Crataegus laevigata / Meidoorn

monografie uit het cursusboek van herboristen opleiding 'Dodonaeus' vlaamseherboristen@gmail.com
CRATAEGUS LAEVIGATA (Poiret) DC.  Tweestijlige meidoorn

Algemene en Botanische Informatie

Familie: Rosaceae/Malaceae - Roosachtigen.
Naam: Aubépine (F.), Weisdorn (D.), Hawthorn (E.)
Soorten: 
Crataegus laevigata (POIRET) DC. - Tweestijlige meidoorn,
Cr. monogyna JACQ. - Eenstijlige meidoorn.
Veel bastaarden o.a. Cr. laevigata X monogyna.
Diverse cultivars, waarvan sommige met roze bloemkroon o.a. Cr. ox. c.v. 'Rosea', Cr. ox. c.v. 'Punicea'.
Verwante geslachten:    Mespilus germanica L. - Mispel,
                                      Cydonia oblonga MILL - Kweepeer.
Teelt, ecologie: Struiken, veel voorkomend in heggen en struwelen. Vroeger veel aange plant, vermeerderen door zaaien en stekken.

Materia Medica, gebruikte delen van Crataegus

Crataegi herba cum floribus, Crataegi folium cum flore. De bloeiende eindtakken (blad en bloem) van Crataegus oxyacantha, Crat. monogyna JACQ., Crat. pentagyna, Crat. azarolus, Crat. Nigra.

Beschrijving: Dunne, lichtgroene bladstukken met dunne hoofd- en zijnerven en zeer fijne netachtige nervatuur.Vuilwit te 2 tot 3 mm grote bloemen en bloemknoppen. Verder nog fijne bloem- en bladsteeltjes. Smaak: wat slijmerig. 
Oogst: In mei de bloeiende takken met blad. 
Drogen: Takken met blad en bloem drogen en daarna afritsen. 


Crataegi fructus  De rode bessen van Crataegus species geplukt in september, oktober en november, vers verwerkt of gedroogd bij 40°

Crataegi gemma De blad- en bloemknoppen van Crataegus species geplukt in april en vers ver werkt met alcohol, glycerine en watermengsel tot glycerinemaceraten voor gebruik in de gemmotherapie.

Samenstelling, inhoudsstoffen van Crataegus

** Procyanidinen: leuco-anthocyanidinen of picnogenol (2, 3)
** Flavonoïden o.a.:
- hyperoside (meer in bes),
- vitexin rhamnoside (meer in blad)
** Triterpeenzuren (crataeguszuren)
* Purinen o.a.: adenosine (bloedcirculatiebevorderend)
Nota's: Crataegi fructus bevat ook carotenoïden, vitaminen B1, C, vette olie en looistoffen.
Crataegus bevat geen hartheterosiden of alkaloïden zoals digitalis.

Farmacologie, algemene fysiologische werking 

** Harttonicum (flavonen) versterkt en vertraagt hartspiercontracties
** Doorbloedingbevorderend, vooral coronair door bloedvatverwijding, betere zuurstof voorziening
* Bloeddrukregulerend (verlagend)
** Licht spasmolyticum, sedativum van het sympatisch zenuwstelsel (4)
* Licht diureticum (e.o., purinen)

* werking van de geïsoleerde Procyanidinen (6):
a) angiodynamisch,
- beïnvloeden capillaire permeabiliteit (doorlaatbaarheid van kleine bloedvaten),
- stabiliteit vaatwand en bindweefsel, invloed op collageen
b) krachtige radicalenvanger
c) bloeddrukverlagend en ß-blokkerend effect (Kotilla 5) *

* Fructus (Bessen): bezitten dezelfde eigenschappen, toch wordt meestal blad en bloem gebruikt. De bessen zouden, net zoals schors en wortel ook samentrekkend zijn en zelfs stenen oplossen. (Valnet Phytothérapie)

Verschillende fracties en inhoudsstoffen van meidoorn (waterextract, flavonoïdenfractie, epicatechine, vitexine, rutine, triterpenenfractie, OPC (oligomere procyanidinen), hyperoside, luteoline-7-glucoside) verhogen de contractiekracht van het hart (positief inotroop effect) en verlagen de hartfrequentie (negatief chronotroop effect) . Meidoorn versterkt het hart, verbetert de doorbloeding van de kransvaten, verhoogt het hartminuutvolume (de hoeveelheid bloed die door het hart in één minuut wordt voortgestuwd) en zorgt voor toename van de aanvoer en verbruik van zuurstof door het hart. 

