Rosmarinus officinalis / Rozemarijn / Monografie Opleiding 'Dodonaeus'

Familie: Laminacaea (Labiatae) - Lipbloemigen.
Naam: Romarin (Fr.), Rosmarin (D.), Rosemary (E.).
Naamverklaring: Ros-marin (Latijn) = dauw van de zee, myrinos (Grieks) = geurig. 
Soorten: Rosm. of. var. rechtop groeiend en naar beneden groeiend.
Teelt, ecologie: 1 - 2 m hoge, altijd groene heester, groeit vooral op droge en kiezelachtige gronden in het Middellandse-Zeegebied. (Provence). Teelt door zaaien, stekken en afleggen.
Culturen o.a. in Zuid-Frankrijk en Spanje. Aanplant van ± 20.000 planten/ha.
Opbrengst: 8000 kg/ha, na drogen en zuiveren kan er 25 % overblijven (2000 kg)

M
ateria Medica

Rosmarini folium, De bladeren en bloeitoppen van Rosmarinus officinalis L.
Oogst: Vanaf april (ook bloeiende toppen) tot oktober.
Beschrijving: Smalle, lichtgroene bladeren met sterk naar beneden omgekrulde randen, zodat ze naaldvormig lijken. Op de onderzijde bevinden zich tussen lange witte haren de klierharen (grijs-viltig uitzicht) met etherische olie. Lengte 2-3,5 cm, breedte 1-4 mm.
Reuk: aromatisch, kamferachtig, afhankelijk van chemotype
Smaak: aromatisch, scherp en enigszins bitter. 

Rosmarini aetheroleum De e.o. uit de bladeren en bloeitoppen bereid door waterdampdistillatie uit
Ros. off. L. en andere chemotypes zoals R. off. L. camphora (Provence) R. off. L. cineol (Marokko), R. off. L. verbenon (Spanje, Corsica), R. pyramidalis.
Beschrijving: Kleurloze of zwakgele vloeistof met licht kamferachtige geur, verschillend naargelang het land van herkomst.
S.g.: 0,900 - 0,920 g/cm³
Opbrengst: 400 g e.o. uit 1000 kg bloeitoppen.
Vervalsingen: Met het blad van Ledum palustre (roestbruine beharing onderkant), Teucrium montanum (minder opgerold blad, groener), en Andromeda polifolia (niet viltig, maar waslaag aan onderkant).

Samenstelling

** Etherische olie 1 tot 2,5 % met o.a.: rozemarijnkamfer 5 - 10 %, borneol 10 %, cineol, verbenon (afhankelijk van chemotype)
* Flavonglucosiden: apigenine, luteoline.... 
* Rozemarijnzuur.
* Looistof 5 % (labiaatlooistof)
* Bitterstof 8 %: picrosalvin of carnosol 
-Carnosol, a major component of Rosmarinus officinalis, is a phenolic diterpene that has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of carnosol on rotenone-induced neurotoxicity in cultured dopaminergic cells. Results showed that cell viability was significantly improved with carnosol through downregulation of caspase-3. Furthermore, carnosol significantly increased the tyrosine hydroxylase, Nurr1, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. These results suggest that carnosol may have potential as a possible compound for the development of new agents to treat Parkinson's disease. Carnosol, a component of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) protects nigral dopaminergic neuronal cells. 
Neuroreport:
6 November 2006 - Volume 17 - Issue 16 - pp 1729-1733

The leaves contain 0.5% to 2.5% of volatile oil. The major components of the oil include monoterpene hydrocarbons (alpha and beta-pinene), camphene, limonene, camphor (10% to 20%), borneol, cineole, linalool, and verbinol. Rosemary contains a wide variety of volatile and aromatic components. Flavonoids in the plant include diosmetin, diosmin, genkwanin, luteolin, hispidulin, and apigenin. One analysis reports 3 new flavonoid glucuronides, also found in the leaves.  Other terpenoid constituents in rosemary include triterpenes oleanolic and ursolic acids and diterpene carnosol. 10 The concentration of phenolic diterpenes in certain commercial rosemary extracts has been determined by HPLC.  Phenols in rosemary include caffeic, chlorogenic, labiatic, neochlorogenic, and rosmarinic acids. 10 Rosemary contains high amounts of salicylates.
References: Okamura N, et al. Flavonoids in Rosmarinus officinalis leaves. Phytochemistry 1994;37(5):1463-66. / Swain A, et al. Salicylates in foods. J Am Diet Assoc 1985;85(8):950-60.

