfahrung 
Es liegen zahlreiche Hinweise aus einer langen Anwendungstradition in der Volksmedizin und in der ärztlichen Erfahrungsheilkunde vor, die eine Wirksamkeit annehmen lassen. Dennoch sind bisher nicht alle Kriterien erfüllt, die für eine volle Beweiskraft notwendig sind. Falls es klinische Studien gibt, haben die Ergebnisse nicht zweifelsfrei überzeugt.
  • Arthritis, Gelenkschmerzen
  • Infektionen, antiseptisch
  • Verbrennungen, Sonnenbrand
  • Wunden und Entzündungen, entzündungshemmend (antiphlogistisch), schmerzlindernd
Nicht gesicherte Wirksamkeit  Blatt
Die Hinweise aus traditioneller Anwendung oder Laborversuchen sind zu wenig überzeugend und gehen über einen experimentellen Status nicht hinaus. Es gibt bisher keine korrekten oder positiven klinischen Studien.
Herzkreislaufschwäche, anregend
Hypercholesterinämie

Links zu den Erkrankungen, bei denen Arnika helfen kann

 
Praktische Anwendung: Produkte und Hausmittel
Zurzeit wird nur die äußerliche Anwendung von Arnika befürwortet. Arnika-Extrakt oder -tinktur wird häufig für Salben und Kompressen verarbeitet.
Dosierung
Äußerliche Anwendung:
Für einen Aufguss 2 g Droge in 100 ml Wasser verwenden:
dabei für Mundspülungen den Aufguss 1:10 verdünnen
für Umschläge 3:10 bis 1:10  verdünnen.
Arnikatinktur: Gebräuchlich ist als Einzeldosis 0,5 bis 1,0 g:
für Umschläge die Tinktur 3- bis 10 fach mit Wasser verdünnen und
für Mundspülungen Tinktur 10 fach verdünnen.
Arnikaöl: Die Salben sollen max. 20-25 % Arnikatinktur und 15 % Arnikaöl enthalten.

Heilwirkung von Arnika
schmerzhemmend bei Entzündungen (analgetisch)
keimhemmend (antiseptisch), Hemmung von Pilzwachstum (antimykotisch)
durchblutungsfördernd (hyperämisierend)
Bei der äußerlichen Anwendung zeigen sich neben den antiseptischen Eigenschaften auch hautrötende und durchblutungssteigernde sowie schmerzstillende  und wundheilende Effekte. Arnika hat daher eine lange Tradition in der Anwendung gegen Wunden, Verletzungen und infektiösen Erkrankungen, Entzündungen (Blutergüssen, Prellungen, Verstauchungen, Verbrennungen, Sonnenbrand, Windeldermatitis und andere mehr). Arnika findet auch als Gegenreizmittel (Counterirritans) bei Rheuma Anwendung. In wissenschaftlichen Experimenten wurde gezeigt, dass vor allem Helenalin (ein Sesquiterpenlacton) das Entzündungsgeschehen hemmt und darüber hinaus eine antimikrobielle Aktivität aufweist.
Traditionell setzte man Arnika auch als Stimulans von Herz und Kreislauf sowie bei Erschöpfung ein. In Tierexperimenten wurde die Herztätigkeit gefördert sowie die Atmung verstärkt und vertieft. Allerdings hält diese Wirkung nicht lange an und es können Herzrhythmusstörungen oder Blutdruckerhöhungen hervorgerufen werden.
Daneben wurde bei Tieren eine Erniedrigung des Cholesterin- und Fettspiegels durch Arnika beschrieben sowie bei Laborversuchen eine Wirkung gegen Krebswachstum.
Nach neuen Erkenntnissen empfiehlt man, Arnika nur noch äußerlich oder als Mundspülung (bei Schleimhautentzündung) zu verwenden. denn Inhaltsstoffe wie das Sesquiterpenlacton Helenalin wirken zellschädigend (zytotoxisch) und können durch ihre erbgutverändernde Eigenschaft möglicherweise Krebs auszulösen. Helenalin ist auch für die relativ häufigen allergischen Wirkungen gegen Arnika verantwortlich. Arnikablüten aus Portugal und Spanien, enthalten dagegen hauptsächlich Dihydrohelenalin, das viel seltener eine allergische Hautentzündung auslöst, aber auch weniger antientzündlich wirkt.

Wirkstoffe
Sesquiterpenlactone: Hauptwirkstoffe (0,2–0,5%) Helenalin, Dihydrohelenalin und Verwandte mit bitterem Geschmack
Flavone und Flavonole,
etherisches Öl (mit Thymol, Thymolmethylether und Azulen)
Triterpene
Phenolcarbonsäuren
Polysaccharide



Arnica
Arnica montana
Family: Asteraceae 
by Gayle Engels, Josef Brinckmann 
HerbalGram. 2015; American Botanical Council

The genus Arnica comprises approximately 40 species,1,2 of which A. montana is probably the most well-known. Arnica is an herbaceous perennial in the daisy family (Asteraceae) with leaves that form a basal rosette from which emerges a one- to two-foot stalk with orange-yellow flowers.3 Though the flowers are the primary parts used medicinally, the dark brown, cylindrical rhizomes are also sometimes used.
Arnica montana is endemic to Europe, where it is relatively widespread, growing wild from Norway to the Balkans and from Spain to Ukraine.4 Divided into two subspecies, A. montana ssp. montana grows in Scandinavia and Central Europe, while A. montana ssp. atlantica occurs in southern France, Spain, and Portugal. The material of commerce is obtained, for the most part, from wild collection in Romania (for example, in grassland areas of the Apuseni Mountains of Transylvania), where over half of the estimated annual global trade quantity is harvested,5 followed by Spain (mainly in the northwestern region of Galicia and neighboring province of León), although Spain has recently become a less important source.6 Arnica is also wild-harvested to some extent in Croatia,7 as well as Ukraine, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Serbia, and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.8 There is some commercial cultivation, albeit not enough to satisfy market demand, occurring mainly in Germany, France, Italy, Switzerland, and Chile, especially due to the registration and approval in 1998 of the cultivar “Arbo” for field production. There are presently two cultivars approved and protected through the German Bundessortenamt (Federal Office of Plant Varieties, Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture): the aforementioned Arbo (owned by Bayerische Pflanzenzuchtgesellschaft e.G. & Co KG; Freising, Germany) and “Arvita” (owned by Kneipp GmbH; Würzburg, Germany).9
Additional common names for A. montana include European arnica, leopard’s bane, wolf’s bane,*10 and mountain tobacco.10,11
[Note: The flowers of Arnica species native to North America, which are not addressed in this article, are used in much the same way as A. montana. For more information on the use of North American species, see Michael Moore’s books Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West (Museum of New Mexico Press, 2003) and Medicinal Plants of the Pacific West (2011). For Native American tribal use of North American species, see Daniel Moerman’s Native American Ethnobotany database at http://herb.umd.umich.edu/.]

