Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

Venkel

Algemene en botanische informatie

Familie: Schermbloemigen (Apiaceae of Umbelliferae).

Naam: Venkel (Nl.), Fenouil (Fr.), Fenckel (D.), Fennel (E.).
Volksnaam: Vennekool, Windzaad.
Naamverklaring: Venkel is afgeleid van het woord 'klein koren'.
Soorten:
  • Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum - Wilde venkel syn. Foeniculum capilla­ceum GILIBERT.
  • Foeniculum vulgare ssp. dulce - Zoete venkel - Knolvenkel o.a. var. Zefa fino.
Ondersoorten:
  • F. vulgare - Kleine, donkergekleurd, scherp sma­k­end.
  • F. dulce - Smalle, lange bleke, zoet smakend.
  • F. azoricum - Onaangenaam smakend, alleen gekweekt; jong blad wordt als specerij gebruikt.
Teelt, ecologie: Tweejarige of meerjarige plant met penwortel, winterhard in goed gedraineerde grond. Vermeerderen door zaaien.

Materia Medica, gebruikte delen van Foeniculum

Foeniculi fructus, de vruchten van Foeniculum vulgare MILLER var. vulgare (DAB IX) en ook Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce (F. Helv. VII ÖAB).

Oogst: De vruchten worden geoogst als ze geelachtig worden, net voor het rijp worden van het zaad.
Oogst augustus 1ste jaar Kammfenckel, 2de jaar Strohfenc­kel.
Drogen: Hele zaadschermen in bosjes opgehangen.
Bewaren: In goed gesloten potten, buiten invloed van licht en lucht.
Beschrijving: Elliptische, tot 10 mm lang op 3 mm breed, rechtstan­dig of lichtelijk gebogen zaden. Op dwarsdoorsnee 6 in een kring geplaatste oliegan­gen.
Kleur: groenachtig of geelachtig met rechte uitspringende ribben.
Geur: zacht, zoet.
Smaak: anijsachtig.

Samenstelling, inhoudstoffen van Foeniculum

** Etherische olie 2-6 % volgens DAB min. 4 %:
- 70 % trans-anethol = zoet,
- 3 % cis-anethol,
- 15 % d-Fenchon = bitter en kamferachtig. Bewaren kan oliegehalte verhogen. (Duits geneeskruiden congres 1936?)
* Vette olie 12-28 % o.a. linolzuur, oliezuur.
* Glyceriden 35 %.
* Stigmasterin.
* Umbelliferone (derivaat van coumarine).
* Suikers 4-5 %.
* Eiwitten 20 %.
* Oestrogene stoffen dianethol en dianisoin (wel of niet aanwezig?)

Farmacologie, algemene fysiologische werking van Foeniculum

Fructus (Vrucht, Zaad)
** Carminativum
** Spasmolyticum door zijn prikkelende en ontspannende werking op de darmmus­cula­tuur (neuromuscu­lair) en Dilaterend effect op de capillairen
* Tonicum voor maag en darmen (darmmusculatuur).
* Expectorantium. Door secretomotorisch effect op het epitheelweefsel van de ademha­lingsorganen.
* Galactagogum (oestrogeenwerking, vooral etherische olie)
* Emmenagogum (Valnet)
* Remmend op schildklierwerking (Fauron)
* Antiseptisch als ophtalmicum (uitwendig)
Nota: Relatie met Anijs, Dille en Karwij.

Radix (Wortel)
* Meer diureticum (Leclerc, Valnet)

Indicatie, medisch gebruik van Foeniculum

Maag darmstelsel
** Meteorisme, aerofagie, kramp, opgezetheid, dyspepsie. 'Versoet de smerte en krimphinghe des buyks' (Dodoens)
* Atonie van de spijsverteringsorganen samen met  bitterstofkruiden (Angelica, Gentiana...)
* Diarree en constipatie vooral in laxeermengsels om o.a. krampen te vermijden, samen met Cassia of Rheum
* Colitis, enteritis. R./ e.o. Carvi + e.o. Coriandrum + e.o. Foeniculum + e.o. Satureja. Ber.: 0,03 g elk per capsule. Dos.: 3 x d. 1 capsule.