Farmacologie

** Algemeen tonicum, vooral voor:
- de bloedvaten (circulatiebevorderend),
- het hart (positief inotroop),
- het zenuwstelsel,
- de bijnierschors.
* Emmenagogum (niet hormonaal)
* Hypertensivum
* Huidprikkelend, hyperaemiserend (e.o.)
* Spasmolyticum op galwegen en dunne darm (chemotype verbenon)
** Cholagogum en cholereticum (chemotype verbenon)
* Licht diureticum (flavonen) 

 Carnosol is recentelijk onderzocht en zeer veelbelovend in de geneeskunde. Carnosinezuur heeft een antioxidatieve invloed op het cytochroom P450. Rozemarijnzuur is een krachtige antioxidant met werking tegen OH vrije radicalen en het singlet zuurstof, wat recidieven vermijden kan. Een belangrijke eigenschap is dat rozemarijn zowel hepatoprotectief als hepatotroop is. Ze beschermt de levercellen en dit vooral door het knoppen glycerinemaceraat en de EO CT verbenon: ze fungeert als remmer van vrije radicalen zoals chemische toxinen of geneesmiddelen die zorgen voor een toxische belasting en ze beschermt de lipiden van de levercelmembranen tegen peroxidatie waardoor de membraanviscositeit wordt gehandhaafd en een maximale enzymatische activiteit en dus ontgifting wordt gewaarborgd. Daarnaast ondersteunt ze dus de leverfunctie of met andere woorden de leverontgifting, dit door carnesol dat de gluthation- en glucuronoconjugatie in de lever bevordert en door de etherische olie met verbenon

Nota's: Verschillende werking naargelang het chemotype:
- Chemotype met kamfer toniserende werking
- Chemotype met cineol werking infectiewerend, expectorerend, geheugen
- Chemotype met verbenon toont hormonale werking

C.I.: Zwangerschap en hoge bloeddruk. (?)
E.o. kan in hoge dosis epileptisch-achtige effecten veroorzaken

Indicatie, waar wordt Rozemarijn voor gebruikt 

Tonicum / bloedvaten (vooral chemotype kamfer)
** Perifere doorbloedingsstoornissen, aderkramp                            R./ voetbaden, massageolie
** Hypotonie, hypotensie
* Hartzwakte                                                                                     zie Crataegus 

Algemeen Tonicum / Zenuwstelsel
** Asthenie, ook sexuele                                                                  Rosmarinus 'verbenon'
*    Geheugenzwakte, ook voor ouderen (amnesie), Alzheimer?           Zie Ginkgo biloba
** Preventie veroudering
Amenorroe (door zwakte).                                                             Zie hormonale planten 
**Ziekte van Parkinson, geheugen

Lever / Gal
* Levercirrhose, hepatitis-B                                                               R./Cupressus e.o. 1dr. en Rosmarinus e.o. 1dr.

Suikerziekte / Antroposofie
* Juveniele: jonge magere mensen ?)