HISTORY AND CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE
Arnica tinctures (hydroalcoholic extracts) and salves have been used externally for their anti-inflammatory,10,11 bactericidal,11,12 antineuralgic, antirheumatic, antiseptic, counterirritant,13 and wound-healing10 effects. Arnica preparations are also used topically to treat boils, bruises,10,13 contusions, edema, hematoma, insect bites,10,11,13 joint pain (including rheumatic conditions),13 sprains,10,13 phlebitis, thrombosis,10 muscle pain,11 alopecia neurotica (sudden hair loss after a disease or injury in which the nervous system was involved), and unbroken chilblains (painful inflammation of small blood vessels in the skin occurring in response to sudden warming from cold). Historically, a root plaster was used externally for tumors,12 a foot bath containing the tincture relieved tender feet,3 and rubbing the tincture into the scalp was believed to increase hair growth.3,12 While arnica was also used in the past for canker sores and gingivitis,13 it is now generally recommended that arnica not be used orally due to its potentially toxic helenalin content.14

In 1987, the German Commission E approved the external use of arnica flowers and preparations thereof for injuries and consequences of accidents, such as hematoma, dislocations, contusions, edema due to fracture, and rheumatic muscle and joint problems, as well as for inflammation of the oral and throat region, boils, inflammation caused by insect bites, and superficial phlebitis.15
Many sources emphasize the importance of using arnica preparations on unbroken skin.14 Also, it should be noted that arnica contains chemical constituents, notably helenalin and its derivatives, that are allergenic and may cause topical dermatitis in some individuals.16
Historically, arnica had a number of internal uses that are rarely, if ever, implemented in modern phytomedicine due to the herb’s toxic effects, including cytotoxicity (destructive to cells). For example, arnica was previously used internally as a cardiotonic, CNS stimulant,10 expectorant, nervine, sedative, and to treat liver, stomach, and intestinal cancers, among other conditions.12 Arnica homeopathic products are still used internally due to their high dilution, and thus extremely low concentration, of the herb’s chemical components. The Homœopathic Pharmacopœia of the United States (HPUS) provides two arnica monographs for over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription uses: “Arnica Montana Radix HPUS” — which describes the 1X “mother tincture” (1:10) of the root for external use and the 3X attenuation level for OTC internal use† — and “Arnica Montana HPUS,” which describes the same potency preparations but for the entire plant, including the root.17

In addition to its use in traditional European medical herbalism, arnica is widely used in two other European systems of medicine: anthroposophic medicine and homeopathic medicine. For its use as a traditional herbal medicine, the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines (EDQM) provides quality standards monographs for arnica flower and arnica tincture in the European Pharmacopoeia,18 while the European Medicines Agency (EMA) provides labeling standards monographs for prepared forms (tinctures and liquid extracts).19 For use in anthroposophy, the whole fresh flowering plant, the fresh or dried inflorescence, the fresh or dried subterranean parts, and essential oil of the subterranean parts are described in the Anthroposophic Pharmaceutical Codex.20 For arnica-based homeopathic preparations marketed in the European Union, quality standards monographs are provided in both the French Pharmacopoeia21 and German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia.22

CURRENT AUTHORIZED USES IN COSMETICS, FOODS, AND MEDICINES
Arnica is used commercially in cosmetics, shampoos,13,23 hair tonics, anti-dandruff products,23 and bath products,13 and arnica oil is used in perfumery.12,23 The botanical has limited food use in very small quantities (0.02-0.08%) in baked goods, candy, gelatins, puddings, frozen dairy desserts, and beverages.23
In the European Union (EU), several defined arnica preparations — in particular, alcoholic tinctures of various strengths [1:5, ethanol 60% (v/v); and 1:10, ethanol 60% or 70% (v/v)] and liquid extract of fresh flowers [1:20, ethanol 50% (m/m)] — are regulated as traditional herbal medicinal products (THMPs) requiring registration and pre-marketing authorization. Registered preparations can be labeled and marketed for cutaneous (skin) use only and are indicated for the relief of bruises, sprains, and localized muscular pain.19 For quality control, applicants must show that the herbal starting material complies with the “Arnicae flos PhEur” quality standards monograph of the European Pharmacopoeia, and that the resulting tincture conforms to the “Arnicae tinctura PhEur” monograph.18
EU Member States also have provisions for the authorization and marketing of herbal anthroposophic medicinal products as well as homeopathic medicinal products. In Germany alone, there are 843 registered medicinal products listing arnica as an active ingredient, of which 360 products are homeopathic medicines (e.g., “Arnica Oligoplex®”; Rottapharm SpA/Madaus; Monza, Italy) and 77 are anthroposophic medicines (e.g., “Arnica Planta Tota Rh D3 Augentropfen” [eye drops]; Weleda AG; Arlesheim, Switzerland). Many of the product registrations, however, are held by individual pharmacies for dispensing.24
For use in cosmetic products, the European Commission Health and Consumers Directorate lists three arnica preparations: “Arnica Montana Flower Oil” (essential oil obtained from distillation of the flowers) for perfumery, “Arnica Montana Flower Water” (aqueous solution of the steam distillate obtained from the flowers) as a skin conditioning ingredient, and “Arnica Montana Flower Extract” (extract of the dried flower heads) for masking, perfuming, and skin-conditioning functions.25