Indicatie, medisch gebruik van Crataegus

Hart / Bloedvaten (2, 3)
** Hartzwakte, ouderdomshart met kortademigheid, druk bij inspanning
** Hartritmestoornissen, nerveus hart. Zie Leonurus cardiaca en sedativa
* Angina pectoris. sparend op digitalisgebruik.
* Cor pulmonale.
* Hypertensie                                                                                                                 Zie o.a. Capsela bursa
* Atherosclerose                                                                                                            Zie o.a. Allium sativum.
** Nabehandeling en preventie infarct

Zenuwstelsel
* Neurovegetatieve dystonie met o.a.: angst, oorsuizen, duizeligheid.                        Zie kruiden voor zenuwstelsel 
* Menopauze                                                                                                                 Zie hormonaalkruiden

Nota: Veel andere indicaties in de literatuur zijn terug te voeren op de sedatieve werking.
Meidoorn kan dan ook als aanvullend kruid gebruikt worden bij astma, darmkrampen, slapeloosheid, e.a.

Fructus (bes) als looistofplant, vooral vroeger in gebruik
* Diarree
* Keelpijn (dec. bessen 50 g/1 l)

Receptuur en Bereidingswijzen 

Herba cum flor.: Infuus 20' 30g/1 l, of 2 koffiel./kop/3 x daags
Pulvis 5 g daags
Gemmotherapie: Crataegus 1D: harterethis me, hoge bloed druk + Tilia 1D

Vinum: Valnet
R./ Visci albi hb. 100 g Ber.: mac. 1 week.
Crataegi hb.c.fl. 50 g Dos.: 2 x d. 100 ml.
Vinum album 1 l Ind.: menopauze, hart pa tiënten

Species: R./ Crataegi hb.c.fl. 70 g Ber.: inf. 1 à 2 kof fiel. /kop/10'
Visci albi hb. 100 g Dos.: 2 x daags 1 kop
Ind.: hypertensie, meno pauze

R./ Crataegi hb.c.fl. 25
Visci alb. hb. 25                             Ber.: inf. 10', 2 koffielepels
Chamomillae fl. 25                         Dos.: 1 kopje 2 x daags
Valerianae rad. 25                         Ind.: angor en ritmestoornissen

Species antiscleroticae
R./ Visci albi hb. 25
Crataegi hb.c.fl. 25
Rutae hb. 20
Equiseti hb. 20                             Ber.: inf. 10'/2 koffiel./1 kopje.
(Bursa pastoris hb. 10)                 Dos.: 2 x daags 1 kopje.                 
         
Geschiedenis En Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek
  • Oudheid: Jicht (P. des Crescences), Pleuresie (Tragus), witte vloed (Gilibert). 
  • Bonnejoy - 1695: Eerste aanduiding voor de werking bij hoge bloeddruk. 
  • Dr. Jennings (Chicago): Crataegus in the threatment of heart di seases. Onderzoek van 43 patiënten naar invloed op nervus vagus, op symphaticus en op hartritme. New York Méd. Journ. - 1896. 
  • Clément: Crataegus in angina pectoris with report of case. Kansas city Méd. Rec. - 1898. 
  • Huchard: Crat. ox. (Cardiotonicum.) Journ. des Pract. (1903). 
  • Reilly: Crat. ox. (Aritmie en hoge bloeddruk.) Journ. of Am. Méd. Ass. - 1910. 
  • Leclerc: L'Aubépine. Phytothérapie hypotensive. (Maretak, Meidoorn.) Etude clinique sur l'action hypotensive. Courrier méd. - 1919. 
  • Santenoise et Vidacovitch: L'Action de Crat. sur le tonus vagosym phatique. Invloed op symphaticus  verdwijning van symphaticotonische fenome nen, geleidelijke verhoging vagotoni sche toestand. L'Encéphale - avril 1924 
  • Watanabe T. et al.: Recovery of effective constituents from Crat. Japan - 1960 
  • G. Trunzler: Pflanzliche Kardiaka. Ztschr. f. Phyto. 11-13/1 - 1987 
  • Verheyen: Coronaire aandoeningen en fytotherapeutica. Lab. Biohorma 
Referenties
  • Hecker-Niediek: Dissertation Univ. Marburg - 1983. 
  • Beretz e.a.: Plantes Méd. Phytoth. 12/305 - 1978. 
  • F. Occhiuto e.a.: Plantes Méd. Phytoth. 20/37 - 1986. 
  • R. Della Logia e.a.: Sci. Pharm. 51/319 - 1983. 
  • Racz-Kotilla E. et al.: Hypotensive and ß-blocking effects of Procya nidins of Crat. monogy na. Planta méd. 39-3/239 -1980. 
  • Van Vlymen: Pijnboomschorsextract en doorbloeding. Arts en Alter natief 

