Lavandula species

Echte Lavendel 
monografie uit cursusboek van herboristenopleiding 'Dodonaeus'

Algemene en botanische Informatie

Familie: Lamiaceae (Labiatae) - Lipbloemigen.
Naam: Lavande (Fr.), Lavendel (D.), Lavender (E.).
Etymologie: Lavare = wassen, wasplaats.
Soorten: L. officinalis CHAIX, syn., L. vera L., syn. L. angus­tifo­lia MILL,
L. latifolia MED. - Spijklavendel (breder blad, langere bloeiaren),
L. stoechas - Kuiflavendel (Mid. Zeegeb.),
L. angustifolia c.v. 'Mundstead' (laag, vroeg),
L. angustifolia c.v. 'Hidcote' (donkerpaars)
L. angustifolia 'Blue Velours' (droogboeketten)
Lit. Lavandes ou Paysages de Lavandes - C. Couttolenc.
Teelt, ecologie: Groeit op droge, kalkhoudende en zonnige hellingen (boven 500m) in het
Middellandse Zeegebied (Drome), vermeerderen door zaaien en stekken. 
http://www.mountainvalleygrowers.com/books/thegenuslavandula.htm

Materia Medica, gebruikte delen van Lavandula species


Lavandulae flos, De bloemen (bloemhoofdjes) van Lavandula officinalis CHAIX.
Oogst: In de zomer, de net geopende bloemhoofdjes kunnen in kleine bosjes gedroogd worden.
Beschrijving: Buisvormige, blauwe, 5-tandige bloemkelkblaadjes met, ook veel zonder kroonblaadjes (deze vallen tijdens drogen en bewaren uit de kelkblaadjes)

Lavandulae aetheroleum, de etherische olie uit de bloemen van Lavandula officinalis L., L. latifolia en L. x intermedia gekweekt vooral voor de parfum- en kosmetica-indus­trie

Nota's: Verschillende soorten:
- Lavandula latifolia - Aspic, Spijklavendel,
- Lavandula stoechas - Kuiflavendel,
- Lavandula x Burnatii - Lavandin
De winning van etherische olie kan uit verse bloemen of uit gedroogde bloemen (fijnere kwaliteit)
Beschrijving: Karakteristieke e.o. met donkergele kleur.
Densiteit 0,885-0,895 g/cm³ afhankelijk van de soort
Verschil Engelse en Franse e.o.:
Gehalte aan linolylacetaat: Franse tot 45 %, Engelse tot 10 %.
Gehalte aan cineol: meer in Engelse (geeft kamfergeur)

Samenstelling, inhoudstoffen van Lavandula

** Etherische olie met o.a.: linalylacetaat 30-55 %, linalool 20-35 %, afhankelijk van soort, hoogte, vers of gedroogd
** Looistoffen 5-10 %
* cumarine, flavonoïden, fytosterolen.

Farmacologie, fysiologische werking van Lavandula

* Sedativum (e.o.) vooral uitwendig gebruik. Beïnvloed het limbisch systeem via de reukzenuwen (nervus olfac­torius), werkt harmoniserend, vermindert de cerebrospinale prikkelbaarheid (Cadéac)
* Spasmolyticum vooral voor de luchtwegen
* Cholagogum / cholereticum (Chabrol)
* Antiseptisch huidmiddel (etherische olie)
* Diureticum (Morpugo, Leclerc)
* Insecticide en neutraliserend voor sommige dierlijke giffen: slangen, insecten, e.a.
Nevenwerkingen: De e.o. kan in hoge dosering zenuwprikkelend werken

Indicatie / Praktische Toepassingen

Zenuwstelsel
** Hoofdpijn, migraine (?), duizeligheid.  Zie ook Tanacetum, Mentha, leverplanten 
** Depressie. Zie ook Kawa kawa, Hypericum, Melissa....
* Nervositeit met angst, kramp, irritatie en plexus solaris-spasmen 
* Restless leg syndrome (RLS)

Spasmolyticum luchtwegen
** Astma. Borst inwrijven met e.o.
* Griep met hoest. Zie kruiden voor de luchtwegen: Sambucus, Ravintsara e.a.

Huid / Uitwendig
* Wondreiniging
* Acné
** Brandwonden Combineren met St. Jansolie
* Insectensteken
* Slangenbeten neutraliseren?
** Mycose. R./ Lavandulae e.o. + Geranium e.o. + Amandelolie
* Schurft (?) e.a. huidparasieten
* Gewrichtspijnen Lavandula + Rosmarinus + Eucalypus citriodora

Spijsvertering
* Meteorisme e.a. aandoeningen zie vooral carminativa: Anijs, Venkel
* Atonie zie amara pura: Gentiana lutea

Andere toepassingen
* Gedroogde lavendel in zakjes: parfumeren en beschermen van kleding in kasten
* Lavendel (of etherische olie) op de vloer of beter op voetmat
* Lavendelbloemen om vingers te ontvetten ipv citroen
* Bloemen (of etherische olie) in je haar wrijven, in masseren voor het wassen
* Zakjes onder het warme stromend water hangen voor het bad
* In glycerinezeepjes verwerken, de zeepjes au bain marie smelten samen met lavendel, eventueel wat etherische olie toevoegen, in vormpjes gieten en laten opstijven

Receptuur en Bereidingswijzen


Infuus: Lavandulae flos 40-50 g/1 l vooral in mengsels
Etherische olie: - Inwendig 4 dr. 2 x daags op bv. suiker. Vooral uitwendig, een van de weinige e.o. die weinig of niet irri­terend is, toch veiliger gemengd met vette olie vooral voor massage.
Bad: Badpreparaten o.a. Weleda, vooral kalmerend, zenuw­versterkend, bij astma.
Tinctuur: 2 g (40 druppels) e.o. met 100 cc alcohol 90°, dos.: 10 dr. 2 x daags
Oliemaceraat: 1 handvol bloemen in 0,5 l olijfolie Ber.: mac. 10' u au bain marie, zeven. Ind.: droog eczeem (Valnet)

Species: Tisane des 5 fleurs (Leclerc) R./
Lavandulae flos 10
Calendulae fl. 5           Ber.:   inf. 10' in 1 liter
Borrago fl. 5                Dos.: 3-4 kopjes daags
Genistae fl. 5               Ind.:   bij infectieziekten als
Viola tric. fl. 5                        diaphoreticum en diureticum.