Luchtwegen
* Hoest met slijm, heesheid. Hoestsiroop + tijm + anijs
* Astma - emfyseem. R./ Zie receptuur

Urinewegen (Foeniculi radix)
** Oligurie, blaasstenen.
* Jicht.
* Vetzucht, Vermageringskuur

Hormonaal
** Melktekort bij borstvoeding + Anijs en Zoethout
* Oligomenorroe + hormonaalplanten

Ogen
* Rode, vermoeide ogen,   blepharitis, conjonctivitis:  R./ Foenic. fr. 20 g  als infuus 15 ' in 300 ml water: kompres en spoeling

Andere toepassingen
* Doofheid (e.o. in oren verdampen?)

Receptuur en bereidingswijzen van Foeniculum

Foeniculi Fructus (Venkelvrucht) 1 koffielepel = 3,5 g.
  • Infuus: 10-15'/1 koffielepel kopje (150 ml)/ 3 x d.
  • Poeder: 1-4 g/d. Theebuiltjes zijn meestal kwalitatief slecht.
  • Pulvis carminativae: 3 x d.aags 1 mespuntje.
  • Etherische olie: 1-2 dr. 3 x daags in honing, op suiker of in olie
Nota's:
- Liefst ge­kneusd zaad gebruiken; voor het vrijkomen van de e.o.
- Als maagthee ongezoet gebruiken
- Als expectorans zoeten met honing. Warm, slokgewijs drinken

Species: Species carminativae DAB VI.
  • Angelicae rad. 20
  • Coriandri fr. 20
  • Carvi fr. 20
  • Foeniculi fr. 20
  • Anisi fr. 20                     Opm.: Species carminativae liefst warm drinken na de maaltijd.
Vierzadenthee
  • Carvi fr. 25
  • Foeniculi fr. 25
  • Matr. Cham. fl. 25
  • Menthae fol. 25
Species laxantes B. F. IV.
  • Anisi fr. 10
  • Foeniculi fr. 10
  • Glycyrrhizae rad. 10
  • Sennae fol. 60
Pulvis galactopaeus
  • Calc. Phosph. 10
  • Pulv. Foenic. fr. 22,5
  • Pulv. Anisi fr. 22,5
  • Saccharose 45      Dos.: 3 x d. 1/4 koffiel. na maaltijd
Ander recept (Moatti)
R./ Menthae fol. 40 mg
Foeniculi fr. 80 mg Ind.: astma, emfyseem.
Glycyrrhizae rad. 100 mg Dos.: = voor 1 capsule,
Fumariae herb. 150 mg 3 x d. 2 caps.