Uitwendig als massageolie of badpreparaat
* Haaruitval
* Migraine                                                                                         Zie Tanacetum parthenium
** Gewrichts- en spierpijn, spierkramp                                                Hypericumolie + Rosm. + Juniperus
* zenuwversterkend, opwekkend                                                         badpreparaten

Receptuur en Bereidingswijzen

Infuus: Rosmarini folia 1 theelepel = 2 g. 1,5 g per kop, 3 x daags
Inf. 10, 20 g/1 l
Etherische olie: Rosmarini e.o. 2 druppels 2-3 x daags
Vinum: Rosmarini fol. (gedr.) 20 g/1 l mac. 5 dagen 

Doseringen vlgs verschillende autoriteiten
Dried leaf:
4-6 g, per day (Barnes et al. 2007)
6-12 g, per day (Mills and Bone 2005)
4-6 g, per day (Blumenthal et al. 2000)
2-4 g, 3 times per day (BHP 1983)

Infusion:
6-12 g dried leaf, per day (Mills and Bone 2005)
2-4 g dried leaf, per day (ESCOP 2003)
2 g dried leaf, 3 times per day (Blumenthal et al. 2000)
2-4 g dried leaf, 3 times per day (BHP 1983)
Directions for use: Pour 150 ml of boiling water on dried leaf and infuse (Blumenthal et al. 2000).

Wijn van 3 Lipbloemigen
R./ Rosmarini fol. 30g
Saturejae hb. 30g                         Maceraat 5 dagen
Salviae fol. 40g                             Dos. 2 x daags een glas, 2 weken
Rode wijn 1 l                                Ind. Anorexia, anergie

Gemmotherapie: 
R./ Quercus 1D
Rosa canina 1D                             Dos. 50dr. 2x daags
Rosmarinus 1D                             Ind. Asthenie
Vaccinium vitis-idea 1D

Baume opodeldoch (Moatti)
R./ Thymi e.o.     5
Rosmarini e.a.     20
Ammoniacum      30
Kamfer                 75
Zeep geraspt 95 Ind. gewrichtspijnen

Haartonicum
R./ Spirae hb. 60
Calendulae flos 60         Ber. mac. alcohol 60°, 1 week
Rosmarini fol. 100          Dos. 2 x daags inwrijven

Versterkend bad (verse planten)
R./ Lavandulae 100 g                 Ber.: inf. 15' in 3 l water
Melissae 100 g                           Dos.voor 1 volbad 30 C, duur 20'
Menthae 100 g
Rosmarini 100 g                         Grote dosis voor directe werking
Salviae 100 g                              Halve dosering kan ook
Saturejae 100 g

