Anthemis nobilis / Roomse kamille

De Roomse Kamille, Chamaemelum nobile, is een vrij algemeen plantje dat in gematigde gebieden overal in Europa groeit en veel wordt geteeld in Hongarije en Frankrijk. De naam Anthemis nobilis stamt uit het Grieks en betekent `edele bloem`. Roomse Kamille is milder dan  Echte Kamille, de essentiële olie is daarom beter geschikt voor kinderen 

De geur doet denken aan die van appel en in Spanje wordt deze Kamille gebruikt bij de bereiding van een sherry die ``appeltje`` genoemd wordt. Dit is tevens de Spaanse naam voor de Kamille. 
Ook de Roomse Kamille wordt van oudsher gebruikt vanwege zijn heilzame eigenschappen, o.a. kalmerende invloed op ogen en huid, en spijsverteringsbevorderend. 
De etherische olie wordt verkregen door waterdampdistillatie van de bloeiende toppen en dit bij lage druk. 
De olie kan ook gedestilleerd worden uit gedroogde bloemen, deze olie heeft dan een vaalblauwe kleur die langzaam verkleurt naar groengeel.
Kamille is één van de negen Saksische heilige kruiden, die maythen genoemd worden. 

Uit wetenschappelijke onderzoekingen is gebleken dat de werking van Roomse kamille etherische olie milder is dan die van de Echte kamille en is daarom in lage doseringen bijzonder geschikt voor kinderen, vooral als deze pijn of angst hebben. 
Roomse Kamille essentiële olie wordt in de aromatherapie o.a. gebruikt bij; allergieën, eczeem, psoriasis, jeuk, acne/jeugdpuistjes, herpes, wondjes, zweertjes, slijmvorming in de neus, stijve spieren en gewrichten, weinig eetlust, hoofdpijn, migraine, huiduitslag, menstruatieklachten, depressies, slapeloosheid, hysterie, nervositeit, steenpuisten, insectenbeten, overgangsklachten, spit, oogklachten, menstruatie pijnen, prikkelbaarheid, stress en spijsverteringsstoornissen. 
Roomse Kamille werkt koortswerend en verlichtend bij buikpijn, stijve spieren en gewrichten. 

Deze Kamille olie kan uitstekend voor huisdieren worden gebruikt, toe te passen bij stress en angst.

kompres bij maag-darmkrampen, verharde spieren, spit; voeg 4 druppels Roomse kamille etherische olie toe aan 2 liter heet water, doop hierin een klein handdoekje, wring het uit en leg het zo heet mogelijk op de pijnlijke plek.  De warmtewerking kan versterkt worden door een warmwaterzak op het kompres te leggen. Eventueel aan te vullen met 2 druppels lavendel of 2 druppels rozemarijn.



Anthemis nobilis L. (syn. Anthemis odorata Lamk.; Chamaemelum nobile L., All.; Chamaemelum odoratum Dod.; Chamomilla nobilis God.; Leucanthemum odoratum Eid. Ap.; Ormenis nobilis Gay), so-called Roman chamomile, is a perennial herb of the Asteraceae family. It is native to the southwest of Europe (France, Spain, and Portugal), and has spread all over the Europe. It is also present in southwest Asia (De Langhe et al. 1983; Bezanger-Beauquesne et al. 1986).
The plant reaches a height of 15 to 30 cm and gene rally flowers from June to September. A. nobilis plants are cultivated in the south of England, Belgium, France, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Egypt, and Argentina.
In France (Anjou) more than 160 ha are devoted to this cultivation; the production yield is about 1 ton of dry flowers per ha (Bezanger-Beauquesne et al. 1986). As a result ofbreeding, some ofthe tubular florets present in the wild plant have become ligulated, and it is these "double" or "semi-double" flower heads which form the commercial drug. The double variety (cultivar) is the main source of the commercial drug
today, and has been certainly known since the 18th century; it is sterile, and is propagated vegetatively by suckering. The flowers are collected in dry weather and dried; storage is achieved in the absence of humidity (oxidation of polyphenols).

The morphological characteristics and chemical composition of the flower heads of the cultivar variety are different from those of the wild plant. Whole plants, particularly flowers, have a strong aromatic odor and a bitter taste. The Roman chamomile drug is described in several pharmacopeia, where it is indicated that the drug can be falsified by Chrysanthemum parthenium L. and M atricaria maritima flowers.