Recenter wetenschappelijk onderzoek
  • Ammon, H.P. and M. Handel. 1981. [Crataegus, toxicology and pharmacology, Part I: Toxicity] [In German]. Planta Med 43(2):105–120. 
  • ———. 1981. [Crataegus, toxicology and pharmacology, Part II: Pharmacodynamics] [In German]. Planta Med 43(3):209–239. 
  • ———. 1981. [Crataegus, toxicology and pharmacology, Part III: Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics] [In German]. Planta Med 43(4):313–322. 
  • Ammon, H.P.T. and R. Kaul. 1994. [Crataegus: Activity on heart and circulation of Crataegus extracts, flavonoids and procyanidins. Part 1: History and hormones] [In German]. Dtsch Apoth Zeitg 134(26):2433–2436. 
  • ———. 1994. [Crataegus: Activity on heart and circulation of Crataegus extracts, flavonoids and procyanidins. Part 2: Actions on the heart] [In German]. Dtsch Apoth Zeitg 134(27):2521–2527. 
  • ———. 1994. [Crataegus: Activity on heart and circulation of Crataegus extracts, flavonoids and procyanidins. Part 3: Actions on circulation] [In German]. Dtsch Apoth Zeitg 134(28):2631–2636. 
  • Beretz, A., M. Haag-Berrurier, R. Anton. 1978. Choice of pharmacological methods for the study of hawthorn activities. Plantes MedPhytothÈr 12(4):305–314. 
  • Brown, D., S. Austin, R. Reichert. 1997. Early-stage congestive heart failure. Seattle: Natural Products Research Consultants. 
  • Guendjev, Z. 1977. Experimental myocardial infarction of the rat and stimulation of the revascularization by the flavonoid drug crataemon. Arnzeimforsch 27(8):1576–1579. 
  • McGuffin, M., C. Hobbs, R. Upton, A. Goldberg. 1997. American Herbal Product Association's Botanical Safety Handbook. Boca Raton: CRC Press. 
  • Pharmaceutical Press. 
  • Occhiuto, F., C. Circosta, R. Costa, F. Briguglio, A. Tommasini. 1986. Study comparing the cardiovascular activity of young shoots, leaves and flowers of C. laevigata L. II: Effects of extracts and pure isolated active principles on the isolated rabbit heart. Plantes Med PhytothÈr 20:52–63. 
  • Rakotoarison, D.A. et al. 1997. Antioxidant activities of polyphenolic extracts from flowers, in vitro callus and cell suspension cultures of Crataegus monogyna. Pharmazie 52(1):60–64. 
  • Roddewig, C. and H. Hensel. 1977. [Reaction of local myocardial blood flow in non-anesthetized dogs and anesthetized cats to the oral and parenteral administration of a Crateagus fraction] [In German]. Arnzeimforsch 27(7):1407–1410. 
  • Stepka, W. and A.D. Winters. 1973. A survey of the genus Crataegus for hypotensive activity [symposium paper]. Proceedings American Society of Pharmacognosy: Jekyll Island, Georgia; Jul 15–20. Lloydia 36(4):430–443. 
  • Sticher, O. and B. Meier. Hawthorn (Crataegus): Biological Activity and New Strategies for Quality Control. In: Lawson, L.D. and R. Bauer (eds.) 1998. Phytomedicines of Europe: Chemistry and Biological Activity. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society. 
  • Weng, W.L. et al. 1984. Therapeutic effect of Crataegus pinnatifida on 46 cases of angina pectoris—a double blind study. J Trad Chin Med 4(4):293–294. 
  • http://cms.herbalgram.org/ABCGuide/GuidePDFs/Hawthorn.pdf
Typologie, het karakter van Crataegus 
  • M. Uyldert: Crataegus geeft ons zenuwelektriciteit (als harttonicum) 
  • Oude Romeinen: Bij oude Romeinen gewijd aan Cardia, beschermgodin der huisdrempels. Aangeplant rond burchten en heilige plaatsen. 
  • Huibers: Past vooral bij de mens die zich gestoord en onveilig voelt door de stekeligheden van het leven. Zoals de meidoornhaag de heilige plaatsen beschermde, zo beschermt deze plant ook ons hart. 
Samengevat: medicinale werking en gebruik meidoorn
De flavonoïden -met name de procyanidinen- werken als een harttonicum die de hartfunctie optimaliseert. Bij gebruik van het meidoornextract ervaren patiënten een subjectieve verbetering van de klachten en vindt een objectieve tonifiëring en regulering van de hartwerking plaats. De flavonoïden bevorderen de circulatie en de bloedvatendilatatie. Een regulerende werking op de bloeddruk wordt herhaaldelijk genoemd, naast een diuretisch effect. De meidoorn verbetert de zuurstofeconomie van het hart. De plant werkt vooral op het myocard en zorgt voor een milde, aanhoudende verwijding van de coronairvaten waardoor een betere doorbloeding ontstaat. Crataegus werkt aldus bloeddrukregulerend en kan daardoor zowel bij hyper- als hypotensie worden ingezet. Met name bij een hoge bovendruk brengen extracten een verlaging van de waarden teweeg. 
Als stress de oorzaak van hypertensie is, is het raadzaam naast algemene gezondheidsbevorderende leef- en voedingsadviezen ook een zenuwsterkend fytotherapeuticum of mild sedativum in te zetten (Avena sativa, Kava-kava of Matricaria chamomilla). Enkele indicaties voor meidoornextract en zijn hartritmestoornissen, arteriosclerose, angina pectoris, “ouderdomshart” sporthart, hyper- of hypotensie, myocard beschadigingen, hartklachten door nicotineschade, duizeligheid, circulatiestoornissen, decompensatio cordis, astma cardiale en chronisch cor pulmonale.

