Aloysia / Citroenverbena

Aloysia triphylla (L’Hérit.) Britton [= Lippia citriodora H.B.K.; L. triphylla (L’Hérit.) Kuntze]

Aloysia triphylla (Latein)
Zitronenstrauch (Deutsch)
lemon verbena (Englisch)
vervain (Englisch)
verveine odorante (Französisch)
limoncina (Italienisch)
erba luigia (Italienisch)
cedrina (Italienisch)
verbena olorosa (Spanisch)
hierba luisa (Spanisch)
Aloysia triphylla
Lippia javanica

Merkmale
Kleiner, bis 1 m hoher Strauch mit länglichen, fast unbehaarten und stark nach Zitronen duftenden Blättern (besonders bei Verletzung). Sie sind in typischen Wirteln zu dritt angeordnet. Die zahlreichen, winzigen weißlila Blüten stehen in Ährenrispen. Häufig wird der Zitronenstrauch auch als Echte oder duftende Verbena bezeichnet.
Herkunft
Südamerika (Argentinien und Chile). Beliebte Garten- und Gewürzpflanze in warmen und gemäßigten Klimaregionen.
Verwendete Teile
Blätter (Lippiae triphyllae folium) und das ätherische Öl (Lippiae triphyllae aetheroleum).
Wirkung/Verwendung
Verdauungsfördernd, beruhigend (Aromatherapie).
Anwendung
Die getrockneten Blätter werden traditionell als beruhigender Kräutertee zubereitet (duftender Verbenentee, besonders in Frankreich) und sind Bestandteil von kommerziellen Teemischungen. Die Droge gilt als krampflösend, fiebersenkend, beruhigend und als Magenmittel; daher wird sie bei Nervosität, Erkältung, Fieber, Asthma, aber auch bei leichten Verdauungsbeschwerden mit Koliken, Blähungen und Durchfall eingesetzt.
Zubereitung und Dosierung
Tee: 1–2 g Droge, dreimal täglich.
Wirkstoffe
Das ätherische Öl enthält als charakteristische Bestandteile Neral und Geranial (das Gemisch wird als Citral bezeichnet) sowie Photocitral A, das durch Lichteinwirkung aus Citral entsteht; ferner weitere Monoterpene (Borneol, Limonen, Geraniol, Nerol und Terpineol) und Sesquiterpene (Caryophyllen, Curcumen, Myrcenen und Isovaleriansäure). An Flavonoide kommen u. a. vor: Apigenin, Luteolin und 6-hydroxylierte Flavone, wie auch ihre Methylester (Eupafolin, Hispidulin, Eupatorin und Salvigenin).
Pharmakologie
Die traditionellen Anwendungen von A. triphylla erklären sich teilweise aus dem Vorkommen von ätherischem Öl und Flavonoiden. Klinische Studien sind notwendig, um die beruhigende und angstlösende Wirkung von duftendem Verbenentee zu bestätigen.
Anmerkung
Einige Arten der nahe verwandten Gattung Lippia finden als Kräutertees Verwendung; in Afrika: L. javanica und L. scaberrima, in Südamerika: L. dulcis, L. graveolens und L. lycioides.