Receptuur met etherische olie
  • Rosm. 'kamfer' + Helichr. Italicum: harttonicum 
  • Rosm. 'verbenon' + Mentha x piperita: cholagogum 
  • Rosm. 'verbenon)' + Salvia off.: lipolyticum voor vrouwen 
  • Rosm. 'verbenon' + Cupressus: lipolyticum voor mannen 
  • R. 'cineol' + M. pip. + Lavandula: hoofdpijn (uitwendig gebruik) 
  • Rosm. 'cineol' + Cupressus: veneuze circulatie 
  • Rosm. (cineol) + Helichrysum it.: arteriele circulatie 
Geschiedenis En Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek
  • Oudheid: Bekend o.a. uit Egyptische graven. 
  • Rome en Athene: Heilige plant. 
  • Theophrastus, Dioscorides: Sterk medicijn tegen maag- en leveraandoeningen. 
  • Galenus: Geelzucht, troebel zicht (vers sap + honing). 
  • Arabische artsen: Eerste distillaat. 
  • Arnauld de Villeneuve, R. Lulle (alchemisten) XIIIde eeuw: Maken distillaten. 
  • Middeleeuwen (1378): Veel gebruikte e.o., o.a. Water van de Hongaarse Koningin (verjonging) 
  • XVIde tot XVIIIde eeuw: Veel gebruikt in apotheken. 
  • Madame de Sévigné 1626-1696: 'Ik heb het altijd bij mij en ik vind het geweldig tegen verdriet ' 
  • Azijn van de 4 rovers - Pestazijn: Preventie tegen besmettelijke ziekten met Rozemarijn, Salie, Alsem, Munt, Ui, Lavendel, Kalmoes, Kaneel, Kruidnagel, Muskaatnoot, Look en Kamfer. 
  • Paracelsus: Opodeldoch tegen reumapijnen en jicht. 
  • J.B. Chomel: «... versterkt zenuwen, tegen duizeligheid, spasmen, geneest geelzucht, astma en koortsen.» Medische faculteit 1712. 
  • Paturier et Rouselle: Le Rom. dans les maladies du foie. Soc. de thérap. - 10 avril 1929. 
  • Balansard S.: Contribution à l'étude du Romarin. Thèse Doctorat Pharmacie. Univ. Marseille 1953 
  • Carrere: Eau distilée de Romarin. Thèse Pharmacie Lyon 1933. 
  • Dorveaux: Historique de l'eau de Reine de Hongrie. France médical 1908. 
  • Fernandez Cosa: Essential oil of rosm. off. Noticias farm. Portugal 5/317 - 1939; Chem. Abstracts 33/7487 (1939). 
  • Leclerc: Action du Romarin. Janus 34/196-204, 1930. 
  • Roussel, Pellecuer, Andary: Proprietés antifongiques comparées des essences de 3 labiées méditerr.: Rosm., Sariette, Thym. Trav. Soc. Pharmacie Montpellier fasc. 4, 1973. 
  • Trabaud: Le Romarin, Production mondiale, Caractère de l'essence. Ind. Parfum 3/139, 1948. 
Referenties
  • Taddei, I., D. Giachetti, E. Taddei, P. Mantovani, E. Bianchi. 1988. Spasmolytic activity of peppermint, sage and rosemary essences and their major constituents. Fitoterapia 59:463–468. 
  • Rulffs, W. 1984. Rosmarinˆl-Badezusatz. Wirksamkeitsnachweis [Rosemary oil bath additive. Proof of effectiveness]. M nch Med Wschr 126(8):207–208. 
  • Mongold, J.J. et al. 1991. Activité cholagogue/cholérétique d'un extrait lyophilisé de Rosmarinus officinalis L. Plantes Méd Phytothér 2:6–11. 
  • Aqel, M.B.Title: A vascular smooth muscle relaxant effect of Rosmarinus officinalis. Journal: Int-J-Pharm. Lisse, Netherlands : Swets & Zeitlinger. 1992. v. 30 (4) p. 281-288. 0925-1618 
  • Madsen, H.L. Sorensen, B. Skibsted, L.H. Bertelsen, G > The antioxidative activity of summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) in dressing stored exposed to light or in darkness..Journal: Food-chem. Oxford : Elsevier Science Limited. Oct 1998. v. 63 (2) p. 173-180. 0308-814 
Rosmarinus var. / doc. Maurice Godefridi

Typologie 

Culpeper: Yang-kruid, zonnekruid. 
Steiner: «Rozemarijn versterkt de ik-organisatie». 
J. Huibers: Doorvurend, plant met hoog waterstofgehalte = vuurstof. «Voor mensen waarbij hoofd overheerst en geslachtsorganen te kort komen.» Mensen met zwak geheugen, neerslachtig en koude voeten. 


Referenties links
Cysarz D, Heckmann C, Kummell HC: [The effects of Cardiodoron on cardio-respiratory coordination–a literature review]. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd 2002 , 9:292-297. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
Rimpau W: Erfahrungen mit dem Rosmarin-Öldispersionsbad bei schmerzhaften Neuropathien. In Pflegehandbuch Herdecke. Edited by: Sitzmann F. Berlin: Springer; 1998:361-364. OpenURL OpenURL
MMW Munch Med Wochenschr 1974 , 116:537-540. PubMed Abstract OpenURL
Alles A: Ergebnisse der Diabetes-mellitus-Behandlung mit Rosmarinbädern. Der Merkurstab 50[Sonderheft Juni] 1997 , 14. OpenURL
al-Sereiti MR, bu-Amer KM, Sen P: Pharmacology of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) and its therapeutic potentials. Indian J Exp Biol 1999 , 37:124-130. PubMed Abstract OpenURL
 del Bano MJ, Lorente J, Castillo J, avente-Garcia O, del Rio JA, Ortuno A, et al.: Phenolic diterpenes, flavones, and rosmarinic acid distribution during the development of leaves, flowers, stems, and roots of Rosmarinus officinalis. Antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem 2003 , 51:4247-4253. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
Moreno S, Scheyer T, Romano CS, Vojnov AA: Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of rosemary extracts linked to their polyphenol composition. Free Radic Res 2006 , 40:223-231. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL


Effect of Rosemary on Cognitive Performance 
HerbalGram. 2012; American Botanical Council

Reviewed:  Pengelly A, Snow J, Mills SY, Scholey A, Wesnes K, Butler LR. Short-term study on the effects of rosemary on cognitive function in an elderly population. J Med Food. 2012;15(1):10-17.

Cognitive decline is a major threat to quality of life. Preliminary studies and traditional use have suggested that the spice rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, Lamiaceae) may have beneficial effects for cognitive function in older adults. Rosemary contains essential oil composed of 1,8-cineole, alpha-pinene, camphor, borneol, and carvacrol. Other constituents include phenolic diterpenes (such as carnosol and carnosic acid), flavones, the caffeic acid derivative rosmarinic acid, and the triterpene ursolic acid.  It has a GRAS  (generally regarded as safe) status in the United States. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, repeated-measures, crossover study investigated the acute effects of rosemary on cognitive performance in healthy, older adults.
Subjects included 28 non-smoking adults (20 women and 8 men aged 65-90 years; mean age = 75 years) who randomly received one of four different intake levels of rosemary (750 mg, 1500 mg, 3000 mg, and 6000 mg) or placebo. While the doses for this short study were higher than normally would be consumed in the diet, the crude powder was presumed to have a similar pharmacokinetic profile to that of ordinary culinary consumption. There was a 7-day washout period between treatments. The rosemary consisted of powdered rosemary leaf (authenticated by macro- and microscopic features; McCormick and Company; Hunt Valley, Maryland) added to 458 ml of tomato juice (low sodium; Campbell’s; Camden, New Jersey). The placebo consisted of plain tomato juice.
To confound the distinction between the treatment and placebo, inactive capsules were also administered to the subjects, who were told it could be part of the treatment.
Following the one-time intake of the treatment, a battery of tests was performed at 1, 2.5, 4, and 6 hours post-consumption using the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerized assessment system. Assessment included power or speed of attention; accuracy or continuity of attention; quality of working memory; quality of episodic or storage memory; and speed of memory. Mood was also assessed using the Bond-Lader visual analog scales.
There was a significant improvement in speed of memory at the lowest intake level (P=0.01) but a significant impairment at the highest intake (P<0.006) when compared with placebo. Continuity of attention and quality of working memory were also adversely affected at most intake levels. There were no effects for power of attention and quality of episodic secondary memory. Self-ratings of mood and alertness improved compared to placebo for an intake of 750 mg (P=0.01) but decreased for the 6000 mg level (P=0.02). There were no significant effects on self-rating of calmness and contentment. The mixed analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed there was no correlation between treatment and time for any of these findings. There were no serious adverse effects recorded for treatment or placebo.
The data show a dose-dependent effect on speed of memory; this suggests that additional work should be done at the 750 mg intake level, which is closer to normal levels of dietary intake, and also at lower doses. The authors also noted the unexpected activity of the placebo as a limitation of the study, as well as the unusually high baseline cognitive test scores of the subjects. In addition, the inability to blind the study adequately and its short-term nature were also limitations.