In the United States, preparations of arnica flower of several species (A. montana, A. fulgens, A. sororia, and A. cordifolia) are permitted for use as natural flavoring substances, although in alcoholic beverages only.26 Most arnica products in the US market are regulated as nonprescription, OTC homeopathic drugs (e.g., Arniflora® Arnica Gel; Boericke & Tafel; Lehi, Utah), although some are prescription drug products (e.g., TranzGel®; Gensco Laboratories; Inverness, Florida). As such, the drug must be prepared according to the specifications of the General Pharmacy and relevant sections of the HPUS. The US Food and Drug Administration-issued National Drug Code (NDC) number must appear on the label of arnica prescription drugs, but it is not required to appear on labels of arnica OTC drug products.27

In Canada, arnica is regulated as an active ingredient of licensed natural health products (NHPs) requiring pre-marketing authorization from the Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate (NNHPD). The authorized use for labeling of topical application arnica NHPs (infusion, tincture, or medicated oil) is “[traditionally] used in Herbal Medicine to help relieve pain and/or inflammation in muscles and joints (e.g., sprains, bruises, joint pain).” The quality of the starting material and resulting tincture must conform to their corresponding European Pharmacopoeia monographs.28 With the same indications for use, a separate compendial monograph is provided for “Arnica – Semisolid Dosage Forms.” The only acceptable dosage forms for compendial applications citing this monograph are semisolids such as creams, gels, ointments, and salves.29 For use as a non-medicinal component of licensed NHPs, non-therapeutic dosages of arnica flower extracts are permitted for topical use as a fragrance ingredient or skin-conditioning agent.30 At the time of this writing (July 2015), there were 482 arnica-containing licensed NHPs, of which 411 product licenses list arnica, in some form, as a medicinally active ingredient.31

MODERN RESEARCH
The chemical and pharmacological properties of A. montana are well-documented. Arnica chemical constituents include alkaloids, amines, carbohydrates, coumarins, flavonoids (e.g., eupafolin, patuletin, spinacetin), terpenoids (e.g., arnifolin, arnicolides, helenalin), volatile oils (e.g., thymol, ethers of thymol), phenolic acids, resins, bitters (arnicin), tannins, and carotenoids.13,14,23 In vitro and animal studies have shown that some arnica extracts (but mostly homeopathic preparations) have anti-inflammatory32-38 and antimicrobial39 properties.
Human clinical studies have investigated topical and internal uses of A. montana herbal extracts and homeopathic products for their efficacy in treating various inflammatory conditions. Arnica extracts have been studied primarily for their topical use while studies on internal uses are limited to homeopathic products.
In 2010, a rater-blinded (i.e., a study in which rating scales are administered with no awareness of the participant’s treatment assignment to limit scoring bias), randomized, controlled trial tested a 20% arnica ointment against three other ointments for reducing laser-induced bruising, a common side effect of dermatological procedures.40 The arnica ointment, as well as a 5% vitamin K ointment, 1% vitamin K/0.3% retinol ointment, and a white petrolatum placebo, were prepared by a licensed compounding pharmacy. Healthy volunteers (n=16) who did not have a history of bleeding disorders and were not taking oral anticoagulants were provided a jar of each ointment labeled A, B, C, and D, applicators, and spot bandages to reduce cross-contamination or smearing of the ointments. Subjects then received four induced, standardized bruises that were randomized for treatment with one of the ointments. Bruises were photographed promptly after creation and at week two, and rated by a dermatologist who had no other involvement in the study. The 20% arnica ointment was significantly superior in its ability to reduce bruising compared to the 1% vitamin K/retinol and placebo oitments, but not the 5% vitamin K oitment.
A 2007 randomized, double-blind study investigated A. Vogel Arnica Gel® (containing 50 g Arnica montana fresh herbal tincture/100 g gel; 1:20 tincture ratio; supplied by Bioforce AG; Roggwil, Switzerland) versus Optifen® Gel (5% ibuprofen gel; Spirig Pharma Ltd.; Egerkingen, Switzerland) for treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the fingers.41 A total of 204 patients with diagnosed osteoarthritis were randomized to receive treatment with the arnica gel (n=105) or ibuprofen gel (n=99) in 4 cm strip doses three times per day for three weeks. Improvement in all parameters was similar and clinically relevant, and neither patients nor doctors could distinguish between the two treatments. The authors stated that “arnica gel is not inferior to ibuprofen gel, regarding hand functional capacity, pain intensity, number of painful joints, duration and severity of morning stiffness, or paracetamol consumption.”
An open-label, multi-center clinical study in 2005 investigated the safety and efficacy of an arnica gel (Rheuma-Gel AtroMed®; 500 mg tincture of organically grown fresh arnica flowers; 1:20, ethanol 58%; Bioforce AG; Roggwil, Switzerland). Patients (124 women, 80 men) diagnosed with rheumatic disorders of the musculoskeletal system applied a thin layer of gel to affected areas twice daily. Average baseline pain intensity was reduced significantly by nearly 50%. Efficacy was the same in patients with mild, moderate, and severe pain. Pain reduction was statistically significant in all three groups.42
An open, multicenter study, published in 2002, investigated the safety and efficacy of arnica gel (supplied by Bioforce AG; the same formula as in the study above) on OA of the knee.42 Over a period of six week, 79 patients diagnosed with mild-to-moderate arthrosis/periarthropathy of at least one knee applied a thin layer of the gel to affected knee(s) morning and evening. Six of the 79 patients experienced localized reactions to the gel, a local symptom rate (7.6%) less than that experienced with topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs; approximately 10%).43 Significant decreases in WOMAC Index (the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, an accepted test for evaluation of OA of the knee) scores occurred at weeks three and six.42 Additionally, pain, stiffness, and function were improved at visits two and three. Overall, the authors concluded that arnica gel treatment was comparable to treatment with diclofenac, an NSAID used to treat arthritis.
While there are a number of clinical studies on the topical use of homeopathic arnica preparations, they are, for the most part, not as positive in their outcomes as are studies on arnica extracts. One exception is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled (RDBPC) study in which topical homeopathic arnica was applied after a downhill running protocol.44 The participants in the homeopathic arnica group (n=20) reported reduced muscle tenderness, but the preparation did not affect performance markers of inflammation or muscle damage. More common are RDBPC studies that investigate homeopathic arnica cream for pain relief after eccentric exercise (pushing the muscles past their normal point of failure).45 One such study found that, rather than experiencing decreased leg pain, subjects (n=20) reported increased leg pain 24 hours after extensive calf raises. In another RDBPC study (n=19) on a homeopathic arnica gel, there was no significant reduction in post-laser bruising.46
Internal homeopathic arnica preparations have not fared much better in clinical studies. A 2003 RDBPC study (n=64) with three parallel arms assessed the efficacy of arnica for the reduction of pain after elective carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) surgery, wrist swelling, and use of pain medication.47 No significant differences in the three arms were found in the arnica and placebo groups at day four. A 2002 randomized, double-blind comparison study (n=37) investigating the usefulness of arnica following CTS surgery had somewhat better results.48 Compared to the placebo group, patients in the arnica group experienced no difference in grip strength or wrist circumference (swelling) one and two weeks after surgery, but the arnica group had significantly less pain after two weeks.
In a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study, homeopathic arnica performed as well as diclofenac in relieving postoperative wound irritation and patient mobility following bunion surgery.49 It was, however, inferior to diclofenac in relieving pain, and there were no significant differences in the two groups regarding postoperative use of analgesics.
Homeopathic arnica was investigated for post-tonsillectomy pain relief in a RDBPC study (n=190) and found to cause a small but significant drop in pain scores compared to placebo.50 There was no difference in secondary outcomes (antibiotic use, analgesia use, visits to doctor or hospital, day on which swallowing returned to normal, and day on which patients returned to work) between groups.