J Smooth Muscle Res. 2010;46(6):309-19.
Spasmolytic and anti-inflammatory effects of Aloysia triphylla and citral, in vitro and in vivo studies.
Ponce-Monter H1, Fernández-Martínez E, Ortiz MI, Ramírez-Montiel ML, Cruz-Elizalde D, Pérez-Hernández N, Cariño-Cortés R.
Aloysia triphylla is traditionally utilized for the treatment of menstrual colic (primary dysmenorrhea) in Mexico. Citral is the main chemical component found in Aloysia triphylla leaves extract. Primary dysmenorrhea is a very frequent gynecological disorder in menstruating women, affecting 30-60% of them. It is usually treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); although their effect is rapid, they possess many side effects. Due to these shortcomings, Mexican folk therapy is considered as a feasible alternative. The effects of the hexane extract of Aloysia triphylla and citral on uterine contractions were evaluated in vitro as well as their anti-inflammatory properties and gastric wound capabilities were assessed in vivo. The inhibitory effects on the contractions were analyzed using isolated uterus strips from estrogen primed rats. Contractions were induced by KCl 60 mM, oxytocin 10 mIU/mL, charbacol 10 µM and PGF(2α) 5 µM. The anti-inflammatory effect was assessed on carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema model. The inhibitory concentration-50 (IC(50)) of the hexane extract of Aloysia triphylla upon each contractile response was for KCl 44.73 ± 2.48 µg/mL, oxytocin 42.16 ± 3.81 µg/mL, charbacol 41.87 ± 1.73 µg/mL and PGF(2α) 28.70 ± 2.40 µg/mL in a concentration-dependent way. The extract of Aloysia triphylla produced a significant inhibitory effect on PGF(2α)-induced contraction compared to its inhibitory actions on the others. Citral exhibited the same inhibitory effect on the contraction induced by PGF(2α). The oral administration of the extract (100-800 mg/kg) and citral (100-800 mg/kg) showed anti-inflammatory activity; furthermore, the maximal dose utilized did not produce gastric injury. These results were compared with anti-inflammatory effects and gastric damage produced by 30 mg/kg of indomethacin p.o. The spasmolytic and anti-inflammatory effects support the traditional use of Aloysia triphylla leaves in the treatment of the primary dysmenorrhea in Mexican communities.

J Food Sci. 2014 Jun;79(6):S1205-11. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.12463. Epub 2014 Apr 24.
Using the essential oil of Aloysia triphylla (L'Her.) Britton to sedate silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) during transport improved the chemical and sensory qualities of the fish during storage in ice.
Daniel AP1, Veeck AP, Klein B, Ferreira LF, da Cunha MA, Parodi TV, Zeppenfeld CC, Schmidt D, Caron BO, Heinzmann BM, Baldisserotto B, Emanuelli T.
Exposure of silver catfish to 40 μL/L of the essential oil of Aloysia triphylla (AT) during in vivo transport delayed the onset and resolution of rigor mortis as well as the degradation of IMP into HxR compared to the control. The fish that were treated with 30 or 40 μL/L of AT received lower sensory demerit scores after 10 d of storage in ice compared to the control, and the fish that were treated with 40 μL/L of AT had a longer sensory shelf life than did the control. These results indicated that using AT as a sedative in the water in which the silver catfish were transported extended their freshness and increased their shelf life during refrigerated storage.
PRACTICAL APPLICATION:
Interest in natural anesthetics, such as Aloysia triphylla, has increased in the field of commercial aquaculture because they reduce the number of fish lesions acquired during capture, handling, and transportation. Fish sedated with the essential oil of A. triphylla at 40 μL/L during transport before slaughter exhibited a delay in the loss of freshness and an increased shelf life in ice. In addition to improving animal welfare before slaughter, the essential oil appears to be a promising product for improving fish conservation in the food industry.
© 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®



SPIKED LEMON VERBENA LEMONADE
Chop just half a cup of fresh lemon verbena leaves and put in a jar. Add 4 cups of vodka and let sit covered for two weeks, shaking every once in a while. After two weeks, add 2 cups of sugar and shake to dissolve. Let THAT sit for two weeks. Strain out the leaves, bottle the gloriously fragrant, delicious liqueur and either add it to desserts, or seltzer. If you REALLY want to drink it straight, I suggest doing that by the THIMBLEFUL!!!! It honestly tastes JUST the way fresh Lemon Verbena leaves smell.

LEMON VERBENA TARRAGON SORBET
2 1/2 cups water
1 cup sugar
1 cup lemon juice
1 tablespoon chopped fresh Tarragon
1 tablespoon minced fresh Lemon Verbena
In a small saucepan, bring the water and sugar to a boil over high heat; stir to dissolve the sugar. Chill. Add the lemon juice, tarragon and Lemon Verbena. Freeze in an ice cream maker according to manufacturer's directions.



Comments