*Info betablokkers 
Bètablokkers zijn medicijnen die een remmende werking hebben op het centrale zenuwstelsel. Deze middelen worden vaak voorgeschreven bij hart- en vaatziekten. Bètablokkers blokkeren de bètareceptoren, die meestal op de cellen van het hart zitten. Het hart gaat hierdoor rustiger kloppen, de hartspier trekt minder krachtig samen en uw bloeddruk wordt lager. Hierdoor wordt uw hart minder belast en wordt er minder zuurstof gebruikt.De medicijnen zorgen ervoor dat de hartslag, de bloeddruk en de stofwisseling worden vertraagd. Dit zorgt ervoor dat uw lichaam minder energie levert en aldus tot rust komt. Bètablokkers helpen hierdoor ook tegen stress.

Meer info



Dodonaeus over Crataegus of Sauseboom

Sauseboom es een boomachtich ghewas/ thien oft twaelf voeten oft meer hoogh wassende/ veel herde houten tacken voortbringhende/ die met scerpe stekende dorenen beset sijn. Daer aen witgruene teere bladerkens wassen die rontsomme ghekerft sijn ende suerachtich van smaecke/ ende daer om/ tot den sausen/ inplaetse van Surckele dienende. Die bloemen sijn cleyn/ bleeckgeel/ ende wassen op corte steelkens tusschen die bladeren voortcomende/ ende daer naer comen langhe ronde besiekens voort/ van smaecke suerachtich ende tsamen treckende/ in hebbende een hert greynken dat sijn saet es. Die wortel es hert lanck in veel tacken verdeylt/ van binnen schoon geel van verwen/ van smaecke oock wat amperachtich.

Plaetse
Sauseboom wordt in Brabant aen die canten van sommighe bosschen/ ende by sommighe haghen ghevonden/ Hy wordt oock vele in die hoven sonderlinghe van den cruytliefhebbers gheplant.

Tijt
Sauseboom crijght nieuwe bladeren in Aprill ghelijck andere boomen/ Hy bloeyet in Meye/ ende in Herfstmaent worden die besiekens rijp.