Massage-olie (Rosa Schmid) R./
Sint Jansolie 85
Lavendel e.o. 5           
Rozema­rijn e.o. 10              Ind.: gewrichtspijnen na chiropractische behandeling

Geschiedenis En Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek
  • Dioscorides, Galenus, Plinius e.a.: Sedert de Oudheid gebruikt als tonicum, stomachicum en carminativum.
  • Jean de Gaddesden (14de eeuw): Specifiek voor hydropisie.
  • Dodonaeus, Lobelius, Matthiolus: «Voor beroerdheid, lammigheid, slaap­zucht, vallende ziekte en het bezwijmende.»
  • Ravelingius, Schröderus: «Voor Opstijgingen der lijfmoeder en zware arbeid der vrouwen.»
  • Fuchsius, Matthiolus, Durantus: «Voor koude pisse, buikpijn en opge­stopte maandston­den.»
  • Ravelingius: «Voor Sinkingen en verkrompte leden.» (Olie op rug­gegraat en ledematen.)
  • Dodonaeus: «Lavendel is warm en droog in de 3de graad, en de hersenen en zenuwen aangenaam.»
  • Cadéac en Meunier: Contribution à l'étude psychologyque de l'essence de Lavande. "... un narcotique assez actif, qu'elle émousse la sensibilité, diminu­e la puissance excito-motrice, ..." Province méd. - 1890.
  • Leclerc: Gebruikt het vooral tegen astma, kinkhoest, griep, als antisepticum en om de bronchiale secreties te beïnvloeden.
  • L. Morpugo: Note sur les propriétés diurétiques de la Lavande. Rev. tunisienne des Sc. Méd. - 1914.
  • F. Decaux: De l'emploie de quelques labiées, principalement de la Lavande, comme diurétique. Revue de Phytoth. - jan. 1944.
  • H. Leclerc: Emploi de Lavande comme diurétique. Journ. des Prac­ticiens - 28 fevr. 1945.

Cavanagu H, Wilkinson J. Biological activities of lavendar essential oil. Phytotherapy Research. 2002;16:301-308. (doc. Maurice Godefridi)
Aromatherapy is thought to be therapeutically effective due to the psychological effect of the odor and the physiological effects of the inhaled volatile compounds. Linalool and linalyl acetate are rapidly absorbed through the skin during massage. They are thought to be able to cause central nervous system depression. Linalyl acetate has narcotic actions and linalool acts as a sedative. These calming actions may be the origin of the use of a lavender pillow to help induce sleep. Conversely, studies have shown that lavender odor can increase alertness. Along this line, one research group found that lavender oil aromatherapy increased the speed and accuracy of mathematical calculations. Interestingly, in the16th century, it was believed that lavender skullcaps could enhance intelligence.

Commission E
approved the internal use of lavender for restlessness or insomnia and nervous stomach irritations, Roehmheld's syndrome, meteorism, and nervous intestinal discomfort. For balneotherapy: Treatment of functional circulatory disorders.
The German Standard License for lavender tea lists it for restlessness, sleeplessness, lack of appetite, nervous irritable stomach, meteorism, and nervous disorders of the intestines (Wichtl and Bisset, 1994). Lavender preparations are traditionally used to treat symptoms of neurotonic disorders, especially minor sleeplessness (Bruneton, 1995).

Ander wetenschappelijk onderzoek
  • Atanasova-Shopova, S. and K.S. Rusinov. 1970. [On certain central neurotropic effects of lavender essential oil]. Izv Inst Fiziol Bulg Akad Nauk 13:69–76.
  • Cornwell, S. and A. Dale. 1995. Lavender oil and perineal repair. Mod Midwife 5(3):31–33.
  • Dale, A. and S. Cornwell. 1994. The role of lavender oil in relieving perineal discomfort following childbirth: a blind randomized clinical trial. J Adv Nurs 19(1):89–96.
  • Frohlich, E. 1968. [Lavender oil, review of clinical, pharmacological and bacteriological studies. Contribution to clarification of the mechanism of action] [In German]. Wien Med Wochenschr 118(15):345–350.
  • Gruncharov, V. 1973. [Clinico-experimental study on the choleretic and cholagogic action of Bulgarian lavender oil] [In Bulgarian]. Vutr Boles 12(3):90–96.
  • Guillemain, J., A. Rousseau, P. Delaveau. 1989. Effets neurodepresseurs de l'huile essentielle de Lavandula angustifolia Mill [Neurodepressive effects of the essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia Mill]. Ann Pharm Fr 47(6):337–343.
  • Verslag: Much of the scientific research which is cited to support the efficacy of aromatherapy involves the internal consumption of essential oils with known medicinal effects, or their topical use against skin diseases. Now Japanese scientists have documented an anticonvulsive effect from inhaling lavender oil vapor. As a first step toward clinical evaluation of sedative or hypnotic use of lavender in humans, the researchers showed that 15 minutes of inhaling natural lavender oil prevented convulsions in mice. It also appeared to reduce the toxicity of nicotine. The protection against nicotine toxicity was strongly dose-dependent, with maximum protection offered by one ml of lavender oil inhaled over a 15 minute timespan. "At present, details of the mechanism by which lavender oil vapor inhalation affects anti-convulsant action are not clear." The authors believe the effects may be based on an augmentation of the brain's natural calming mechanism which involves a neurotransmitter calle d GABA. [Yamada, K., Mimaki, Y., and Sashida, Y., Anticonvulsive Effects of Inhaling Lavender Oil Vapour, Biol. Pharm. Bull., Vol. 17, No. 2, February, 1994, pp.359-360.]

Algemene literatuur uit bibliotheek Maurice Godefridi
Couttulenc C. - Lavandes ou Paysages de Lavandes. Le Jardin des Lavandes Sault.
Meunier Christiane - Lavandes & Lavandins. Edisud 1992.
Musset D. - Lavandes et plantes aromatiques. Itineraire de découverte. Les Alpes de Lumière.

Typologie, de persoonlijkheid van de plant
Culpeper, Tisserand: Mercuriuskruid.
- Mensen die niet weten wat ze willen, die van het ene uiterste in het andere vallen
- Hysterische neigingen
- Culpeper omschrijft het als "rillingen en driften van het hart"

Referenties
Kim JT, Ren CJ, Fielding GA, Pitti A, Kasumi T, Wajda M, Lebovits A, Bekker A. | Treatment with lavender aromatherapy in the post-anesthesia care unit reduces opioid requirements of morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. | Obes Surg. | 2007 Jul;17(7):920-5.
Shiina Y, Funabashi N, Lee K, Toyoda T, Sekine T, Honjo S, Hasegawa R, Kawata T, Wakatsuki Y, Hayashi S, Murakami S, Koike K, Daimon M, Komuro I. | Relaxation effects of lavender aromatherapy improve coronary flow velocity reserve in healthy men evaluated by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography. | Int J Cardiol. | 2008 Sep 26;129(2):193-7. Epub 2007 Aug 8.