Vinum R./
  • Witte wijn 1 l 
  • Venkelzaad 20-50 g gekneusd venkelzaad

Foeniculi radix (Venkelwortel)
5-wortelsiroop R./
  • Rusci rad.
  • Levistici rad. Ber.: mac. 8 uur, 50g op 1l. water
  • Petroselini rad. Uitzeven en met gelijke delen suiker opwarmen tot siroop
  • Foeniculi rad. Dos.: 3 x daags 1 eetlepel
  • Asperagus rad.
    Ind.: diureticum, bij oedeem
Geschiedenis en wetenschappelijk onderzoek van Foeniculum
  • Egypte.
  • Papyrus Ebers - 1600 v. Chr.: tegen gasvorming?
  • Plinius de Oude - 23-79: Naturalis Historia. Slechte spijs­ver­te­ring, diarree, zogvormend.
  • Walahfrid Strabo (abt) - 745: Hortulus leerdicht.... 'nutzen soll er den Augen, wenn Schatten sie trübend befallen, und sein Same, mit Milch einer Mutterziege getrunken'...
  • Ook tegen gasvorming en verstopping.
  • Dioscorides: '... voor hen die druppel voor druppel plassen'...
  • Karel de Grote: Capitulare de Vilis.
  • Fuchsius: Neu Kreuterbuch - 1643.
  • Tabernaemontanus - 1520-1590: geeft zelfs 200 recepten.
  • Adamus Lonicerus - 1669: vermeldt alle ook nu nog bekende toepassingen, maar ook om bijen bij mekaar te houden.
  • Nostradamus: voor mooie ogen en scherpe blik.
Enkele wetenschappelijke onderzoeken:
  • Tanira e.a. - Pharmacological and Toxicological Investigations on F. vulgare dried fruit Extract in Experimental Animals. Phytotherapy Research, 10: diuretisch, koortswerend, pijnstillend, bevordert galsecretie
  • Albert - Puello M. - Fennel ans anise as estrogenic agents. J. Ethnopharmavol. Dec. 1980
  • Wichtl M.: Kommentar zum DAB VIII. Geeft een samenvatting van het weten­schappelijk onderzoek. H. Böhme en K. Hartle: Deutsches Arzneibuch 8, Ausg. - 1978. Wissenschaftl. Ver­slagsges. mbH Stuttgart.
  • Czygan F.: Z. für Phytotherapie 8/82 (1987): overzicht.
  • VMBA (Veterinary Botanical Medicine Association): Foeniculum monografie.
References
  • Alexandrovich I, Rakovitskaya O, Kolmo E, et al. The effect of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seed oil emulsion in infantile colic: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Altern Ther Health Med 2003;9(4):58-61. View Abstract The use of fennel oil emulsion eliminated colic, according to the Wessel criteria, in 65% (40/62) of infants in the treatment group, which was significantly better than 23.7% (14/59) of infants in the control group (P < 0.01). There was a significant improvement of colic in the treatment group compared with the control group [Absolute Risk Reduction (ARR) = 41% (95% CI 25 to 57), Number Needed to Treat (NNT) = 2 (95% CI 2 to 4)]. Side effects were not reported for infants in either group during the trial.
  • Asero R. Fennel, cucumber, and melon allergy successfully treated with pollen-specific injection immunotherapy. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2000;84(4):460-462. View Abstract
  • Cwikla C, Schmidt K, Matthias A, et al. Investigations into the antibacterial activities of phytotherapeutics against Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni. Phytother Res 2010;24(5):649-656. View Abstract
  • De Vincenzi M, Silano M, Maialetti F, et al. Constituents of aromatic plants: II. Estragole. Fitoterapia 2000;71(6):725-729. View Abstract
  • Dres C, Johnson C, Loda L. Enzymes and erythema reduction. SPC 1999;71(313):33.
  • Haze S, Sakai K, Gozu Y. Effects of fragrance inhalation on sympathetic activity in normal adults. Jpn J Pharmacol 2002;90(3):247-253. View Abstract
  • Ilic S, Duric P, Grego E. Salmonella Senftenberg infections and fennel seed tea. Serbia Emerg Infect Dis 2010;16(5):893-895. View Abstract
  • Javidnia K, Dastgheib L, Mohammadi Samani S, et al. Antihirsutism activity of Fennel (fruits of Foeniculum vulgare) extract. A double-blind placebo controlled study. Phytomedicine 2003;10(6-7):455-8. View Abstract
  • Miguel MG, Cruz C, Faleiro L, et al. Foeniculum vulgare essential oils: chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Nat Prod Commun 2010;5(2):319-328. View Abstract
  • Modaress Nejad V, Asadipour, M. Comparison of the effectiveness of fennel and mefenamic acid on pain intensity in dysmenorrhoea. East Mediterr Health J 2006;12(3-4):423-427. View Abstract
  • Muhlbauer RC, Lozano A, Reinli A, et al. Various selected vegetables, fruits, mushrooms and red wine residue inhibit bone resorption in rats. J Nutr 2003;133(11):3592-3597. View Abstract
  • Namavar JB, Tartifizadeh A, Khabnadideh S. Comparison of fennel and mefenamic acid for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2003;80(2):153-157. View Abstract
  • Picon PD, Picon RV, Costa AF, et al. Randomized clinical trial of a phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, and Cassia augustifolia for chronic constipation. BMC Complement Altern Med 2010;10:17. View Abstract
  • Saleh M, Hashem F, Grace M. Volatile oil of Egyptian sween fennel (Foeniculum vulgare, var. dulce. Alef.) and its effects on isolated smooth muscles. Pharm Pharmacol Lett 2005;6(1):5-7.
  • Zhu M, Wong PY, Li RC. Effect of oral administration of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) on ciprofloxacin absorption and disposition in the rat. J Pharm Pharmacol 1999;51(12):1391-1396. View Abstract