Naem
Dit ghewas wordt gheheeten in Griecx Oxyacantha/ van sommighen Pityacanthes ende Pyrina. In Latijn Spina acuta ende Spina acetosa/ In die Apoteke Berberis/ sonderlinge die vrucht die daer best bekent es/ In Hoochduytsch Paisselbeer Saurich Erbsel Versich/ In Neerduytsch Sauseboom/ In Franchois Espine vinette/ ou du Berber

Cracht ende werckinghe
A   Die groene bladeren van Sauseboom dienen om Sausen daer af te maken tot den spijsen ghelijck dat Surckele/ ende die sause die daer af ghemaeckt wordt/ es vercoelende ende maeckt appetijt/ ende es seer goet den ghenen die verhit ende cortsachtich sijn.
B   Die besiekens van Sauseboom stoppen den loop des buycx/ ende stelpen alle overvloedighe vloet van den vrouwen/ ende alle onnatuerlijcke bloetganck.
C   Die wortelen van Sauseboom in looghe gheweyckt maken dat hayr geel/ alsmen dat hayr daer mede dickwils wascht.



Mythologie van meidoorn. De Gids. Jaargang 45 (1881)

De Mei- of Hagedoorn groeit op plaatsen waar schatten verborgen zijn. In Zweden werd hij oudtijds gepoot op graven, waarin bronzen wapenen en gereedschappen gevonden zijn. In het begin dezer eeuw brak niemand er een takje af en werd den kinderen gewaarschuwd ze zelfs niet aan te raken. Te Swalmen, in Limburg, werd in het jaar 1697 vergadering gehouden onder een hagedoorn, in 1701 staande voor de school en in 1708 onder een, staande voor het raadhuis. Te Soest wijst men nog den hagedoorn waaronder in de 15de eeuw de armen der St. Georgskerk hunne aalmoezen ontvingen.



Aubépine / Crataegus monogyna L. = Crataegus oxyacantha L. 
Famille des Rosacées

Noms populaires : noble épine, épine blanche, senellier, bois de mai

Cet arbre est reconnaissable entre tous par son "caractère" très épineux tout d’abord, et par sa spectaculaire floraison blanche (parfois légèrement rosée). Sa longévité est remarquable voire exceptionnelle, il peut atteindre et dépasser 1000 ans. La première espèce est très commune partout dans les bois clairs les haies, C. oxyacantha, elle est rare même parfois absente sur le littoral. L’aubépine a été largement plantée, favorisée dans les pays de bocage, pour sa qualité de clôture végétale très dissuasive. Aujourd’hui elle est par contre malheureusement menacée et même mise à l’index, depuis, qu’à l’instar de l’infortuné renard et de la rage, on l’a désignée comme bouc émissaire de la terrible maladie du "feu bactérien". Cette maladie atteint toutes les Rosacées et représente une menace sans doute autant qu’une réponse aux milliers d’hectares de monoculture de pommiers, poiriers, cerisiers, pruniers, aussi dans la plupart des régions européennes la plantation la multiplication de l’aubépine sont elles interdites, leur arrachage et leur destruction préconisés, sa vente chez les pépiniéristes prohibée. Une fois de plus le monde sauvage est le "démon" désigné qui va exorciser nos craintes et dédouaner nos errements écologiques !

Si vous taillez des aubépines soyez vigilants et désinfectez soigneusement votre sécateur quand vous passez d’un arbre à un autre, avec de l’alcool ou au feu.

USAGES On cueille les bouquets fleuris, au stade du bouton blanc non éclos, avec une bonne paire de gants en prenant soin de ne pas endommager la pousse terminale feuillée qui assure la pérennité du rameau. Comme toutes les plantes de printemps l’aubépine s’échauffe très facilement, il convient donc de la sécher rapidement dans l’obscurité à 35 C° maximum.

En infusion, c’est un tonicardiaque, régulateur de la pression artérielle, et sédatif. On l’emploie donc dans les troubles de la tension sanguine, contre les palpitations, tachycardies, la nervosité, l’émotivité, l’angoisse, l’insomnie, les vertiges.

Les fruits, sennelles, "poires à Bon Dieu", récoltées à l’automne après les premières gelées, se consomment en gelées, sirops. Elles s’utilisent en décoction contre les diarrhées et dysenteries.

Les jeunes feuilles et les fleurs sont délicieuses en salade (attention à ne pas laisser d’épines très dangereuses) Un rameau fleuri suspendu dans la maison éloignerait la foudre et protégerait du "mauvais œil". Le même rameau suspendu à la tête du berceau des petits était un talisman très prisé.



Hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacanthoides) vlgs Natural Standard

Synonyms / Common Names / Related Terms
Aubepine, bei shanzha, bianco spino, bread and cheese tree, Cardiplant®, Chinese hawthorn, cockspur, cockspur thorn, crataegi flos, Crataegi folium, Crataegi folium cum flore, Crataegi fructus, Crataegi herba, Crataegisan , Crataegus azaerolus, Crataegus cuneata, Crataegus fructi, Crataegus monogyna, Crataegus nigra, Crataegus oxyacanthoides, Crataegus pentagyna, Crataegus pinnatifida,Crataegus sinaica boiss, Crataegus special extract WS 1442, Crataegutt®, English hawthorn, epicatechin, epine blanche, epine de mai, Fructus oxyacanthae, Fructus spinae albae, gazels, haagdorn, hagedorn, hagthorn, halves, harthorne, haw, Hawthorne Berry®, Hawthorne Formula®, Hawthorne Heart®, Hawthorne Phytosome®, Hawthorne Power®, hawthorn tops, hazels, hedgethorn, huath, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, ladies' meat, LI 132, may, mayblossoms, maybush, mayhaw, maythorn, mehlbeerbaum, meidorn, nan shanzha, northern Chinese hawthorn, oneseed, oneseed hawthorn, quickset, red haw, RN 30/9, sanza, sanzashi, shanza, shan zha rou, southern Chinese hawthorn, thorn-apple tree, thorn plum, tree of chastity, Washington thorn, weissdorn, Weissdornblaetter mit Blueten, whitethorn, whitethorn herb, WS 1442.

Mechanism of Action / Pharmacology:
Constituents: Hawthorn is a flowering shrub of the rose family, common in Europe. Due to widespread hybridization, the species ofCrataegus are difficult to distinguish. Multiple species are commonly found in Hawthorn preparations, including: C. laevigata, C. oxyacantha, and C. monogyna. Major pharmacologically active components are believed to be flavonoids, such as hyperoside and vitexin and procyanidins.
Antineoplastic effects: Hawthorn may exhibit antineoplastic activity and collagen stabilizing actions. Two triterpenes, uvaol and ursolic acid, were isolated from Crataegus pinnatifida and made responsible for cytotoxicity against human and murine cancer cell lines.6Triterpenes-enriched fractions of hawthorn extract have demonstrated almost complete inhibition of cultured larynx cancer cell growth and stronger in vitro activity than 6-mercaptopurine solution used as a positive control.4 The exact mechanism of action is not well understood.

Cardiovascular effects: Direct effects on the cardiovascular system have been demonstrated. Administration of hawthorn extract has been shown to decrease blood pressure and total peripheral resistance, economize myocardial function and decrease cardiac preload in healthy subjects.7,8 More specifically, hawthorn extract (WS 1442) has shown an inotropic effect on myocardial tissue isolated from patients with terminal left-ventricular heart failure (CHF).9 The inotropic effects of hawthorn may be caused by inhibition of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate diesterase10, rather than beta-sympathomimetic activity11.
In the isolated perfused guinea pig heart, the inotropic effect of hawthorn extract LI 132 was weaker than digoxin and epinephrine. However, the refractory period was prolonged, perhaps as a result of blockage of repolarizing potassium currents. Thus, hawthorn may be potentially less arrhythmogenic than conventional inotropic agents.12 At a dose of 20mg/kg, crataemon (flavonoid fraction of hawthorn) stopped barium chloride-induced arrhythmia in animals; at doses greater than 30mg/kg, hypotensive effects were seen.5 A hawthorn extract (LI 132) prevented reperfusion arrhythmias and drastically reduced lactate dehydrogenase release in isolated rat hearts.13,1,14However, in a more recent study, no antiarrhythmic effect on the reperfused rat heart was found.15 The authors suggested an intracellular increase in calcium as the mechanism for inotropy, as well as for the occasional aggravation of arrhythmia.
Earlier areas of animal study included the effects of hawthorn upon myocardial perfusion 16 17. In one experiment, crataemon increased rabbit coronary blood flow by 37%, at a dose of 10mg/kg, and decreased myocardial oxygen consumption.5
A preventive effect of hawthorn on coronary artery disease18,1,19 and cancer20 has been proposed, as due to hawthorn's antioxidant activities. Free radical properties have been demonstrated in vivo18,21, and may depend on the phenol22 or flavonoid content of the extract.
Other pharmacological properties of hawthorn that may influence heart function may include thromboxane A2 biosynthesis inhibition, observed in vitro.23