Recentere links uit PubMed

Silexan, an orally administered Lavandula oil preparation, is effective in the treatment of 'subsyndromal' anxiety disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial.Kasper S, Gastpar M, Müller WE, Volz HP, Möller HJ, Dienel A, Schläfke S. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2010 Sep;25(5):277-87.
The in vitro antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of some Lamiaceae species from Turkey.Sarac N, Ugur A. J Med Food. 2009 Aug;12(4):902-7.
Oral malodor reduction by a palatal mucoadhesive tablet containing herbal formulation.Sterer N, Nuas S, Mizrahi B, Goldenberg C, Weiss EI, Domb A, Davidi MP. J Dent. 2008 Jul;36(7):535-9. Epub 2008 May 12.
Investigation of the anxiolytic effects of linalool, a lavender extract, in the male Sprague-Dawley rat. Cline M, Taylor JE, Flores J, Bracken S, McCall S, Ceremuga TE. AANA J. 2008 Feb;76(1):47-52.
The vapor activity of oregano, perilla, tea tree, lavender, clove, and geranium oils against a Trichophyton mentagrophytes in a closed box.
Inouye S, Nishiyama Y, Uchida K, Hasumi Y, Yamaguchi H, Abe S. J Infect Chemother. 2006 Dec;12(6):349-54. Epub 2007 Jan 18
Repellency of oils of lemon eucalyptus, geranium, and lavender and the mosquito repellent MyggA natural to Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the laboratory and field.Jaenson TG, Garboui S, Palsson K. J Med Entomol. 2006 Jul;43(4):731-6.
The psychological effects of aromatherapy-massage in healthy postpartum mothers.Imura M, Misao H, Ushijima H.J Midwifery Womens Health. 2006 Mar-Apr;51(2):e21-7.
Ambient odors of orange and lavender reduce anxiety and improve mood in a dental office.Lehrner J, Marwinski G, Lehr S, Johren P, Deecke L. Physiol Behav. 2005 Sep 15;86(1-2):92-5.
Anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the leaf extracts and essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia Mill.Hajhashemi V, Ghannadi A, Sharif B. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Nov;89(1):67-71.
Comparison of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. tincture and imipramine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a double-blind, randomized trial.Akhondzadeh S, Kashani L, Fotouhi A, Jarvandi S, Mobaseri M, Moin M, Khani M, Jamshidi AH, Baghalian K, Taghizadeh M.Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2003 Feb;27(1):123-7.
The effects of aqueous extract of Lavandula angustifolia flowers in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity of cerebellar granular cell culture of rat pups.Büyükokuroğlu ME, Gepdiremen A, Hacimüftüoğlu A, Oktay M. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Jan;84(1):91-4.
Ethnopharmacological evaluation of the anticonvulsant, sedative and antispasmodic activities of Lavandula stoechas L.Gilani AH, Aziz N, Khan MA, Shaheen F, Jabeen Q, Siddiqui BS, Herzig JW. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Jul;71(1-2):161-
Local anaesthetic activity of the essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia.Ghelardini C, Galeotti N, Salvatore G, Mazzanti G. Planta Med. 1999 Dec;65(8):700-3.
Anti-inflammatory constituents of topically applied crude drugs. IV. Constituents and anti-inflammatory effect of Paraguayan crude drug "alhucema" (Lavandula latifolia Vill.).Shimizu M, Shogawa H, Matsuzawa T, Yonezawa S, Hayashi T, Arisawa M, Suzuki S, Yoshizaki M, Morita N, Ferro E, et al. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1990 Aug;38(8):2283-4.

Algemene internet links
Plantaardigheden.nl - Leeswerk.nl Inhoud scans Afbeeldingen der artsenij-gewassen 1796 Deel 1


Reviewed: Kim S, Kim H-J, Yeo J-S, Hong S-J, Lee J-M, Jeon Y. The effect of lavender oil on stress, bispectral index values, and needle insertion pain in volunteers. J Altern Complement Med. 2011;17(9):823-826.
Intraoperative anesthesia requirements increase when a patient has high baseline anxiety and stress. These patients also have a more difficult recovery from anesthesia. Accordingly, patients are given anxiolytic and sedative drugs before surgery, but these may delay discharge from the hospital. 

Aromatherapy may be able to reduce anxiety before a procedure. The purpose of this randomized, blinded, controlled study was to evaluate whether lavender (Lavandula angustifolia, Lamiaceae) oil aromatherapy could decrease stress, bispectral index values (using electroencephalogram to determine level of consciousness during sedation), and pain of needle insertion in a surgical setting.Healthy subjects (n = 30, mean age 21 years) participated in this study conducted at Kyungpook National University Hospital in Daegu, South Korea. Subjects were randomly assigned into lavender treatment or control groups. Subjects arrived at the preoperative area, rested on a bed for 5 minutes, and then baseline bispectral index (BIS) values were calculated via electrodes placed on the scalp. Next, the subjects were asked to score their stress and tension on a visual analogue scale (VAS; 0 = no stress to 10 = maximum stress). One minute later, a 25-gauge needle was inserted 3 mm into the skin of the non-dominant forearm and kept there for 30 seconds. The subject rated pain intensity on a VAS (0 = no pain to 10 = worst pain imaginable).Next, subjects in the lavender group received oxygen for 5 minutes via a face mask coated with 2 drops of 2% lavender oil, which was applied with a cotton swab to the inside of the mask. 

The lavender oil (100% pure lavender oil; Plant Life Natural Body Care; San Clemente, California) was diluted to 2% lavender oil with jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis, Simmondsiaceae) oil. The subjects in the control group received oxygen for 5 minutes through a face mask with no lavender oil. Immediately after receiving treatment, the subjects were transported to the operating room, and then BIS values were measured at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 minutes after inhalation therapy. The subjects scored their stress level 6 minutes after inhalation treatment, and 1 minute later, a needle was inserted similar to baseline. The subjects rated pain intensity from 0 to 10. Adverse effects were recorded.At baseline, both groups had similar levels of stress, pain intensity at needle insertion, and BIS values. Lavender oil significantly reduced the stress level (P < 0.001) and pain intensity (P < 0.001) compared with the control. BIS levels at 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes after aromatherapy inhalation were significantly lower than after control inhalation (P < 0.001 for all). There was no between-group difference in BIS 25 minutes after therapy. No adverse effects were reported.

The authors conclude that lavender inhalation significantly reduced BIS values, stress levels, and pain intensity of needle insertion. The exact mechanism of action is unknown. The advantages of aromatherapy with lavender oil is that it can be easily applied, is safe, has a low cost, would not prolong sedation after surgery or increase the incidence of vomiting, and can improve patient satisfaction. Aromatherapy may be helpful in controlling preoperative stress and fear. Although not assessed here, the findings may extend to the outpatient setting where patients need to give blood. The appropriate dose and efficacy would need to be assessed.