FUTURE OUTLOOK Arnica montana
Romania is the main producer of wild-collected arnica flowers, exporting mainly to Germany, Italy, France and Switzerland.51 Germany accounts for approximately 80% of Romania’s arnica exports.
Estimates of market demand vary considerably. Nearly 20 years ago, Dagmar Lange, PhD — a professor in the Institute of Environmental Sciences at the University of Koblenz-Landau in Germany — estimated that 50 metric tons (MT) of dried arnica flowers (equivalent to 250,000-300,000 kg of fresh flowers) and hundreds of kilograms of dried roots were used annually in Europe.52 More recently, Rolf Franke, PhD, and colleagues have suggested8 that the demand in Germany alone is about 10 MT for the pharmaceutical sector and more than 10 MT for the cosmetics sector. In 2003, Kathe et al. reported that A. montana ranked as Romania’s seventh top medicinal and aromatic plant export, with an estimated 28 MT per year for wild-collected herbs. In 2001, 20 MT were reportedly wild harvested in the Cluj region of Transylvania alone. However, Rosa Romero Franco, PhD — a professor at the University of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, Spain — asserts that the annual demand for dried arnica flower is as high as 300 MT, although the source of her estimation is not cited.53

Natural populations of A. montana have been threatened by non-sustainable wild collection of the roots and flowers in southern and eastern Europe.4 In northern Europe, the main threat comes from changes in land use (meadow to farm). Declining numbers of grazing animals and increased fertilization (to increase meadow fodder production) are factors contributing to a reduction in arnica habitat.
The conservation status of A. montana in Europe is subject to various EU policies, habitat directives, and wildlife trade regulations.54 For example, A. montana is listed in Annex V of the European Commission’s Council Directive on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora, meaning that it is a “plant species of community interest whose taking in the wild and exploitation may be subject to management measures.”55 A. montana is also listed on Annex D, the Council Regulation on the protection of species of wild fauna and flora by regulating trade therein.56
Furthermore, some European countries have their own protection measures. For example, A. montana is classified as “critically endangered” on the national red list of Luxembourg; as “vulnerable” on the red lists of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, and Germany; as “extinct” on the national red list of Hungary; and as “protected” under national laws in the Czech Republic, Lithuania, and Slovenia.57 The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) recommends actions including better resource management where mowing of meadows occurs, providing land owners with financial support to graze, and controlling land use changes, i.e., converting meadows for agricultural use.
In Bavaria, where drastic declines in wild populations have been observed, the Government of Middle Franconia has implemented a botanical species protection program to manage and protect the last remaining populations from extinction, and to increase the population size in the region by targeted propagation and seeding.58 In April 2015, the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMU) issued a joint press release with the German Federal Agency for Nature Protection (BfN) announcing a new project to protect A. montana in the State of Bavaria.59 The organizations allotted approximately €140,000 ($154,000) to support the project, which aims not only to protect arnica habitats in Bavaria’s mountain meadows, but also to demonstrate the benefits of investing in the protection of biological diversity and “ecosystem services” (i.e., benefits people obtain from ecosystems). BMU and BfN also hope to develop of a program for sustainable regional use and marketing of regional arnica products with geographical indication, and to raise public awareness about the importance of biodiversity.
In Romania, where the bulk of the arnica supply is wild-collected, considerable investment has been made towards sustainable collection and management of arnica habitats. A three-year project (2004-2007) — funded by the UK Darwin Initiative, WWF-UK in partnership with the WWF Danube Carpathian Programme, the Agricultural and Veterinary University of Cluj, and the commune of Gârda de Sus — developed a model to strengthen capacity and economic incentives for arnica habitat conservation through sustainable wild collection and trade.6,60 The company Weleda Germany was a project partner, providing information on processing and quality requirements and signing a five-year agreement to purchase the project’s wild-collected arnica, which eventually obtained organic certification.