Endocrine effects: Hawthorn may induce reductions in lipids and in rats. Hawthorn tincture has been shown to enhance hepatic lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) receptor activity, to stimulate intrahepatic cholesterol degradation, and to suppress cholesterol biosynthesis.3,24Hyperoside, isoquercitrin and epicatechin are the major active flavonoid components of the phenolic extract from hawthorn fruits, which demonstrate inhibitory effects in vitro on cupric ion (Cu+2)-mediated low density lipoproteins (LDL) oxidation.25 It has been proposed that the co-occurring components in hawthorn phenolic extract might not have significant effect on the intestinal absorption of the three major hawthorn flavonoids.26
Reproductive effects: In vitro study showed that serum containing the root of Crataegus cuneata significantly increased the sperm progressive motility in five and 15 minutes and the motility and progressive motility were both increased significantly in 60 and 120 minutes, compared to controls.2

Pharmacodynamics/Kinetics:
Overall, there is insufficient available data on hawthorn. The pharmacokinetics of another botanical (the common grape), whose constituents, like hawthorn, include procyanidins, have been reviewed elsewhere. In the common grape, large quantities of procyanidins have been found unmetabolized in renal and intestinal elimination pathways, suggesting limited metabolic degradation. The procyanidins of the hawthorn berry are reported to have a higher degree of polymerization, yet a lower concentration of flavonoids and procyanidins.

References
  1. Al Makdessi S, Sweidan H, DietzK, and et al. Protective effect of Crataegus oxyacantha against reperfusion arrhythmias after global no-flow ischemia in the rat heart. Basic Res Cardiol 1999;94(2):71-77. 10326654
  2. Hu, L. and Xiong, C. L. [The influence of medicated serum with root of Crataegus cuneata on human sperm motility parameters in vitro].Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2006;31(4):333-335. 16706029
  3. Rajendran S, Deepalakshmi PD, Parasakthy K, and et al. Effect of tincture of Crataegus on the LDL-receptor activity of hepatic plasma membrane of rats fed an atherogenic diet. Atherosclerosis 1996;123(1-2):235-241. 8782854
  4. Saenz MT, Ahumada MC, and Garcia MD. Extracts from Viscum and Crataegus are cytotoxic against larynx cancer cells. Z Naturforsch1997;52c:42-44.
  5. Petkov V. Plants with hypotensive, antiatheromatous and coronarodilatating action. Am J Chinese Med 1979;7(3):197-236.
  6. Min, B. S., Kim, Y. H., Lee, S. M., Jung, H. J., Lee, J. S., Na, M. K., Lee, C. O., Lee, J. P., and Bae, K. Cytotoxic triterpenes from Crataegus pinnatifida. Arch Pharm Res 2000;23(2):155-158. 10836742
  7. Mang C, Herrmann V, Butzer R, and et al. Crataegus fructi extract: a placebo-controlled study on haemodynamic effects of single and repetitive doses in normal volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1997;52 suppl(abstract 116):A59.
  8. Popping S, Rose H, Ionescu I, and et al. Effect of a hawthorn extract on contraction and energy turnover of isolated rat cardiomyocytes.Arzneim Forsch 1995;45(11):1157-1161.
  9. Brixius K, Frank K, Muench G, and et al. WG 1442 (Crataegus spezialextrakt) works at the insufficient human myocardium contractible force-increasing. Verhandlungen der deutschen Gesellschaft fur Herz und Kreislaufforschung 1998;30:28-33.
  10. Schussler M, Holzl J, and Fricke U. Myocardial effects of flavonoids from Crataegus species. Arzneimittelforschung 1995;45(8):842-845.7575743
  11. Muller, A., Linke, W., and Klaus, W. Crataegus extract blocks potassium currents in guinea pig ventricular cardiac myocytes. Planta Med1999;65(4):335-339. 10364839
  12. Joseph G, Zhao Y, and Klaus W. [Pharmacologic action profile of crataegus extract in comparison to epinephrine, amrinone, milrinone and digoxin in the isolated perfused guinea pig heart]. Arzneimittelforschung 1995;45(12):1261-1265. 8595081
  13. Al Makdessi S, Sweidan H, Mullner S, and et al. Myocardial protection by pretreatment with Crataegus oxyacantha: an assessment by means of the release of lactate dehydrogenase by the ischemic and reperfused Langendorff heart. Arzneimittelforschung 1996;46(1):25-27. 8821513
  14. Nasa Y, Hashizume H, Hoque AN, and et al. Protective effect of crataegus extract on the cardiac mechanical dysfunction in isolated perfused working rat heart. Arzneimittelforschung 1993;43(9):945-949. 8240455
  15. Rothfuss, M. A., Pascht, U., and Kissling, G. Effect of long-term application of Crataegus oxyacantha on ischemia and reperfusion induced arrhythmias in rats. Arzneimittelforschung 2001;51(1):24-28. 11215322
  16. Mavers WH and Hensel H. [Changes in local myocardial blood circulation following oral administration of a Crataegus extract in non-narcotized dogs]. Arzneimittelforschung 1974;24(5):783-785. 4408035
  17. Roddewig C and Hensel H. [Reaction of local myocardial blood flow in non-anesthetized dogs and anesthetized cats to the oral and parenteral administration of a Crateagus fraction (oligomere procyanidines)]. Arzneimittelforschung 1977;27(7):1407-1410. 578464
  18. Chatterjee SS, Koch E, Jaggy H, and et al. [In vitro and in vivo studies on the cardioprotective action of oligomeric procyanidins in a Crataegus extract of leaves and blooms]. Arzneimittelforschung 1997;79:821-825. 9324931
  19. Hertog MG, Feskens EJ, Hollman PC, and et al. Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Lancet 10-23-1993;342:1007-1011. 8105262
  20. Hertog MG, Kromhout D, Aravanis C, and et al. Flavonoid intake and long-term risk of coronary heart disease and cancer in the seven countries study. Arch Intern Med 2-27-1995;155(4):381-386. 7848021
  21. Bahorun T, Gressier B, Trotin F, and et al. Oxygen species scavenging activity of phenolic extracts from hawthorn fresh plant organs and pharmaceutical preparations. Arzneim-Forsch 1996;46(2):1086-1089.
  22. Rakotoarison DA, Gressier B, Trotin F, and et al. Antioxidant activities of polyphenolic extracts from flowers, in vitro callus and cell suspension cultures of Crataegus monogyna. Pharmazie 1997;52(1):60-64. 9035237
  23. Vibes J, Lasserre B, Gleye J, and et al. Inhibition of thromboxane A2 biosynthesis in vitro by the main components of Crataegus oxyacantha (hawthorn) flower heads. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes Essential Fatty Acids 1994;50(4):173-175.
  24. Fan, C., Yan, J., Qian, Y., Wo, X., and Gao, L. Regulation of lipoprotein lipase expression by effect of hawthorn flavonoids on peroxisome proliferator response element pathway. J Pharmacol Sci 2006;100(1):51-58. 16404131
  25. Zhang, Z., Chang, Q., Zhu, M., Huang, Y., Ho, W. K., and Chen, Z. Characterization of antioxidants present in hawthorn fruits. J Nutr Biochem 2001;12(3):144-152. 11257463
  26. Zuo, Z., Zhang, L., Zhou, L., Chang, Q., and Chow, M. Intestinal absorption of hawthorn flavonoids--in vitro, in situ and in vivo correlations.Life Sci 11-25-2006;79(26):2455-2462. 16989871