The complete dried flowers are sold by herbalists, while damaged ones are used for the production of essential oil by distillation. One kilogram of fresh flowers yields approximately 1-2g. of essential oil. The production quantities rarely exceed 500 kg of essential oil per year (Arctander 1960; Guenther 1975).

1 Faculte des Sciences Agronomiques, VER Chirnie Generale et Organique, Passage des Deportes 2,
5030 Gembloux, Belgium
2 Laboratory of Plant Morphology, Vniversite Libre de Bruxelles. Chaussee de Wavre 1850, 1160
Brussels, Belgium
3 Tsukuba Medicinal Plant Research Station, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1 Hachimandai,
Tsukuba; Ibaraki 305, Japan 

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Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All. (syn. Anthemis nobilis L.; Anthemis odorata Lamk.; Chamaemelum odoratum Dod.; Chamomilla nobilis God.) the so-called Roman chamomile, is a perennial herb of the Asteraceae family. It is native to the Southwest Europe (France, Spain and Portugal) but the plant is present in all over Europe, North Africa and Southwest Asia. The plant is cultivated mainly in England,Belgium, France, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria, Egypt and Argentina.

Although the Commission E did not approve Roman chamomile flower (Blumenthal et al., 1998) for an evidence-based phytotherapeutic application, the drug is listed and described in several pharmacopoeias (Barnes et al., 2002) and stated to possess carminative, anti-emetic, antispasmodic, and sedative properties. It has been used for dyspepsia, nausea and vomiting, anorexia, vomiting of pregnancy, dysmenorrhoea, and specifically for flatulent dyspepsia associated with mental stress (Bisset, 1994) (Bradley, 1992). 

Roman chamomile is listed by the Council of Europe as a natural source of food flavouring (category N2). This category indicates that Roman chamomile can be added to foodstuffs in small quantities, with a possible limitation of an active principle (as yet unspecified) in
the final product (Barnes et al., 2002). Chamomile is commonly used as an ingredient of herbal teas. Previously, Roman chamomile has been listed as GRAS (Generally Recognised As Safe) (Leung, 1980) by the FDA. Most GRAS substances have no quantitative restrictions as to use, although their use must conform to good manufacturing practices. In case of roman chamomile, no restriction is noted (FDA, 2010). 

Historical data on medicinal use
Information on period of medicinal use in the Community

The name Chamaemelum was first used by Dioscurides (Hiller and Melzig, 1999). However, according to Evans (1989), it has proved impossible to trace back the drug in classical writings, because of thelarge number of similar Asteraceae plants.
Roman chamomile is known as a medicinal plant from the middle ages. The name Roman chamomile was first bestowed upon the plant by Joachim Camerarius in 1598, after observing it growing a bundantly near Rome (Abramson et al., 2010). The European cultivation of the plant started in England in 16th century (Hiller and Melzig, 1999). The plant obtained the name “nobile” (Latin, noble) because of its therapeutic properties, which were stated to be better then those of the German chamomile (Hiller and Melzig, 1999). The double variety of the flower, which serves now as the main commercial drug, was certainly known from the 18th century (Evans, 1989). The plant was listed first in the pharmacopoeia of Würtenberg (1741) as a carminative, painkiller, diuretic and digestive aid (Lukacs, 1990).

Augustin et al. (1948) mention Chamomillae romanae flos as a herbal drug applied both internally (dyspeptic complaints, symptoms associated with menstruation) and externally (skin problems). In the book of Rápóti and Romváry (1974), the application of the herbal drug to relieve dyspeptic complaints and flatulence is cited. In the present Roman chamomile flower is an official drug of several pharmacopoeias including Ph. Eur.6 (2008). 

Roman chamomile–based preparations are used orally for the symptomatic treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as epigastric bloating, impaired digestion, eructation, flatulence, and as an adjunct in the treatment of the painful component of functional digestive symptoms. Topically, it is an emollient and itch-relieving adjunct in the treatment of skin disorders and a trophic protective agent from cracks, abrasions, frostbites, chaps and insect bites. It may be used for eye irritation or discomfort of various etiologies. 
Furthermore, uses as an analgesic in diseases of the oral cavity, oropharynx or both and as a mouthwash for oral hygiene has been documented (Bisset, 1994) (Bruneton, 1999). 
The uses of Roman chamomile that are described in the Commission E monograph (Blumenthal et al., 1998) are similar: dyspepsia and inflammation of the mouth.
The drug and its extracts are ingredients of colour-lightening shampoos (perhaps due to its peroxide content) (Bruneton, 1999).
Chamomillae romanae flos is included in the British Herbal Compendium (BHC) Volume 1 published in 1992 with specified indications and posology. According to BHC, Chamomillae romanae flos has been applied in Belgium, France and Germany with specified indications at least since 1991, 1990 and 1986, respectively (Bradley, 1992).