Weleda NZ Ltd. has also financially supported a project to cultivate the German cultivar Arbo in New Zealand under certified-organic conditions.61 The project resulted in the publication of a grower’s guide for commercial production of A. montana, prepared for the New Zealand Arnica Growers’ Group.
There are also biotech projects aiming to develop cell culture techniques for indirect regeneration and biotechnological production of active ingredients of A. montana. Researchers involved in the ArnicActive Cell project, financed by the Rector’s Conference of Swiss Universities, have hypothesized that standardized production of arnica’s active constituents is possible, regardless of soil composition, climate and weather conditions, and agricultural practices.62 They believe that this work will contribute to the sustainable protection and use of A. montana in the cosmetic, endurance sports products, and pharmaceutical products industries.
With significant efforts being made in Romania in recent years to implement sustainable wild-collection standards — coupled with the development of cultivars for field cultivation and, more recently, the development of innovative biotech methods for production of active principles — the commercial supply of A. montana raw materials should become more predictable for companies willing to pay fair prices that cover the costs of sustainable production.

Regarding substitution in the marketplace, professor emeritus Günter Willuhn, PhD, author of a chapter on A. montana in Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals (CRC Press, 2004), has reported relatively frequent adulteration with Mexican arnica (Heterotheca inuloides, Asteraceae) in the past.10 In addition, researchers from the Autonomous University of Tlaxcala in Tlaxcala, Mexico have reported that Mexican arnica was being exported in relatively large quantities, mainly to companies in the European Union and United States, for use as a substitute for A. montana.63
A European market survey carried out by the Centre de Desenvolupament Rural Integrat de Catalunya (Solsona, Spain) determined that most of the Arnica products in the Spanish market likely contained Mexican arnica. It was estimated that, in 2009, about 96% of the arnica consumed in Spain was Mexican arnica and less than 4% was A. montana. Reasons given by the respondent companies included an inability to obtain sufficient quantities of A. montana, its high cost compared to Mexican arnica, and that product companies did not include botanical names in their product specifications (only “arnica”) in order to give them flexibility to use either European or Mexican arnica in formulations. Bulk wholesaler respondents expressed interest in returning A. montana to the market but stated that it would be difficult to get companies to switch back due to the significant price difference.64
In the meantime, the Mexican Pharmacopoeia, which includes quality standards monographs for both “Arnica, Flor” (A. montana) and “Arnica Mexicana, Flor” (H. inuloides), provides botanical identification assays that enable the detection of adulteration of A. montana with flowers of A. chamissonis ssp. chamissonis, H. inuloides, and/or Calendula officinalis (Asteraceae).65
In a recent US survey of nine botanicals that had previously been reported to be adulterated or were suspected to be at risk of adulteration, 10 samples labeled “Arnica montana” were purchased from separate vendors.66 Of the 10 samples, six were H. inuloides. The authors opined that the substitution might be economically motivated as H. inuloides is larger and more abundant and accessible in its native habitat, Mexico. However, they admitted that honest confusion might also be responsible as H. inuloides is called “arnica” in Mexico, and is used similarly, e.g., for bruises. 