Nurs Midwifery Stud. 2015 Dec;4(4):e29617. doi: 10.17795/nmsjournal29617. Epub 2015 Dec 1.
The Effect of Massage With Lavender Oil on Restless Leg Syndrome in Hemodialysis Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Hashemi SH1, Hajbagheri A2, Aghajani M3.
Restless leg syndrome (RLS) is a common problem in patients with chronic renal failure. It can reduce the quality of life and sleep disturbances. This disorder is usually treated pharmacologically. Recently, complementary medicine methods have been suggested because of chemical drugs adverse effects. There is not enough evidence about the effect of aromatherapy on RLS.
OBJECTIVES:
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of massage with lavender oil on RLS symptoms in hemodialysis patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
This randomized clinical trial study included 70 hemodialysis patients with RLS that were randomly assigned into two groups in 2014. The experimental group received effleurage massage using lavender oil and control group received routine care for three weeks. Data was collected with RLS questionnaire and analyzed using independent and paired t-test and Chi-square test.
RESULTS:
The mean RLS scores were not significantly different in the two groups at the start of study (22.41 ± 7.67 vs. 22.90 ± 4.38, P = 0.76). At the end of study, the mean RLS score significantly decreased in the intervention group, while this score remained relatively un-changed in the control group (12.41 ± 5.49 vs. 23.23 ± 4.52, P < 0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS:
Lavender oil massage was effective to improve RLS in hemodialysis patients. It has no adverse effects, is practical and cost-effective. It is suggested to be used along with routine treatment of RLS in hemodialysis patients.



Lavender for Anxiety and Depression: review.
Review of the literature on the safety and efficacy of lavender
By Jeremy Appleton, ND
Jeremy Appleton, ND, is a licensed naturopathic physician. He is a graduate of Reed College and the National College of Natural Medicine. He served on faculty at NCNM as the nutrition department chair and has also taught at Bastyr University, where he did his residency. Appleton left his private practice in 1998 to work in the natural products industry. He is the author of several books and hundreds of articles on natural medicine. He currently serves as director of scientific affairs at Integrative Therapeutics.

Lavender flower and its extracts have been used, both internally and by olfaction, for centuries as a treatment for anxiety and depression. Modern analytical research has identified the main active constituents of the oil; in vitro and animal studies have begun to elucidate mechanisms of action; and controlled clinical trials in humans now document lavender’s efficacy, safety, and dose. This paper reviews these developments, with summary details from selected studies, and provides a preliminary comparison of lavender’s efficacy and safety to its main botanical and pharmaceutical alternatives.
 
Introduction

Anxiety is a common complaint and may range from every day stress to clinically relevant symptoms requiring medical intervention. Patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) can experience excessive anxiety and worry associated with the stresses of everyday life. Most cases of GAD begin in childhood and can lead—without treatment—to a chronic condition, with fluctuating symptoms, often exacerbated by stressful life events.1 Disturbed sleep has been observed to be among the most frequent accompanying disorders of generalized anxiety.2 Individuals with anxiety disorder not otherwise specified (AD NOS) also present with clinically significant symptoms, but they tend to report less worry, negative affect, depression, and comorbidity than those with GAD.3
 
The most commonly prescribed agents in the medical treatment of anxiety are benzodiazepines and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).4 The well-known side effects of benzodiazepines include drowsiness, fatigue, confusion and disorientation, dizziness, decreased concentration, impaired memory, dry mouth, and blurred vision. Benzodiazepines can impair the ability to drive or operate machinery and may thus interfere with essential activities of daily living. They lower the tolerance to alcohol and are widely reported to cause physical and psychological dependence and withdrawal symptoms.5 SSRIs, on the other hand, may cause sedation and fatigue, gastrointestinal disturbances, agitation or insomnia.6,7 The risks and inconveniences associated with available anxiolytic pharmaceutical medications may be one of the reasons anxiety disorder is considered an undertreated condition.8
 
Herbal preparations have long been a mainstay for treating anxiety and depression. Some botanical agents, most notably kava (Piper methysticum), have demonstrated efficacy for clinically diagnosed anxiety disorders.9-13 Others, such as St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum), are clinically efficacious for depression in most,14-25 though not all26,27 clinical studies. Kava, however, has been withdrawn by many manufacturers due to concerns over potential hepatotoxicity,28-32 even though these effects may have been primarily due to drug interactions, misuse, and poor quality extracts of this otherwise well-tolerated phytomedicine; St. John’s wort’s popularity has suffered because it was found to stimulate cytochrome P450 34, an enzyme that metabolizes at least half of the known pharmaceuticals sold today.33 A safe, non-sedating, non–habit forming herbal anxiolytic with proven efficacy for GAD and depression is, therefore, of interest to clinicians.
 
Throughout history, lavender has been cultivated for its flowers and oils and used both cosmetically and medicinally. A member of the Labiatae family, lavender is primarily used either dried or as an essential oil. Historical use includes documented activity as an antibacterial, antifungal, carminative, sedative, and antidepressant.34 Lavandula angustifolia, Mill. is the most common species of lavender utilized for health purposes.35 Lavender is native to the Mediterranean, the Arabian Peninsula, Russia, and Africa.
 
Lavender has a high concentration of volatile oils, which impart its distinctive and pleasing fragrance. The relaxing experience of lavender fragrance led to its deliberate, therapeutic use in aromatherapy to relieve mild anxiety. Lavender has been also used internally for mood imbalances such as anxiety, insomnia, and gastrointestinal distress, including “nervous stomach.”36
 
Lavender Constituents

Lavender essential oil is obtained from steam distillation processing of the flowering tops of L. angustifolia. Modern analytical methods, such as capillary gas chromatography, have demonstrated that lavender oil contains more than 160 constituents, many of which interact synergistically to contribute to its healing effects. The main active constituents of lavender oil are linalool, linalyl acetate, terpinen-4-ol, and camphor. The quantity of the linalyl acetate is determined by the method of steam distillation as it degrades upon distillation to yield linalool. The highest content of linalyl acetate is obtained when fresh lavender flowers are steam distilled right after harvest. Other constituents found in lavender include: cis-ocimene; terpinen-4-ol, ß-caryophyllene; lavandulyl acetate; 1,8-cineole; and small amounts of limonene, geraniol, lavandulol, ß-pinene, camphene, geranyl acetate, and neryl acetate.37,38
 
Relative amounts of bioactive constituents can vary significantly from one lavender oil to another. The European Pharmacopoeia includes limits or ranges for the content of the predominant components. Specifically, oils with high concentrations of esters and low concentrations of cineol and other minor components are generally considered to be of higher quality because these parameters indicate that a gentle and careful production process was applied and that high quality raw materials were used. A high quality lavender extract would not only comply with this monograph but would ideally exceed those specifications with a higher content of linalyl acetate (ideally 33–45%) and lavandulyl acetate (≥1.5%), and a lower limit for the content of cineol (≤2 %).39
 
Mechanisms of action

In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated multiple possible mechanisms of action of lavender oil, as well as its individual constituents, which may partly account for its relaxing effects when taken orally. Lavender oil has potentiated expression of GABA-A receptors in cell culture;40 it has shown spasmolytic activity on guinea pig ileum;41 linalool, a main active ingredient of lavender oil, has been shown in animals to inhibit glutamate binding in the brain;42 linalool has also inhibited acetylcholine release and influenced ionic conductance in neurons;43 linalyl acetate is described to exert a relaxing effect.44 Lavender oil has reduced dose-dependently spontaneous motility and caffeine-induced hyperactivity of mice.45
 
Lavender oil aromatherapy has been shown to be effective in the management of anxiety and depression and small and medium-sized controlled and uncontrolled clinical trials. 
 