Specified strength/posology/route of administration/duration of use for relevant preparations and indications
In the British Herbal Compendium (BHC) Volume 1, published in 1992 the indications and posologies of Roman chamomile flower are as follow:
- Internally: dyspepsia, nausea, vomiting of pregnancy irritable bowel. Posology: dried flower heads, 1.5-3 g or in infusion, three times daily; 1.5-3 ml liquid extract (DER 1:1, 70% ethanol); 3-5 ml tincture (DER 1:5 45% ethanol) 

- Topically: inflammations of the skin and oral mucosa, minor wounds and abrasions. Posology: as infusion in poultices or mouthwashes; semi-solid preparations containing 5-15% of the drug orequivalent (Bradley, 1992).

According to Newall et al. (1996), the British Herbal Pharmacopoeia published in 1983 contained the dried flowerheads of Chamaemelum nobile and a liquid extract of the herbal substance (DER 1:1, 70% ethanol). The posology of the herbal substance is 1-4 g by infusion three times daily and 1-4 ml three times daily, respectively.

In the 1974 edition of the British Herbal Pharmacopoeia, dried flowerheads of Chamaemelum nobile, liquid extract (DER 1:1, 70% ethanol) are included with the indications: flatulent dyspepsia associated with mental stress. Dosage: thrice daily 1-4 g herbal substance by infusion or 1-4 ml of liquid extract thrice daily (BHP, 1974).

In Germany, according to the Standardzulassung No. 1069.99.99 (published 12. 3. 86 for a standard medicinal tea) the labelling must include: Indications: Complains such as bloatedness, flatulence and mild, spasmodic gastro-intestinal disorders; inflammations of the mouth and throat. Dosage
instructions and mode of use: Pour hot water (ca. 150 ml) over a tablespoonful (2 to 3 g) of Roman Chamomile Flower and after about 10 minutes pass through a tea strainer. Unless otherwise prescribed, drink a cup of freshly prepared, warm tea 3 to 4 times daily between meals or use as a
mouth and throat wash (Bradley, 1992).

In Belgium (according to Circulaire No. 367 of July 1991) the indications for this drug must be stated as:
Traditionally used in the symptomatic treatment of digestive disorders, although its activity has not been proved in accordance with the current evaluation criteria for medicines.
Or:
Traditionally used topically as an emollient and/or antalgesic and/or antiseptic, although its activity hasnot been proved in accordance with the current evaluation criteria for medicines.
Or:
Traditionally used topically as a soothing and antipruriginous application for dermatological affections, although its activity has not been proved in accordance with the current evaluation criteria for medicines (Bradley, 1992).

In France, according to the Bulletin Officiel No. 90/22 bis. the applications of Roman chamomile flower are as follow:
- Internally: Traditionally used in the treatment of digestive disorders such as: epigastric distension; sluggishness of the digestion; belching; flatulence. Traditionally used as adjuvant treatment for the painful component of spasmodic colitis.
- Topically: Traditionally used topically as a soothing and antipruriginous application for dermatological ailments, as protective treatment for cracks, grazes, chaps and against insect bites. Traditionally used in cases of ocular irritation or discomfort due to various causes (smoky atmosphere, sustained visual effort, bathes in the sea or swimming pool etc.). Traditionally used topically (mouth and throat washes,
pastilles) as an anodyne for affections of the buccal cavity and/or the oropharynx. Traditionally used topically in mouth washes, for oral hygiene (Bradley, 1992).

Dosages for oral administration (adults) for traditional uses recommended in standard herbal reference texts are given below.
Dried flowerheads 1–4 g as an infusion, three to four times daily (Barnes et al., 2002) (Bisset, 1994).
Preparation: To prepare a decoction, add 1-4 g drug to 100-150 ml water. An infusion is prepared using 7 to 8 capitula per cup (PDR, 2000).
A 3% infusion is made for external use (Bisset, 1994).
When used as a bath additive, add 50 g to 10 litres of water. Liquid rubs are applied as poultices or washes 2 to 3 times daily (PDR, 2000).

Liquid extract 1–4 ml (1:1 in 70% alcohol), three times daily (Barnes et al., 2002). 



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