Studies on Rosemary

Scientists tested 144 healthy volunteers (who were deceived regarding the purpose of the study) to assess the olfactory impact of the essential oils of lavender, rosemary, and no odor (control) on cognitive performance and mood.
The randomly assigned subjects were given visual analogue mood questionnaires both prior to and following exposure to the odor. Rosemary produced a significant enhancement of performance for overall quality of memory and secondary memory factors, but also produced an impairment of speed of memory compared to control.
The control and lavender groups were significantly less alert than the rosemary group, but the control group was significantly less content than the rosemary and lavender conditions. The findings indicated that the fragrance of these essential oils can produce objective effects on cognitive performance and mood.1
A placebo-controlled, dose-increased clinical study was conducted on dried rosemary leaf powder due to its traditional reputation of reducing cognitive decline in the elderly. The lowest dose of rosemary (750 ml) had a statistically significant beneficial effect compared with placebo, whereas the highest dose (6,000 mg) had a significant impairing effect, as well as significant deleterious (less consistent) effects on other measures of cognitive performance.
Speed of memory is a potentially useful predictor of cognitive function during aging. The positive effect of the dose nearest normal culinary consumption was determined to indicate the value of further study of low dose/longer term testing of rosemary.2
As recent studies have shown rosemary to have chemopreventive and therapeutic properties, one study evaluated the anti-proliferation activity of rosemary extract against human ovarian cancer cells, and whether its three main active ingredients carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid can enhance the antiproliferation activity of cisplatin (which can cause serious side effects, such as hearing loss, kidney problems, and severe allergic reactions).3 The study showed that rosemary extract inhibited the proliferation of ovarian cancer cell lines.4

1 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12690999, Aromas of rosemary and lavender essential oils differentially affect cognition and mood in healthy adults, Oct. 2012
2 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21877951, Short-term study on the effects of rosemary on cognitive function in an elderly population, Oct. 2012
3 http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a684036.html, Cisplatin Injection, Oct. 2012
4 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22325591, Antiproliferation effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) on human ovarian cancer cells in vitro, Oct. 2012




La Phytothérapie François Décaux

Les sommités fleuries de Romarin (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) (Labiées).
Le Romarin fournit à la distillation aux vapeurs d'eau, dans la proportion de 1,50 %, une essence limpide, neutre, incolore ou légèrement jaunâtre, d'odeur camphrée, aroma­tique, à saveur rafraîchissante et amère, qui renferme du pinène, du camphène, du cinéol et du camphre ; il contient en outre, un principe amer, ainsi que des matières rési­neuses et pectiques. Son essence, qui exerce une action épileptisante énergique ainsi que l'ont prouvé les travaux de MM. Cadéac et Meunier, est douée de propriétés stimu­lantes incontestables : chez l'animal, on observe une crise convulsive des plus nettes avec secousses de la tête, contractures surtout marquées au train postérieur, trem­blements ; les animaux intoxiqués par de petites doses, deviennent craintifs, alors que l'hysope, l'absinthe et la sauge les rendent au contraire, agressifs (1).
Les études expérimentales et cliniques, auxquelles se sont livrés le professeur G. Parturier et M. P. Rousselle, ont montré que c'est en premier lieu en pathologie hépa­tique que le Romarin est appelé à rendre les plus grands services.
Ayant observé les résultats cliniques très favorables obtenus au Maroc et en Algérie par les indigènes avec ce végétal dans le traitement de certaines maladies du foie (ictères, syndromes douloureux), ou à titre préventif quand les fièvres ou une circonstance quelconque leur font craindre une atteinte hépatique, ces auteurs ont été amenés à en rechercher l'action cholérétique.
A l'aide du tubage duodénal,, ils ont remarqué, sous son influence, une sécrétion plus abondante de bile avec des modifications de sa coloration, qui tendait à s'éclaircir. Sur une centaine de malades traités par des infusions de Romarin à 5 %, prises à jeun et avant les repas, ils ont constaté : dans les cholécystites chroniques légères avec foie un peu: gros, dyspepsie réflexe et signes d'intoxi­cation (migraines, insomnie, état nerveux), une améliora­tion d'abord de l'état dyspeptique, puis de la constipation; dans les petites ascites avec gros foie (éthylisme, palu­disme), ils ont régulièrement observé la disparition du liquide; dans la grande ascite (cirrhose de Laënnec), ils ont vu 'se produire une diurèse marquée avec amélioration des troubles digestifs et action favorable sur l'ascite elle-, même qui semble se reproduire moins rapidement ; dans les ictères par hépatite enfin, ils ont noté une augmenta­tion considérable du débit urinaire avec abaissement de la température.
Bien qu'il semble difficile à MM. Parturier et Rousselle de faire la part exacte de l'action du Romarin dans tous ces résultats cliniques, ils estiment qu'il a joué un rôle incontestable que l'action cholérétique révélée par la méthode   d'Einhorn   peut  éclairer   (*■).
Henri Leclerc, de son côté, en a obtenu de bons effets dans les dyspepsies atoniques, chez les malades affaiblis par le surmenage physique ou intellectuel, ainsi que dans les états adynamiques qui accompagnent les grandes pyrexies (fièvre typhoïde, grippe) (2).