Clinical Efficacy of Lavender

Lavender Aromatherapy
Much prior research on lavender has focused on the administration of lavender via an olfactory route. The anxiolytic activity of lavender olfaction has been demonstrated in several small and medium-sized clinical trials.46-53 The efficacy of aromatherapy of lavender is thought to be due to the psychological effects of the fragrance combined with physiological effects of volatile oils in the limbic system.54 These calming effects of lavender oil and single constituents may be the origin of the traditional use of lavender. Lavender oil olfaction has been shown to decrease anxiety, as measured by the Hamilton rating scale,51 and can increase mood scores.55The following are selected examples of clinical trials on lavender aromatherapy:
Dunn and colleagues demonstrated anxiolytic activity of lavender oil aromatherapy in patients in intensive care units. Subjects received at least 1 session of aromatherapy with 1% lavender essential oil. Significant anxiolytic effects were noted in the 1st treatment, though 2nd and 3rd treatments did not appear to be as effective.47
Alaoui-Ismaili and colleagues found that the aroma of lavender is considered by subjects to be very pleasant and is correlated with changes in the autonomic nervous system.56
Tysoe and colleagues conducted a study of lavender oil in burner use on staff mood and stress in a hospital setting. A significant number of respondents (85%) believed that lavender aroma improved the work environment following the use of the lavender oil burners.57
Diego and colleagues demonstrated that people receiving lavender oil (10%) olfaction for 3 minutes felt significantly more relaxed and had decreased anxiety scores, improved mood and increased scores of alpha power on EEG (an indicator of alertness), and increased speed of mathematical calculations.58
Lewith and colleagues investigated the effects of lavender aromatherapy on depressed mood and anxiety in female patients being treated with chronic hemodialysis.59 The effects of aromatherapy were measured using the Hamilton rating scale for depression (HAMD) and the Hamilton rating scale for anxiety (HAMA). Lavender aroma significantly decreased the mean scores of HAMA, suggesting an effective, noninvasive means for the treatment of anxiety in hemodialysis patients.
Lavender aromatherapy, with or without massage, may also reduce the perception of pain and the need for conventional analgesics in adults and children, though more rigorously controlled trials are needed.60
 
Oral Lavender Supplementation: Anxiety
Lavender oil has also been shown to be effective via the oral route. Several clinical studies have demonstrated the benefit of lavender extracts in comparison to reference or placebo in decreasing symptoms of anxiety and depression.
 
Orally administered lavender capsules (100 mL and 200 mL) were tested in 97 healthy subjects in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.61 Film clips were used to elicit anxiety. Measures included anxiety, State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), mood, positive and negative affect scale (PANAS), heart rate (HR), galvanic skin response (GSR), and heart rate variation (HRV). After baseline measurements, capsules were administered. Participants viewed a neutral film clip, then an anxiety-provoking and light-hearted recovery film clip. For the 200 mL lavender dose during the neutral film clip, there was a trend toward reduced state anxiety, GSR, and HR and increased HRV. In the anxiety-eliciting film, lavender was mildly beneficial in females but only on HRV measures. In males, sympathetic arousal increased during the anxiety film (GSR). HRV significantly increased at 200 mL during all 3 film clips in females, suggesting decreased anxiety. The authors concluded that lavender has anxiolytic effects in humans under conditions of low anxiety, but they were unable to draw conclusions about high anxiety or clinical anxiety disorders.
 
Kasper and colleagues investigated the efficacy of lavender oil (WS® 1265) for AD NOS in comparison to placebo in a primary care setting.62 This study was the first double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to document the anxiolytic efficacy of orally administered lavender essential oil for anxiety disorder. In 27 general and psychiatric practices, 221 adults reporting unspecified anxiety were randomized to receive 80 mg per day of lavender oil or placebo for 10 weeks with office visits every 2 weeks. A baseline HAMA total score of ?18 and a total score > 5 for the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were required. The primary outcome measures were HAMA and PSQI total score decrease between baseline and week 10. Secondary efficacy measures included the Clinical Global Impressions scale, the Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale, and the SF-36 (Quality of Life) Health Survey Questionnaire. Subjects taking WS® 1265 showed a total score decrease by 16.0 ± 8.3 points (mean± SD, 59.3%) for the HAMA and by 5.5 ± 4.4 points (44.7%) for the PSQI compared to 9.5 ± 9.1 (35.4%) and 3.8 ± 4.1 points (30.9%) in the placebo group (P<0.01 one-sided, intention to treat). WS® 1265 was superior to placebo regarding the percentage of responders (76.9 vs. 49.1%, P<0.001) and remitters (60.6 vs. 42.6%, P=0.009). Adverse effects were uncommon and included dyspepsia (4.7% in the treatment group vs 1.8% in the placebo group) and eructation (3.7% in the treatment group and none in the placebo group). Lavender had a significant beneficial influence on quality and duration of sleep and improved general mental and physical health without causing any unwanted sedative or other drug-like effects. Researchers concluded that the lavender oil “is both efficacious and safe” for AD NOS and predicted that it could emerge as “a gentle therapeutic alternative in the treatment of anxiety.”
 
Woelk and Schlaefke conducted a multicenter, double-blind, randomized Phase III study of lavender oil (Silexan, WS® 1265, Dr. Willmar Schwabe, Karlsruhe, Germany) in comparison to low-dose lorazepam for patients with GAD.63 The Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA-total score) was used as the primary objective measurement to monitor changes in the level of tension and relaxation beginning at baseline through week 6 of the trial. Additional data were collected using the Self-rating Anxiety Scale, Penn State Worry Questionnaire, SF-36 Health Survey Questionnaire, and specific sections of the Clinical Global Impressions of severity disorder. A total of 77 female (76.6%) and male (23.4%) subjects 18–65 years of age were randomized into groups. Participants were eligible for the study if they met the inclusion criteria of a HAMA-total score of greater than 18, as well as a score equal to or greater than 2 on both anxious mood and tension items. Secondary objective outcome data were obtained from responder and remission rate comparisons made between the 2 treatment groups. In order for a participant to qualify as having a significant response to treatment they were required to have a reduction of at least 50% in the HAMA-total score during the 6-week trial. Remission was defined as a HAMA-total score of less than 10 points at the end of the 6-week study. The results demonstrated that WS® 1265 was comparable to the conventional approach in its ability to promote relaxation.* The HAMA-total score decreased by 45% in the WS® 1265 group and decreased by 46% in the conventional group. At the conclusion of the 6-week intervention, 40% of the WS® 1265 group and 27% of the conventional treatment group were determined to be in remission. The WS® 1265 group had a response rate of 52.5% compared to only 40.5% taking the conventional option. Adverse effects in the WS® 1265 group were uncommon and included nausea (5.2%), eructation (3.9%), and dyspepsia (2.6%).
 