—Gayle Engels and Josef Brinckmann
 
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30.Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate (NNHPD). Defined Organism Substance – Arnica Montana Flower Extract. In: Natural Health Products Ingredients Database. Available at: http://webprod.hc-sc.gc.ca/nhpid-bdipsn/search-rechercheReq.do. Accessed: June 27, 2015.
31.Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate (NNHPD). Arnica. In: Licensed Natural Health Products Database. Available at: http://webprod5.hc-sc.gc.ca/lnhpd-bdpsnh/index-eng.jsp. Accessed: June 27, 2015.
32.Lass C, Vocanson M, Wagner S, Schempp CM, et al. Anti-inflammatory and immune-regulatory mechanisms prevent contact hypersensitivity to Arnica montana L. Exp Dermatol. October 2008;17(10):849-857.
33.Kawakami AP, Sato C, Cardoso TN, Bonamin LV. Inflammatory process modulation of homeopathic Arnica montana 6CH: the role of individual variation. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:917541. doi: 10.1155/2011/917541.
34.Macêdo SB, Ferreira LR, Perazzo FF, Carvalho JC. Anti-inflammatory activity of Arnica montana 6cH: preclinical study in animals. Homeopathy. April 2004;93(2):84-87.
35.Alfredo PP, Anaruma CA, Pião AC, João SM, Casarotto RA. Effects of phonophoresis with Arnica montana onto acute inflammatory process in rat skeletal muscles: an experimental study. Ultrasonics. May 2009;49(4-5):466-471.
36.Conforti A, Bellavite P, Bertani S, Chiarotti F, Menniti-Ippolito F, Raschetti R. Rat models of acute inflammation: a randomized controlled study on the effects of homeopathic remedies. BMC Complement Altern Med. January 2007;7:1.
37.Varshney JP, Naresh R. Comparative efficacy of homeopathis and allopathic systems of medicine in the management of clinical mastitis of Indian dairy cows. Homeopathy. April 2005;94(2):81-85.
38.Lussignoli S, Bertani S, Metelmann H, Bellavite P, Conforti A. Effect of Traumeel S, a homeopathic formulation, on blood-induced inflammation in rats. Complement Ther Med. December 1999;7(4):225-230.
39.Stanciuc AM, Gaspar A, Moldovan L, Saviuc C, Popa M, Măruţescu L. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Romanian medicinal plants hydroalcoholic extracts on planktonic and adhered cells. Roum Arch Microbiol Immunol. January-March 2011;70(1):11-14.
40.Leu S, Havey J, White LE, et al. Accelerated resolution of laser-induced bruising with topical 20% arnica: a rater-blinded randomized controlled trial. Br J Dermatol. 2010;163:557-563.
41.Widrig R, Suter A, Saller R, Melzer J. Choosing between NSAID and arnica for topical treatment of hand osteoarthritis in a randomized, double-blind study. Rheumatol Int. 2007;27:585-591.
42.Knuesel O, Klein P, Suter A. AtroMed-Gel bei rheumatischen Beschwerden am Bewegungsapparat [AtroMed gel in treatment of rheumatic complaints of the muscoskeletal system]. Ars Medici. 2006;13:1-3.
43.Knuesel O, Weber M, Suter A. Arnica montana gel in osteoarthritis of the knee: an open, multicenter clinical trial. Adv Ther. September-October 2002;19(5):209-218.
44.Heyneman CA. Oral versus topical NSAIDS in rheumatic diseases. Drugs. 2000;60:555-574.
45.Pumpa KL, Fallon KE, Bensoussan A, Papalia S. The effects of topical Arnica on performance, pain and muscle damage after intense eccentric exercise. Eur J Sport Sci. 2014;14(3):294-300.
46.Adkison JD, Bauer DW, Chang T. The effect of topical arnica on muscle pain. Ann Pharmacother. October 2010;44(10):1579-1584.
47.Alonso D, Lazarus MC, Baumann L. Effects of topical arnica gel on post-laser treatment bruises. Dermatol Surg. August 2002;28(8):686-688.
48.Stevinson C, Devaraj VS, Fountain-Barber A, Hawkins S, Ernst E. Homeopathic arnica for prevention of pain and bruising: randomized placebo-controlled trial in hand surgery. J R Soc Med. February 2003;96(2):60-65.
49.Jeffrey SL, Belcher HJ. Use of arnica to relieve pain after carpal-tunnel release surgery. Altern Ther Health Med. March-April 2002;8(2):66-68.
50.Karow J-H, Abt H-P, Fröhling M, Ackermann H. Efficacy of Arnica montana D4 for healing of wounds after Hallux Valgus surgery compared to diclofenac. J Altern Complement Med. 2008;14(1):17-25.
51.Robertson A, Suryanarayanan R, Banerjee A. Homeopathic Arnica montana for post-tonsillectomy analgesia: a randomized placebo control trial. Homeopathy. 2007;96(1):17-21.
52.Ucenic CI, Mastorakis N. The impact of environmental issues in the supply chain for a natural resource: the case study of Arnica montana from Romania. In: Proceedings of the 2nd IASME / WSEAS International Conference on Energy & Environment (EE’07), Portoroz, Slovenia; May 15-17, 2007.
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54.Rodríguez MA, Guitián RM, Camba B, Romero Franco R. As plantas medicinais: Unha vision global e o aproveitamento de Arnica montana. In: Miranda Barrós D. Conclusiones de la jornada “Nuevas oportunidades para la diversificación agrícola”. Cambados; March 17, 2011.
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59.Horn K, Kerskes A, Podloucky R. Zur aktuellen Bestandssituation des Berg-Wohlverleihs (Arnica montana L.) in Mittelfranken unter besonderer Berücksichtigung eines Neufundes im Eibacher Forst bei Nürnberg. In: RegnitzFlora - Mitteilungen des Vereins zur Erforschung der Flora des Regnitzgebietes Band 7. 2015;59-65.
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ARNICA MONTANA http://www.cnpmai.net/le-cnpmai/nos-publications/
Evaluation des ressources génétiques françaises en vue du
développement de la culture en plaine et en montagne
Rattachement à la fiche d’opération et année de réalisation : Gestion des Ressources Génétiques - 2014
Organisme réalisateur : CNPMAI

CONTEXTE, ENJEUX
Arnica montana, espèce emblématique des prairies d’altitude d’Europe, est utilisée en homéopathie et dans
l’industrie pharmaceutique en usage externe pour les suites de blessures et accidents (hématomes, rhumatismes,
inflammations, …) et dans l’industrie cosmétique pour ses vertus adoucissantes et cicatrisantes.
La France est un des derniers pays (avec l’Espagne et la Roumanie) où la production est presque
exclusivement issue de cueillette, du fait des difficultés rencontrées à la mise en culture et des possibilités
d’exploitation de la ressource naturelle, qui pourtant commence à s’épuiser dangereusement (surexploitation par
cueillette, intensification de l’agriculture et déprise agricole). La solution pour maintenir une production française
tout en préservant la ressource nécessite le développement de la mise en culture de l’arnica des montagnes, qui
devra s’appuyer sur l’utilisation de matériel végétal adapté et une bonne maîtrise des différentes étapes de
l’itinéraire technique de culture.
Devant cet état de fait, les producteurs de la filière PPAM ont sollicité le Réseau PPAM pour mener à bien
un programme de développement de la culture d’arnica des montagnes, dont le premier volet a consisté à
prospecter des ressources génétiques sauvages sur le territoire français (2012-2013, CNPMAI). L’évaluation de ce
matériel végétal chez des producteurs, sur différents sites (conditions pédoclimatiques variées) devrait permettre
de sélectionner des populations productives et adaptées et de recueillir des informations de base sur les techniques
culturales.

OBJECTIFS
• Contribuer au développement des cultures de l’arnica des montagnes en France
. par un choix judicieux de matériel végétal issu de ressources génétiques françaises,
. par l’apport de nouvelles données culturales permettant d’affiner et d’adapter les itinéraires
techniques de production existants.
• Préserver les ressources naturelles d’arnica des montagnes (la production d’arnica en culture permettra
de diminuer fortement la pression de cueillette et contribuera ainsi au maintien et à la bonne gestion de la
ressource naturelle).