Pharmacologie et posologie.
Le Romarin! peut se prescrire soit sous forme d'infusion de feuilles à la concentration de 20 à  50 °/00, soit sous forme d'essence à la dose de trois à quatre gouttes : de préférence à jeun et avant les repas lorsqu'il s'agh d'obtenir des effets cholérétique et diurétique.
Dès lors, il semble s'avérer que la place réservée au Romarin dans l'arsenal thérapeutique doit déborder lar­gement le cadre trop étroit des indications qui lui est habituellement réservé, en tant que médication externe, sous la forme du Vin aromatique, du Baume Tranquille ou du Baume Opodeldoch dans la composition desquels il figure encore de nos jours, pour s'étendre jusqu'aux chapitres de la pathologie digestive et même générale (*).

(1) Cadéac et Meunier. Contribution à l'étude des propriétés épileptisantes de l'essence de Romarin. C. R. de la Société de bio­logie, 1889.
(1) G. Parturier et P. Rousselle. Le Romarin dans les maladies de foie. Société de thérapeutique, 10 avril 1929. G. Parturier. Précis de Phytothérapie hépato-biliaire.
(2) H. Leclerc. Histoire du Romarin, Janus, 1930,4» Précis de Phytothérapie, 1935.


Monograph Rosmarinus Drugs.com

Rosemary is a widely used culinary spice. Tradition holds that rosemary will grow only in gardens of households where the “mistress” is truly the “master.” 4 The plant has been used in traditional medicine for its astringent, tonic, carminative, antispasmodic, and diaphoretic properties. Extracts and the volatile oil have been used to promote menstrual flow and as abortifacients. 4 , 5 Rosemary extracts are commonly found as cosmetic ingredients and a lotion of the plant is said to stimulate hair growth and prevent baldness. 6

Historical reports regarding the therapeutic use of rosemary as a medicinal plant are available. 7 , 8 Rosemary is one of the oldest known medicinal herbs, having been used centuries ago to enhance mental function and memory. 9

Chemistry
The leaves contain 0.5% to 2.5% of volatile oil. The major components of the oil include monoterpene hydrocarbons (alpha and beta-pinene), camphene, limonene, camphor (10% to 20%), borneol, cineole, linalool, and verbinol. Rosemary contains a wide variety of volatile and aromatic components. Flavonoids in the plant include diosmetin, diosmin, genkwanin, luteolin, hispidulin, and apigenin. 1 , 4 , 10 One analysis reports 3 new flavonoid glucuronides, also found in the leaves. 11 Other terpenoid constituents in rosemary include triterpenes oleanolic and ursolic acids and diterpene carnosol. 10 The concentration of phenolic diterpenes in certain commercial rosemary extracts has been determined by HPLC. 12 Phenols in rosemary include caffeic, chlorogenic, labiatic, neochlorogenic, and rosmarinic acids. 10 Rosemary contains high amounts of salicylates. 13

Rosemary Uses and Pharmacology
Rosemary is a known antimicrobial agent. The powdered leaves are used as an effective natural flea and tick repellent. 14 Rosemary oil possesses marked antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties. 9 , 10 Activity against certain bacteria including Staphylcoccus aureus , S. albus , Vibrio cholerae , Escherichia coli , and Corynebacteria has been observed. 10 Rosemary oil was found to be most active against “meat spoiling” gram-negative (eg, Pseudomonas ) and gram-positive (eg, Lactobacillus ) bacteria in 1 report. 15 The effect of rosemary on Candida albicans has been described. 16 Another report discusses growth inhibition of Aspergillus parasiticus by rosemary oil. 17 However, a report on the use of rosemary to treat head lice found it to be ineffective. 18