Cwikla C, Schmidt K, Matthias A, et al. Investigations into the antibacterial activities of phytotherapeutics against Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni. Phytother Res 2010;24(5):649-656. View Abstract
The prevalence of gastric diseases is increasing with H. pylori, the causative agent of acute and chronic gastritis, being a major predisposing factor for peptic ulcer disease and gastric carcinoma. C. jejuni is the most common cause of enteric infections, particularly among children, resulting in severe diarrhoea. Increasing drug resistance of these bacteria against standard antibiotics, and the more widespread use of herbal medicines, favours investigations into additional anti-Helicobacter and anti-Campylobacter effects of phytotherapeutics that are already used for their beneficial effects on bowel and digestive functions. Twenty-one hydroethanol herbal extracts and four essential oils were screened for antibacterial activity using a modification of a previously described micro-dilution assay and compared with the inhibitory effects of antibiotics. The herbal extracts showing the highest growth inhibition of C. jejuni were Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Zingiber officinale, Salvia officinalis, Foeniculum vulgare and Silybum marianum. Agrimonia eupatoria, Hydrastis canadensis, Filipendula ulmaria and Salvia officinalis were the most active herbal extracts in inhibiting the growth of H. pylori. This study provides evidence for additional beneficial effects of phytotherapeutics marketed for their gastrointestinal effects and identifies new beneficial antibacterial effects for some herbal medicines not currently recommended for gastrointestinal problems.

Foeniculum_vulgare_Mill_Protects_against_lipopolysaccharide-induced_Acute_Lung_Injury_in_Mice_through_ERK-dependent_NF-kB_Activation [accessed Jul 26 2018].
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) is used to flavor food, in cosmetics, as an antioxidant, and to treat microbial, diabetic and common inflammation. No study to date, however, has assessed the anti-inflammatory effects of fennel in experimental models of inflammation. The aims of this study were to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of fennel in model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury. Mice were randomly assigned to seven groups (n=7~10). In five groups, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with 1% Tween 80-saline (vehicle), fennel (125, 250, 500µl/kg), or dexamethasone (1 mg/kg), followed 1 h later by intratracheal instillation of LPS (1.5 mg/kg). In two groups, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with vehicle or fennel (250µl/kg), followed 1 h later by intratracheal instillation of sterile saline. Mice were sacrificed 4 h later, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissues were obtained. Fennel significantly and dose-dependently reduced LDH activity and immune cell numbers in LPS treated mice. In addition fennel effectively suppressed the LPS-induced increases in the production of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, with 500µl/kg fennel showing maximal reduction. Fennel also significantly and dose-dependently reduced the activity of the proinflammatory mediator matrix metalloproteinase 9 and the immune modulator nitric oxide (NO). Assessments of the involvement of the MAPK signaling pathway showed that fennel significantly decreased the LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK. Fennel effectively blocked the inflammatory processes induced by LPS, by regulating pro-inflammatory cytokine production, transcription factors, and NO. 

(PDF) Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Protects against.... Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273065376_Foeniculum_vulgare_Mill_Protects_against_Lipopolysaccharide-induced_Acute_Lung_Injury_in_Mice_through_ERK-dependent_NF-kB_Activation [accessed Jul 26 2018].


Pharmazie. 2004 Jul;59(7):561-4.
Possible mechanism(s) for relaxant effects of Foeniculum vulgare on guinea pig tracheal chains. Boskabady MH1, Khatami A, Nazari A.
In a previous study the relaxant (bronchodilatory) effect of Foeniculum vulgare on isolated guinea pig tracheal chains was demonstrated. To study mechanisms responsible for this effect the present study evaluated the inhibitory effect of this plant on contracted tracheal chains of guinea pig. The relaxant effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts and an essential oil from Foeniculum vulgare were compared to negative controls (saline for aqueous extract and essential oil and ethanol for ethanol extract) and a positive control (diltiazem) using isolated tracheal chains of the guinea pig precontracted by 10 microM methacholine (group 1) and 60 mM KCl (group 2, n = 7 for each group). In the group 1, experiments diltiazem, ethanol extract, and essential oil from Foeniculum vulgare showed a significant relaxant effect on methacholine induced contraction of tracheal chains compared to those of negative controls (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). In addition the effect of the ethanol extract was significantly greater than that of diltiazem (p < 0.001). However, the aqueous extract did not show any relaxant effect in group 1. In the group 2 experiments, only diltiazem showed a significant relaxant effect on KCl induced contraction of tracheal chains (p < 0.001). The relaxant effects of ethanol extracts and essential oil obtained in the group 2 experiments were significantly lower than those in group 1 (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). These results confirm the bronchodilatory effects of ethanol extract and essential oil from Foeniculum vulgare. However with regard to the effect of KCl on calcium channels, the results indicated that the inhibitory effect of ethanol extracts and essential oil from Foeniculum vulgare on calcium channels is not contributing to their relaxant (bronchodilatory) effects on guinea pig tracheal chains. However the results suggest a potassium channel opening effect for this plant, which may contribute on its relaxant effect on guinea pig tracheal chains.

Comments