Oral Lavender Supplementation: Depression
In a 4-week randomized, double-blind study, researchers compared the efficacy of a tincture of L. angustifolia with imipramine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression.64 Forty-five adult outpatients who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) for major depression based on the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV participated in the trial. Patients had a baseline Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD) score of at least 18. In this study, patients were randomly assigned to receive lavender tincture (1:5 in 50% alcohol ) 60 drops per day plus placebo tablet (Group A), imipramine tablet 100 mg per day plus placebo drops (Group B), or imipramine tablet 100 mg/per day plus lavender tincture 60 drops per day (Group C) for 4 weeks. Lavender tincture at this concentration was found to be less effective than imipramine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression (P=0.001). In the imipramine group, anticholinergic effects such as dry mouth and urinary retention were observed, whereas headache was observed more in the lavender tincture group. The combination of imipramine and lavender tincture was more effective than imipramine alone (P<0.0001). Researchers concluded that lavender tincture may be of therapeutic benefit in the management of mild to moderate depression, but only as adjuvant therapy.
 
In an open-label Phase II trial, Stange and colleagues administered 80 mg per day of lavender oil (Silexan, WS® 1265, Dr. Willmar Schwabe Pharmaceuticals, Karlsruhe, Germany) to 50 patients with neurasthenia, post-traumatic stress disorder, or somatization disorder for 3 months.65 Using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, von Zerssen’s Depression Scale, and a sleep diary for assessment, researchers found that state and trait anxiety as well as depression were reduced and efficiency of sleep was improved significantly. Controlled clinical trials are needed to confirm whether oral lavender oil is an effective treatment for depression.
 
Comparison to Kava, Benzodiazepines, and Antidepressants
To date, lavender has been compared to benzodiazepines,66 paroxetine (an SSRI antidepressant), and imipramine (a tricyclic antidepressant). It has also been compared to kava.67 Kava was perhaps the best studied botanical anxiolytic and was the leading product in this category until concerns about liver toxicity prompted many companies to discontinue offering it. In a 6-week study, kava was found to produce a mean reduction of the HAMA score of 10 points, whereas the mean reduction of that score from lavender (WS® 1265) has ranged from 11.3 points (6-week study)63 to 16 points (10-week study),62 suggesting comparable to superior efficacy. Pharmaceutical anxiolytics (primarily benzodiazepines) typically produce HAMA reductions in the range of 11 to 15.3, suggesting comparable to superior efficacy of WS® 1265 without the attendant side effects.62,63,68,69
 
The Hamilton Anxiety Scale is used in most clinical trials of anxiolytic agents for GAD. In the study by Kasper and colleagues,62 a diagnosis of AD NOS was used instead, but the HAMA scale was still employed and baseline HAMA scores were similar across all trials (ie, > 18). At first glance it might appear that patients with AD NOS responded better to lavender than patients with GAD. However, the study of lavender for GAD was of shorter duration (6 weeks) than the study of lavender for AD NOS. In the longer study, the mean HAMA score change at the 6-week mark was nearly identical to that seen at the end of the 6-week study of patients with GAD. Therefore, the additional month of therapy at the same dose is likely to have had additional effects.
 
In a meta-analysis of 21 double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in patients with GAD, Hidalgo and colleagues determined average effect sizes for HAMA total score change versus baseline of 0.50 for pregabalin, 0.45 for hydroxyzine, 0.42 for venlafaxine XR, 0.38 for benzodiazepines, 0.35 for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and 0.17 for buspirone.70 The effect size of lavender (WS® 1265) was computed to be 0.75 in AD NOS. The significant reduction of anxiety-related symptoms in patients treated with lavender was not only evident in the judgment of the investigators, but was also perceived by the study participants subjectively according to the results of the self-rating questionnaire.
 
The effects of lavender extract (WS® 1265) and other anxiolytic agents on HAMA scores are compared in Table 1 below. They are expressed as a mean HAMA score change.
 
TABLE 1
  DoseLength of
study
DiagnosisHAMA score
at baseline
Mean HAMA
score change
Lavender (WS®
1265)62
80 mg/d10 weeksAD NOS26.8-16
Lavender (WS®
1265)63
80 mg/d6 weeksGAD25-11.3
Lorazepam630.5 mg/d6 weeksGAD25-11.6
Bromazepam713 mg TID6 weeksGAD28.07-13
Oxazepam705 mg TID6 weeksGAD28.24-11
Kava(WS®
1490)70
100 mg (70%
kavalactones) TID
6 weeksGAD28.35-10
Escitalopram7210-20 mg/d24 weeksGAD23.7-15.3
Paroxetine71 20-50 mg/d 24 weeksGAD 23.4-13.3
Duloxetine6860-120 mg/d9-10 weeksGAD -11.1
 
Based upon the available data, it appears that therapy with at least some lavender extracts is comparable or superior in efficacy to many commonly prescribed anxiolytics, including benzodiazepines, SSRIs, and kava. The adverse event profile for lavender is the least severe of these options by a wide margin. In particular, benzodiazepines are well-known for their significant habit-forming potential, a drawback not found with lavender preparations.
 
Adverse Events, Safety and Dosage
The German Commission E Monographs list no contraindications, side effects, or drug interactions for lavender flower. Internal use of the volatile oil of lavender oil has been reported to cause nausea73 and drowsiness after excessive intake.74 This effect may be dose- and/or quality-dependent, as the occurrence of nausea was higher in the placebo group than in the treatment group (WS® 1265) in the largest and longest controlled clinical trial of lavender oil supplementation.62
In a brief report, Henley and colleagues described 3 cases of otherwise healthy boys with prepubertal gynecomastia,75 all of whom had normal serum concentrations of endogenous steroids and none of whom had been exposed to any known exogenous endocrine disruptors. The repeated topical application of 1 or more over-the-counter personal care products that contained lavender oil or lavender oil and tea tree oil was documented for all 3 patients. The authors performed in vitro tests that suggested weak estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities of the oils that may have contributed to an imbalance in estrogen and androgen pathway signaling.
 
The effective dose of lavender oil is suggested to be 20–80 mg per day.36 The best-designed clinical studies with the most robust combination of efficacy and tolerability used 80 mg per day of a well-defined lavender oil. No serious adverse events during either of the published studies on this extract were reported.
 