There are numerous reports available evaluating rosemary's anticancer effects. The extract induces quinone reductase, an anticarcinogenic enzyme. 19 Other anticancer mechanisms include polyphenol constituents that inhibit metabolic activation of procarcinogens by Phase Ι enzymes (P450), and induction of the detoxification pathway caused by Phase ΙΙ enzymes (glutathione S-transferase). 20

Animal data
Dietary supplementation of laboratory animals with 1% rosemary extract resulted in a 47% decrease in the incidence of experimentally-induced mammary tumors compared to controls. 21 , 22 This extract was found to enhance activities of enzymes that detoxify reactive substances in mouse liver and stomach. 23 Skin tumors in mice have been inhibited by application of rosemary extract to the area. 24

Clinical data
Rosemary increased detoxification of carcinogens in human bronchial epithelial cells as well. 25 Rosemary diterpene, carnosic acid, exhibited strong inhibitory effects against HIV-protease. 26

Several reports exist concerning rosemary's antioxidative actions. 27 , 28 , 29 , 30 , 31 Carnosol and carnosic acid have been reported to account for more than 90% of the antioxidant properties of rosemary extract. Both are powerful inhibitors of lipid peroxidation and are good scavengers of peroxyl radicals. 32 , 33 Antioxidant activity depends directly on concentration of diterpenes such as these. 12 Rosemary antioxidants have less scavenging potential than green tea polyphenols but have more potential than vitamin E. 34

Various reports involving other actions of rosemary include spasmolytic actions in smooth and cardiac muscle, alteration of complement activation, 10 liver effects, 35 immune effects, 36 and aromatherapy for chronic pain treatment. 37 Rosemary may also reverse headaches, reduce stress, and aid in asthma and bronchitis treatment. 9 Rosemary's pharmacology has been reviewed. 38

Other animal studies have shown inhibition of adult respiratory distress syndrome in rabbits, 10 reduction of capillary permeability, 4 and antigonadotrophic activity in mice. 10 Rosemary inhibits uterotropic actions of estradiol and estrone by 35% to 50% vs controls. 39

Dosage
Rosemary leaf was approved for dyspepsia, high blood pressure, and rheumatism by the German Commission E at doses of 4 to 6 g/day. The essential oil has been used at doses of 0.1 to 1 mL. 40

Pregnancy/Lactation
Generally recognized as safe or used as food. Avoid dosages above those found in food because safety and efficacy are unproven. Known to have emmenagogue and abortifacient effects. 41

Interactions
None well documented.

Adverse Reactions
Although the oil is used safely as a food flavoring and the whole leaves are used as a potherb and spice, ingestion of large quantities of the oil can be associated with toxicity. 42 Toxicity from the oil is characterized by stomach and intestinal irritation and kidney damage. 4 Although rosemary oil is irritating to rabbit skin, it is not generally considered to be a sensitizer for human skin.

At least 3 case reports concerning toxic seizures associated with rosemary exist. The plant's monoterpene ketones are powerful convulsants with known epileptogenic properties. 43

Toxicology
Preparations containing the oil may cause erythema, and toiletries can cause dermatitis in sensitive individuals. 1 , 6 , 10 Allergic contact dermatitis from rosemary has been reported. 44 A case report discusses contact dermatitis in a 56-year-old man reacting to carnosol, the main constituent in a rosemary preparation. 45
Certain molds may grow on rosemary. 46
A case of occupational asthma caused by rosemary has been reported. 47
Rosemary extract may possess an anti-implantation effect as seen in rat experimentation. 48 The plant is a reported abortifacient, and also affects the menstrual cycle. 10

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