Abrikoos / Prunus armeriaca

Apricot generally refers to the fruit of the Prunus armeniaca tree. The tree is moderately sized with reddish bark. The fleshy fruit encloses a hard nut surrounding a droplet-shaped, reddish-brown seed or pit. Cultivation of apricot in China dates back 3,000 years and spread to Armenia, and then to Europe. The Romans introduced apricots to Europe around 70-60 B.C. through Greece and Italy.

The most commonly used part of the apricot in alternative medicine may be the pit, which is also known as the kernel or seed. Apricot pit contains amygdalin, a plant compound that contains sugar and produces cyanide. Laetrile™, an alternative cancer drug marketed in Mexico and other countries outside of the United States, is derived from amygdalin. Laetrile™ remains unapproved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and does not appear to be effective for treating cancer. Apricot pits and/or Laetrile™ may cause cyanide poisoning.

Apricot kernels and oils have been historically used to treat tumors. The Japanese folk remedy bainiku-ekisu (concentrated Japanese apricot juice) has been used for the treatment of gastritis (stomach inflammation) and enteritis (bowel inflammation) since ancient times, and has recently been studied as a bacteriostatic (stops the growth/reproduction of bacteria) agent. Amygdalin may also be useful for AIDS patients, psoriasis, and hyperoxia (excess of oxygen).

EVIDENCE TABLE
Conditions
Uses
disclaimer: These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. Grade*
*Key to grades: A: Strong scientific evidence for this use; B: Good scientific evidence for this use; C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use; D: Fair scientific evidence against this use (it may not work); F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likely does not work).

TRADITION
The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below. Aging, antibacterial, aphrodisiac, asthma, child birth (labor induction), constipation, cosmetics, cough, enteritis (inflammation of bowel), eye inflammation, food additive (baby food ingredient), gastritis (inflammation of stomach), hemorrhage, hyperoxia (excess of oxygen), infertility, intestinal disorders/antispasmodic, mental health (neuropsychometric symptoms in AIDS patients), pharmaceutical vehicle, psoriasis, skin rejuvenator, vaginal infections.

DOSING
disclaimer: The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.

Adults (18 years and older)
There is currently a lack of available scientific evidence to recommend any medicinal dosing for apricot in adults. Apricot kernels (approximately 7-10) taken by mouth may be a lethal dose.

Children (younger than 18 years)
There is currently a lack of available scientific evidence to recommend any medicinal dosing for apricot in children.

Allergies
Avoid in individuals with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to Laetrile™, apricot, its constituents or the Rosaceae family.
Symptoms of allergy may include urticaria ("hives") or rash.

Side Effects and Warnings
Apricot fruit is likely safe when ingested in food amounts. Apricot kernel oil has Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status in the United States. Apricot fruits are possibly unsafe when taken by mouth by diabetics, as apricot contains sugars and may affect blood sugar levels. Apricot kernels may also lower blood pressure. Urticaria ("hives") and rash have also been reported.

Apricot pits are not well tolerated and are toxic at low to moderate dosing levels. Multiple cases of cyanide poisonings, some of which were fatal, have been associated with the use of Laetrile™ and apricot pits. Cyanide poisoning symptoms may include vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, lethargy, rapid or irregular breathing, and skin discoloration. Coma, shock, metabolic acidosis (acidic pH in the blood), dizziness, severe headache, dilated pupils, blindness, drowsiness, decreases in white blood counts, hypothermia (lowering of the core body temperature), mental retardation, paralysis, goiter, thyroid cancer, cretinism (stunted physical and mental growth in infants and children due to a lack of thyroid hormone) have also been reported. Furthermore, generalized convulsions/seizures, ataxia (loss of coordination), muscle weakness, muscle spasms or muscle tension have been noted in the scientific literature.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
Apricot kernels should be avoided in pregnant and breastfeeding women due to the possibility of being unsafe and the increased risk of cyanide poisoning. Laetrile™ is not recommended.

INTERACTIONS
disclaimer: Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

Interactions with Drugs
Apricot kernels may cause decreases in blood pressure, and therefore may interact with blood pressure lowering medications. A qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist, should be consulted.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements
Apricot kernels may cause decreases in blood pressure, and therefore may interact with blood pressure lowering herbs and supplements. A qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist, should be consulted.

Apricot contains beta-carotene, iron, niacin, potassium, thiamine and vitamin C. Taking apricot with these supplements may have additive effects. Caution is advised.

Laetrile™ and apricot kernels both contain amygdalin, and concomitant use may result in cyanide poisoning. Caution is advised.

ATTRIBUTION
This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).