Conclusion
Lavender oil aromatherapy has been shown to be effective in the management of anxiety and depression and small and medium-sized controlled and uncontrolled clinical trials. The best validated use of lavender as an anxiolytic agent is oral supplementation of 80 mg per day of a high-quality, well-defined lavender essential oil that has a demonstrated efficacy comparable or superior to benzodiazepines and kava, with a super safety profile.
 
Conflict of Interest Statement
Jeremy Appleton, ND, is an employee of Schwabe North America, a subsidiary of Dr. Willmar Schwabe GmbH & Co, which manufactures and distributes WS® 1265, discussed in this article.

References
1. Wittchen HU, Hoyer J. Generalized anxiety disorder: nature and course. J Clin Psychiatry. 2001;62 Suppl 11:15-19; discussion 20-21.
2. Ohayon MM, Shapiro CM, Kennedy SH. Differentiating DSM-IV anxiety and depressive disorders in the general population: comorbidity and treatment consequences. Can J Psychiatry 2000;45:166-172.
3. Lawrence AE, Brown TA. Differentiating generalized anxiety disorder from anxiety disorder not otherwise specified. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2009;197:879-886.
4. Bandelow B, Zohar J, Hollander E, et al. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of anxiety, obsessive-compulsive and posttraumatic stress disorders-first revision. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2008;9:248-312.
5. Longo LP, Johnson B. Addiction: Part I. Benzodiazepines—side effects, abuse risk and alternatives. Am Fam Physician. 2000;61:2121-2128.
6. Preskorn SH . Comparison of the tolerability of bupropion, fluoxetine, imipramine, nefazodone, paroxetine, sertraline, and venlafaxine. J Clin Psychiatry. 5;56 (Suppl 6):12-21.
7. Trindade E, Menon D, Topfer LA, Coloma C. Adverse effects associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants: a meta-analysis. CMAJ. 1998;159:1245-1252.
8. Andrews G, Carter GL. What people say about their general practitioners’ treatment of anxiety and depression. Med J Aust. 2001;175 (Suppl):S48-S51.
9. Piscopo G. Kava kava: Gift of the islands. Alt Med Rev. 1997;2:355-381 [review].
10. Lehmann EE, Kinzler J, Friedmann J. Efficacy of a special kava extract (Piper methysticum) in patients with states of anxiety, tension and excitedness of non-mental origin. A double-blind placebo-controlled study of four weeks treatment. Phytomedicine 1996;3:113-119.
11. Volz HP, Kieser M. Kava-kava extract WS 1490 versus placebo in anxiety disorders. A randomized placebo-controlled 25-week outpatient trial. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1997;30:1-5.
12. Warnecke G. Psychosomatic dysfunctions in the female climacteric. Clinical effectiveness and tolerance of kava extract WS 1490. Fortschr Med. 1991;119-122 [in German].
13. De Leo V, la Marca A, Morgante G, et al. Evaluation of combining kava extract with hormone replacement therapy in the treatment of postmenopausal anxiety. Maturitas. 2001;39:185-188.
14. Harrer G, Sommer H. Treatment of mild/moderate depressions with Hypericum. Phytomedicine. 1994;1:3-8.
15. Ernst E. St. John’s wort, an antidepressant? A systemic, criteria-based review. Phytomedicine. 1995;2:67-71.
16. Kasper S, Anghelescu IG, Szegedi A, et al. Superior efficacy of St John's wort extract WS 5570 compared to placebo in patients with major depression: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center trial [ISRCTN77277298]. BMC Med. 2006;4:14.
17. Vorbach EU, Arnoldt KH, Hübner WD. Efficacy and tolerability of St. John’s wort extract LI 160 versus imipramine in patients with severe depressive episodes according to ICD-10. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1997;30(suppl):81-85.
18. Vorbach EU, Hübner WD, Arnoldt KH. Effectiveness and tolerance of the Hypericum extract LI 160 in comparison with imipramine: Randomized double-blind study with 135 outpatients. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 1994;7(suppl):S19-23.
19. Philipp M, Kohnen R, Hiller KO. Hypericum extract versus imipramine or placebo in patients with moderate depression: randomized multicenter study of treatment for eight weeks. BMJ. 1999;319:1534-1539.
20. Schrader D. Equivalence of St. John’s wort extract (ZE 117) and fluoxetine: a randomized, controlled study in mild–moderate depression. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2000;15:61-68.
21. Woelk H. Comparison of St. John’s wort and imipramine for treating depression: Randomized controlled trial. BMJ. 2000;321:536-569.
22. Wheatley D. LI 160, an extract of St. John’s wort versus amitriptyline in mildly to moderately depressed outpatients—controlled six week clinical trial. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1997;30(suppl):77-80.
23. Volz HP, Laux P. Potential treatment for subthreshold and mild depression: a comparison of St. John’s wort extracts and fluoxetine. Compr Psychiatry. 2000;41(2 Suppl 1):133-137 [review].
24. Harrer G, Hübner WD, Poduzweit H. Effectiveness and tolerance of the Hypericum extract LI 160 compared to maprotiline: A multicenter double-blind study. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 1994;7(suppl 1);S24-S28.
25. Harrer G, Schmidt U, Kuhn U, Biller A. Comparison of equivalence between the St. John’s wort extract LoHyp-57 and fluoxetine. Arzneimittelforschung. 1999;49:289-296.
26. Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group. Effect of Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort) in major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002;287:1807-1814.
27. Shelton RC, Keller MB, Gelenberg A, et al. Effectiveness of St John's wort in major depression: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2001;285:1978-1986.
28. Stafford N. Germany may ban kava kava herbal supplement. Reuters, Nov. 19, 2001.
29. Escher M, Desmeules J, Giostra E, Mentha G. Hepatitis associated with kava, a herbal remedy for anxiety. BMJ. 2001;322:139.
30. Kraft M, Spahn TW, Menzel J, et al. Fulminant liver failure after administration of the herbal antidepressant Kava-Kava. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2001;126:970-972 [in German].
31. Strahl S, Ehret V, Dahm HH, Maier KP. Necrotizing hepatitis after taking herbal remedies. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1998;123:1410-1414 [in German].
32. Russmann S, Lauterburg BH, Helbling A. Kava hepatotoxicity. Ann Intern Med. 2001;135:68-69 [letter].
33. Markowitz JS, Donovan JL, DeVane CL, et al. Effect of St John's wort on drug metabolism by induction of cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme. JAMA. 2003;290:1500-1504.
34. Greive M. A Modern Herbal. New York, Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1931.