ETAT DE L’ART
Sur la raréfaction de la ressource :
L’arnica est une plante des régions montagneuses de l’Europe, qui croît dans les sols pauvres (paturâges et
landes). Suite à l’intensification de l’agriculture (transformation des prairies naturelles en prairies artificielles,
fertilisation des paturâges) ou au contraire à une déprise agricole entraînant la fermeture du milieu, auxquels par
endroits peut s’ajouter une surexploitation par cueillette, l’arnica voit ses ressources naturelles régresser fortement
sur l’ensemble de son aire de répartition depuis quelques décennies [13] [20] [28] [31].
De ce fait, l’arnica est considérée dans de nombreux pays comme une plante menacée : Bosnie, Estonie, Lituanie,
Lettonie, Biélorussie, Pays-Bas, Portugal, Norvège, Danemark [7], Croatie, Roumanie [18], Finlande [14] et
Hongrie [9] [19]. Elle est protégée en Belgique [3], en Allemagne [5], au Luxembourg [6], en Italie [38] [1], en
Pologne [39], au Monténégro [34] et régionalement en Suisse [22]. En France, l’arnica est protégée dans les
régions de plaine où elle est présente (Centre, Bourgogne, Aquitaine) et protégeable partout ailleurs par
d’éventuels arrêtés préfectoraux (effectifs dans les départements du 04, 05, 08, 18, 38, 42, 45, 46 et 70) [23]. 
CNPMAI - Compte-rendu technique & touristique 2014 20
Cependant, trois pays cueillent encore de l’arnica sauvage en quantité significative pour alimenter le marché
national et international, il s’agit de l’Espagne, de la France et de la Roumanie. Dans ces pays, la prise de
conscience sur la raréfaction de la ressource a déjà déclenché la mise en place de programmes notamment de
gestion durable [17] [29] [30]. En France, le site certainement le plus fréquenté en Europe par les cueilleurs
d’arnica, dans les Vosges, fait maintenant l’objet de réglementations de cueillette, de gestion des sites agricoles
(ex : absence de fertilisation) et d’un suivi de l’évolution de la ressource [Association Vosges Développement].

Sur la domestication de l’arnica des montagnes :
Parmi les solutions pour pallier à cet affaiblissement de la ressource, il y a aussi et surtout la mise en culture. Des
essais ont été réalisés dans différents pays : Suisse [12], Finlande [15] [16], France [21], Ecosse [Agronomy
Institure for Northern Temperate Crop Research], Italie [10], Pologne [37], Bulgarie [8] donnant des éléments
intéressants pour l’élaboration d’une fiche technique de culture [23]. La publication la plus riche en informations
sur les techniques culturales provient de Nouvelle Zélande où différents essais ont été menés [33].
Malgré tout la culture de l’arnica reste difficile, en France notamment elle rencontre encore quelques freins
(disponibilité de la ressource naturelle encore assez importante, exigences pédoclimatiques, problèmes sanitaires
en culture, disponibilité en plants et semences) [24] [25] [21] mais son développement à terme est inéluctable.
Actuellement, le seul matériel végétal sélectionné disponible pour la culture au niveau international est le cultivar
allemand ‘Arbo’ [2].
Deux problèmes phytosanitaires majeurs ont été mis en évidence dans les essais de domestication menés en
Europe depuis quelques années. Il s’agit d’un petit diptère nommé Tephritis arnicae L. ou mouche de l’arnica,
ravageur des capitules floraux, et du dépérissement de l’arnica caractérisé par la pourriture de la plante au niveau
du collet et de la base des feuilles mais dont l’agent pathogène n’a pas encore été identifié [12] [21].
Sur l’étude in situ de la variabilité du matériel végétal spontané :
Chez nos voisins, Suisse [4], Belgique et Luxembourg [20], Espagne [26], Allemagne [32] des comparaisons
variétales de matériel sauvage ont montré une variabilité certaine entre populations d’origines très diverses, ce
que semble confirmer une étude génétique menée en Roumanie [27]. Une récente étude ayant exploité de
nombreuses données morphologiques, quantitatives et qualitatives sur des populations spontanées des Alpes
italiennes, fait ressortir une variabilité très intéressante, notamment valorisable dans des travaux de sélection [1].
Sur l’influence des conditions environnementales :
Outre les exigences édaphiques particulières de l’arnica déjà bien connues, diverses études montrent que les
facteurs climatiques et l’altitude influencent de manière significative le comportement de la plante : mode de
reproduction [20], concentration en métabolites secondaires [34] [35] [40] [32], rendements, sensibilité au
dépérissement [33]. 

Pouvoir germinatif des lots considérés
En 10 jours, plus de la moitié des 26 populations avait germé à 75%. Les plus tardives se sont révélées les plus
mauvaises également.
Le taux de germination de ces populations en conditions de laboratoire est bon (87% en moyenne). 21 pop
dépassent les 90% alors que 2 seulement n’atteignent pas 50%. Il ne semble pas que la lumière ait un effet significatif, la
différence moyenne du taux de germination entre les deux modalités est de 2%, avec autant de différence positive que de
négative.
Pour les populations récoltées en 2012 et déjà testés auparavant, la différence entre les taux obtenus en 2013 et en
2014 n’est pas significative (en moyenne 1%). Les deux cas de figure se sont présentés, soit le taux est meilleur en 2013,
soit en 2014, sans qu’on puisse expliquer un tel phénomène. De même, après un an de conservation au congélateur, on ne
note pas de différence significative avec les lots conservés en chambre froide. Ce test de conservation serait à refaire
dans quelques années pour évaluer la meilleure modalité de conservation.
Il n’y a pas non plus de corrélation entre l’altitude d’origine de la pop et son pouvoir germinatif.
Une des conclusions importantes de ces tests concernent le bon maintien du pouvoir germinatif des semences
conservées en chambre froide. Cela contredit les résultats parfois rencontrés dans la bibliographie qui faisaient mention
d’un perte importante de la capacité germinative au bout d’un an. 

