Alkanna

Alkanna Root
Scientific Name(s): Alkanna tinctoria (L.) Tausch Family: Boraginaceae
Common Name(s): Alkanet , alkannawurzel (German), alkermeswurzel (German), Anchusa tinctoria , Dyers's Bugloss , henna , orchanet (English), racine d'alcanna (French), racine d'orcanette (French), radix anchusea (tinctoriae) (Latin), rote ochsenzungenwurzel (German), schminkwurzel (German)

Uses of Alkanna Root
Alkanna is an astringent and a source of red pigment used in cosmetics. It was traditionally used topically for the treatment of skin wounds and diseases. Orally, alkanna root has been used for diarrhea and gastric ulcers. Alkanna root has demonstrated radical scavenging activity, suggesting potential antiaging effects; however, clinical trial information is lacking.

Alkanna Root Dosing
No recent clinical data justify human dosage.

Contraindications
Contraindications have not been identified.

Pregnancy/Lactation
Documented adverse effects. Contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Avoid use.

Alkanna Root Interactions
The pyrrolizidine alkaloid components of alkanna root are substrates for the cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme. Inducers of this isoenzyme, including rifampin, St. John's wort, and phenobarbital, may increase the conversion of pyrrolizidine alkaloids to toxic metabolites.

Alkanna Root Adverse Reactions
Alkanna root may cause acute liver failure, cirrhosis, pneumonitis, pulmonary hypertension, or heart failure.

Bibliography
1. Bisset NG, trans-ed. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals: A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis . Stuttgart, Germany: Medpharm Scientific Publishers; 1994.
2. Roeder E. Medicinal plants in Europe containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Pharmazie . 1995;50(2):83-98.
3. Chojkier M. Hepatic sinusoidal-obstruction syndrome: toxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. J Hepatol . 2003;39(3):437-446.
4. Magic and Medicine of Plants . Pleasantville, NY: Reader's Digest Association Inc; 1986.
5. Papageorgiou VP, Assimopoulou AN, Ballis AC. Alkannins and shikonins: a new class of wound healing agents. Curr Med Chem . 2008;15(30):3248-3267.
6. Papageorgiou VP, Digenis GA. Isolation of two new alkannin esters from Alkanna tinctoria . Planta Med . 1980;39(5):81-84.
7. Papageorgiou VP. Wound healing properties of naphthaquinone pigments from Alkanna tinctoria . Experientia . 1978;34(11):1499-1501.
8. Sengul M, Yildiz H, Gungor N, Cetin B, Eser Z, Ercisli S. Total phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of some medicinal plants. Pak J Pharm Sci . 2009;22(1):102-106.
9. Ogurtan Z, Hatipoglu F, Ceylan C. The effect of Alkanna tinctoria Tausch on burn wound healing in rabbits. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr . 2002;109(11):481-485.
10. Assimopoulou AN, Papageorgiou VP. Radical scavenging activity of Alkanna tinctoria root extracts and their main constituents, hydroxynaphthoquinones. Phytother Res . 2005;19(2):141-147.
11. McGuffin M, Hobbs C, Upton R, Goldberg A, eds. American Herbal Products Association's Botanical Safety Handbook . Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1997.
12. Schoental R. Toxicology and carcinogenic action of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Cancer Res . 1968;28(11):2237-2246.



Alkanna tinctoria een vaste plant met blauwe bloemen. De wortel kleurt wol paars bij 70 graden.Bij hogere temperaturen wordt de kleur grijzer.

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