35. Basch E, Foppa I, Liebowitz R, et al. Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Miller). J Herb Pharmacother. 2004;4(2):63-78.
36. Blumenthal M, ed. Lavender flower. In: The Complete German Commission E Monographs. Austin, TX, American Botanical Council, 1998:159-160.
37. Cavanagh HMA, Wilkinson JM. Biological activities of lavender essential oil. Phytother Res 2002;16;301-308.
38. European Pharmacopoeia, 6th edition, 2008.
39. [No author listed]. Lavadulae Flos. Lavandulae Aetheroleum. (Lavender Flower. Lavender Oil). ESCOP Monographs. The Scientific Foundation for Herbal Medicine Products, 2nd ed. Supplement. New York and Stuttgart, Thieme, 2009:147-156.
40. Aoshima H, Hamamoto K. Potentiation of GABAA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes by perfume and phytoncid. Biosc Biotechnol Biochem 1999; 63:743-748.
41. Lis-Balchin M, Hart S. Studies on the mode of action of the essential oil of lavender. Phytother Res 1999;13(6):540-542.
42. Elizabetsky E, al Mje. Effects of linalool on glutamatergic system in the rat cerebral cortex. Neurochem Res 1995;20:461-465.
43. Re L, Barocci S, Sonnino S, et al. Linalool modifies the nicotinic receptor-ion channel kinetics at the mouse neuromuscular junction. Pharmacol Res. 2000;42:177-182.
44. Tisserand R, Balacs T. Essential oil safety. A Guide for Health Care Professionals. Harcourt 1999: Glasgow.
45. Buchbauer G, Jirovetz L, Jager W, Dietrich H, Plank C. Aromatherapy: evidence for sedative effects of the essential oil of lavender after inhalation. Z Naturforsch C. 1991; 46:1067-1072.
46. Buckle J. Aromatherapy. Nurs Times. 1993;89:32-35.
47. Dunn C, Sleep J, Collett D. Sensing an improvement: An experimental study to evaluate the use of aromatherapy massage and periods of rest in an intensive care unit. J Adv Nursing. 1995;21:34-40.
48. Hardy M, Kirk-Smith MD, Stretch DD. Replacement of drug treatment for insomnia by ambient odour. Lancet 1995;346:701.
49. Hudson R. Nursing: the value of lavender for rest and activity in the elderly patient. Complement Ther Med. 1996;4:52-57.
50. Wolfe N, Herzberg J. Can aromatherapy oils promote sleep in severely demented patients? Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1996;11:926-927.
51. Itai T, Amayasu H, Kuribayashi M et al. Psychological effects of aromatherapy on chronic haemodialysis patients. Psychiatry & Clin Neurosci. 2000;54:393-397.
52. Louis M, Kowalski SD. Use of aromatherapy with hospice patients to decrease pain, anxiety, and depression and to promote an increased sense of well-being. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2002;19:381-386.
53. Lehrner J, Marwinski G, Lehr S, Johren P, Deecke L. Ambient odors of orange and lavender reduce anxiety and improve mood in a dental office. Physiol Behav. 2005;86:92-95.
54. Xu F, Uebaba K, Ogawa H, et al. Pharmaco-physio-psychologic effect of Ayurvedic oil-dripping treatment using an essential oil from Lavendula angustifolia. J Altern Complement Med. 2008;14(8):947-956.
55. Walsh E, Wilson C. Complementary therapies in long-stay neurology in-patients settings. Nurs Stand. 1999;13:32-35.
56. Alaoui-Ismaïli O, Vernet-Maury E, Dittmar A, Delhomme G, Chanel J. Odor hedonics: connection with emotional response estimated by autonomic parameters. Chem Senses. 1997;22(3):237-248.
57. Tysoe P. The effect on staff of essential oil burners in extended care settings. Int J Nurs Pract. 2000;6:110-112.
58. Diego MA, Jones NA, Field T, et al. Aromatherapy positively affects mood, EEG patterns of alertness, and math computations. Int J Neurosci. 1998;96:217-224.
59. Lewith GT, Godfrey AD, Prescott P. A single-blind, randomized pilot study evaluating the aroma of Lavandula angustifolia, as a treatment for mild insomnia. J Altern Complement Med. 2005;11(4):631-637.
60. Buckle J. Use of aromatherapy as a complementary treatment for chronic pain. Altern Ther Health Med 1999;5:42-51.
61. Bradley BF, Brown SL, Chu S, Lea RW. Effects of orally administered lavender essential oil on responses to anxiety-provoking film clips. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2009;24(4):319-330.
62. Kasper S, Gastpar M, Müller WE, et al. Silexan, an orally administered Lavandula oil preparation, is effective in the treatment of 'subsyndromal' anxiety disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2010;25:277-287.
63. Woelk H, Schlaefke S. A multi-center, double-blind, randomised study of the Lavender oil preparation Silexan in comparison to Lorazepam for generalized anxiety disorder. Phytomedicine. 2010;17:94-99.
64. Azkhondzadeh S, Kashani L, Fotouhi A, et al. Comparison of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. tincture and imipramine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a double-blind, randomized trial. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2003;27(1):123-127.
65. Stange R, Schaper S, Uehleke B, Dienel A, Schlaefke S. Phase II study on the effects of lavender oil (Silexan) in patients with neurasthenia, posttraumatic stress disorders or somatisation disorder. Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies. 2007;12:46.
66. Tisserand R. Lavender beats benzodiazepines. Int J Aromather. 1988;1:1-2.
67. Woelk H, Kapoula O, Lehr S, Schröter K, Weinholz P. A comparison of Kava special extract WS 1490 and benzodiazepines in patients with anxiety. Healthnotes Review. 1999;6:265-270.
68. Bielski RJ, Bose A, Chang CC. A double-blind comparison of escitalopram and paroxetine in the long-term treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2005;17(2):65-69.
69. Allgulander C, Hartford J, Russell J, et al. Pharmacotherapy of generalized anxiety disorder: results of duloxetine treatment from a pooled analysis of three clinical trials. Curr Med Res Opin. 2007;23(6):1245-1252.
70. Hidalgo RB, Tupler LA, Davidson JR. An effect-size analysis of pharmacologic treatments for generalized anxiety disorder. J Psychopharmacol. 2007;21:864-872.
71. Woelk H, Kapoula O, Lehr S, Schröter K, Weinholz P. A comparison of Kava special extract WS 1490 and benzodiazepines in patients with anxiety. Healthnotes Review. 1999;6:265-270.
72. Bielski RJ, Bose A, Chang CC. A double-blind comparison of escitalopram and paroxetine in the long-term treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2005;17(2):65-69.
73. Atanassova-Shopova S, Roussinov KS. On certain central neurotropic effects of lavender essential oil. Izv Inst Fiziol. 1970;13;69-77.
74. Leung AY, Foster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1996:339-342.
75. Henley DK, Lipson N, Korach KS, Bloch CA. Prepubertal gynecomastia linked to lavender and tea tree oils. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:479-485.








Comments