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(Rote Liste der gefährdeten Farn- und Blütenpflanzen der Schweiz). Bundesamt für Umwelt, Wald und Landschaft, Bern; Zentrum des Datenverbundnetzes der Schweizer Flora, Chambésy; Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève, Chambésy. 23 Pasquier B. (2003). Culture et cueillette des plantes médicinales et aromatiques protégées de la flore française. CNPMAI, Milly-la-forêt, 173 pages. 24 Pasquier B., Godin M. (2010). Acquisition – Elargissement du réservoir génétique - Evaluation d'Arnica montana L. CNPMAI, Milly-la-forêt, Compte-rendu technique 2010, p. 68-71. 25 Pasquier B., Godin M. (2011). Evaluation d'Arnica montana L. CNPMAI, Milly-la-forêt, Compte-rendu technique 2011, p. 73-76. 26 Perry, N. B.; Burgess, E. J.; Rodríguez Guitián, M. A.; Romero Franco, R.; López Mosquera, E.; Smallfield, B. M.; Joyce, N. I.; Littlejohn, R. P. (2009). Sesquiterpene lactones in Arnica montana : helenalin and dihydrohelenalin chemotypes in Spain. 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University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine (UASVM), Cluj-Napoca, Romania, Bulletin of UASVM. Agriculture, 66, 1, P. 471- 475. 30 Rotar I., Pacurar F., Vidican R., Bogdan A., Golin´ski P., Warda M., Stypin´ski P. (2012). Impact of grassland management on occurrence of Arnica montana L. Polskie Towarzystwo Łakarskie (Polish Grassland Society), Poznan´, Poland, Grassland - a European resource? Proceedings of the 24th General Meeting of the European Grassland Federation, Lublin, Poland, 3-7 June 2012, 2012, 701-703, 3 ref. 31 Rotar I., Stoie A., Roxana V., Pötsch E. M., Krautzer B., Hopkins A. (2011). Productivity and interspecific relations in the meadows with Arnica montana in Gârda, Romania during 2006. Agricultural Research and Education Center (AREC) Raumberg-Gumpenstein, Irdning, Austria, Grassland farming and land management systems in mountainous regions. Proceedings of the 16th Symposium of the European Grassland Federation, Gumpenstein, Austria, p. 535- 537. 32 Seemann, A.; Wallner, T.; Poschlod, P.; Heilmann, J.; Georg Thieme Verlag KG. (2010). Variation of sesquiterpene lactone contents in different Arnica montana populations: influence of ecological parameters. Stuttgart, Germany, Planta Medica, 76, 8, p. 837-842. 33 Smallfield B.M. & Douglas M.H. (2008). Arnica montana a grower's guide for commercial production in New Zealand. New Zealand Institute for Crop and Food Research Limited, New Zealand Arnica Growers' Group. 34 Spitaler R. et al. (2007). Altitudinal variation of phenolic contents in flowering heads of Arnica Montana cv. Arbo : a 3 years comparison. Institut fur pharmazie, Abteilung Pharmakognosie, Uniersitat Innsbruck, Autria. Chem. Ecol 34: p. 369-375. 35 Spitaler R. et al. (2005). Altitudinal variation of secondary metabolite profiles in floweing heads of Arnica Montana cv. Arbo. 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Oecologia. 2009 May;160(1):1-8. doi: 10.1007/s00442-009-1277-1. Epub 2009 Feb 5. Temperature is the key to altitudinal variation of phenolics in Arnica montana L. cv. ARBO. Albert A1, Sareedenchai V, Heller W, Seidlitz HK, Zidorn C.
Plants in alpine habitats are exposed to many environmental stresses, in particular temperature and radiation extremes. Recent field experiments on Arnica montana L. cv. ARBO indicated pronounced altitudinal variation in plant phenolics. Ortho-diphenolics increased with altitude compared to other phenolic compounds, resulting in an increase in antioxidative capacity of the tissues involved. Factors causing these variations were investigated by climate chamber (CC) experiments focusing on temperature and ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation. Plants of A. montana L. cv. ARBO were grown in CCs under realistic climatic and radiation regimes. Key factors temperature and UV-B radiation were altered between different groups of plants. Subsequently, flowering heads were analyzed by HPLC for their contents of flavonoids and caffeic acid derivatives. Surprisingly, increased UV-B radiation did not trigger any change in phenolic metabolites in Arnica. In contrast, a pronounced increase in the ratio of B-ring ortho-diphenolic (quercetin) compared to B-ring monophenolic (kaempferol) flavonols resulted from a decrease in temperature by 5 degrees C in the applied climate regime. In conclusion, enhanced UV-B radiation is probably not the key factor triggering shifts in the phenolic composition in Arnica grown at higher altitudes but rather temperature, which decreases with altitude.

J Chem Ecol. 2008 Mar;34(3):369-75. doi: 10.1007/s10886-007-9407-x. Epub 2008 Feb 8. Altitudinal variation of phenolic contents in flowering heads of Arnica montana cv. ARBO: a 3-year comparison.
Spitaler R1, Winkler A, Lins I, Yanar S, Stuppner H, Zidorn C.
In continuation of our studies of altitudinal effects on secondary metabolite profile of flowering heads from taxa of the Asteraceae, we investigated phenolic contents and radical scavenging potential from cultivated plants of Arnica montana cv. ARBO during the growing seasons 2003, 2004, and 2005. By conducting experiments on potted plants, we excluded that differences in phenolic contents from plants grown at different altitudes were related primarily to differences in soil composition at these sites. To assess altitudinal and interseasonal variation, plants of A. montana cultivar ARBO were grown in nine experimental plots at altitudes between 590 and 2,230 m at Mount Patscherkofel near Innsbruck, Austria. In all growing seasons and regardless of the soil the plants were grown in, the proportion of flavonoids with vicinal-free hydroxy groups in ring B to flavonoids lacking this feature, and the total amount of caffeic acid derivatives, significantly increased with elevation. These increases of antioxidant phenolics corresponded to an increase of the radical scavenging potential of extracts from plants grown at different altitudes. The results are discussed in regard to previous studies that suggest that enhanced UV-B radiation and decreased temperatures trigger augmented biosynthesis of UV-absorbing and antioxidant phenolics in higher plants.


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