  • Araya E, Rodriguez A, Rubio J, et al. Synthesis and evaluation of diverse analogs of amygdalin as potential peptidomimetics of peptide T. Bioorg.Med Chem Lett. 3-1-2005;15(5):1493-1496. View abstract
  • Bhatti RA, Ablin RJ, Guinan PD. Tumour-associated directed immunity in prostatic cancer: effect of amygdalin. IRCS Med Sci 1981;9(1):19.
  • Hill GJ, Shine TE, Hill HZ, et al. Failure of amygdalin to arrest B16 melanoma and BW5147 AKR leukemia. Cancer Res 1976;36(6):2102-2107. View abstract
  • Laster WR Jr, Schabel FM Jr. Experimental studies of the antitumor activity of amygdalin MF (NSC- 15780) alone and in combination with beta-glucosidase (NSC-128056). Cancer Chemother Rep 1975;59(5):951-965. View abstract
  • Lea MA, Koch MR. Effects of cyanate, thiocyanate, and amygdalin on metabolite uptake in normal and neoplastic tissues of the rat. J Natl.Cancer Inst. 1979;63(5):1279-1283. View abstract
  • Moertel CG, Fleming TR, Rubin J, et al. A clinical trial of amygdalin (Laetrile) in the treatment of human cancer. N.Engl.J.Med. 1-28-1982;306(4):201-206. View abstract
  • Morrone JA. Chemotherapy of inoperable cancer: preliminary report of 10 cases treated with laetrile. J Exper Med Surg 1962;20:299-308.
  • Moss RW. Patient perspectives: Tijuana cancer clinics in the post-NAFTA era. Integr.Cancer Ther 2005;4(1):65-86. View abstract
  • Navarro MD. The Philippine experience in the early detection and chemotherapy of cancer. Santo Tomas J Med 1970;25(3):125-133.
  • Ovejera AA, Houchens DP, Barker AD, et al. Inactivity of DL-amygdalin against human breast and colon tumor xenografts in athymic (nude) mice. Cancer Treat.Rep 1978;62(4):576-578.View abstract
  • Ross WE. Unconventional cancer therapy. Compr.Ther 1985;11(9):37-43. View Abstract
  • Smith FP, Butler TP, Cohan S, et al. Laetrile toxicity: a report of two patients. Cancer Treat.Rep 1978;62(1):169-171. View abstract
  • Syrigos KN, Rowlinson-Busza G, Epenetos AA. In vitro cytotoxicity following specific activation of amygdalin by beta-glucosidase conjugated to a bladder cancer-associated monoclonal antibody. Int J Cancer 12-9-1998;78(6):712-719. View abstract
  • Vickers A. Alternative cancer cures: "unproven" or "disproven"? CA Cancer J Clin 2004;54(2):110-118. View abstract
  • Wodinsky I, Swiniarski JK. Antitumor activity of amygdalin MF (NSC-15780) as a single agent and with beta-glucosidase (NSC-128056) on a spectrum of transplantable rodent tumors. Cancer Chemother Rep 1975;59(5):939-950. View abstract

Br J Nutr. 2009 Dec;102(12):1767-75. Protective effect of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) on hepatic steatosis and damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in Wistar rats. Ozturk F1, Gul M, Ates B, Ozturk IC, Cetin A, Vardi N, Otlu A, Yilmaz I.

The present study was planned to investigate the protective effect of 10 % and 20 % apricot-containing feed on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic steatosis and damage. Adult male Wistar rats (n 42) were divided into six groups of seven each, as follows: control group; CCl4 group; CCl4+10 % apricot group; CCl4+20 % apricot group; 10 % apricot group; 20 % apricot group. All apricot groups were fed with 10 % or 20 % apricot-containing feed for 5 months. CCl4 injections were applied to the CCl4 groups at the dose of 1 mg/kg for 3 d at the end of 5 months. In the CCl4 group, vacuolated hepatocytes and hepatic necrosis were seen, especially in the centrilobular area. Hepatocytes showed an oedematous cytoplasmic matrix, large lipid globules and degenerated organelles. The area of liver injury was found significantly decreased with apricot feeding. Malondialdehyde and total glutathione levels and catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were significantly changed in the CCl4 group and indicated increased oxidative stress. Apricot feeding decreased this oxidative stress and ameliorated histological damage. We concluded that apricot feeding had beneficial effects on CCl4-induced liver steatosis and damage probably due to its antioxidant nutrient (beta-carotene and vitamin) contents and high radical-scavenging capacity. Dietary intake of apricot can reduce the risk of liver steatosis and damage caused by free radicals.

J Food Sci. 2010 Nov-Dec;75(9):C722-30.Antioxidant and antiradical capacities in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) fruits: variations from genotypes, years, and analytical methods.Hegedus A1, Engel R, Abrankó L, Balogh E, Blázovics A, Hermán R, Halász J, Ercisli S, Pedryc A, Stefanovits-Bányai É.

The fruit quality parameters and antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing antioxidant power, FRAP) and total phenolic content (TPC) were determined in 27 apricot cultivars and hybrids of diverse origins. Twenty one- to 35-fold variations were measured among FRAP and TPC values. Besides genotype, harvest year also contributed significantly (P≤0.05) to the variations of TPC presumably due to the climatic differences between years. A subset of genotypes (15) was also analyzed for their antiradical activities (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH; total radical-scavenging activity, TRSA; water-soluble antioxidant capacity, ACW; and lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity, ACL), and vitamin C contents as well as color indices (CIE H°, L*, and chroma). The hybrid "Preventa" had outstanding FRAP (>10.4 mmol ascorbic acid/L), DPPH (74.45%), TRSA (0.002%), ACW (33587.5 nmol AA/L) and ACL (78.65 nmol Trolox/L), TPC (>2890.0 mg gallic acid/L), and vitamin C (16.17 mg/100 g FW) levels and an average carotenoid content estimated from the hue angle (66.99°). Most antioxidant and antiradical activities correlated significantly except for TRSA; the closest correlation was observed between FRAP and ACW (r=0.952). Only TRSA showed significant correlations with color indices, H° and chroma, suggesting TRSA measures at least a fraction of the antioxidant capacity attributable to apricot carotenoids.


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