Crataegus monogyna, C. laevigata monograph
 
Hawthorn is a large shrub or small tree (15-30 feet on average) in the genus Crataegus, native to temperate North America, Europe, and East Asia.1 The plants are indeterminately thorny, with variable shape, and have perfect, radially symmetrical, 5-petaled white to pink flowers (red in some cultivars) in corymbs (flat-topped clusters).2,3 The red fruit are drupes (one-seeded and fleshy) but are commonly called berries in the trade. The genus Crataegus comprises approximately 250-280 species, the most commonly used in Western medicine being C. laevigata (syn. C. oxyacantha) and C. monogyna, both native to Europe; these 2 species are the subject of this article.2 The European Pharmacopoeia accepts the interchangeable use of these 2 species or their hybrids, or other European Crataegus species such as C. azarolus, C. nigra, and C. pentagyna.4 Crataegus species are highly variable, making species boundaries unclear.2 Additionally, hybridization among hawthorn species is very common, suggesting that there are few pure populations.2,3

Traditionally, preparations of the fruit, such as syrups, were the most commonly used medicinal form, but preparations made from the flowers, leaves, and seeds also have been used in traditional European medicines and phytotherapy.5-7 Plant material used in commercial products is primarily obtained from wild collection in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Romania,8 Hungary, Macedonia,9 Poland,10 and the United Kingdom.12 Some of the commercial supply of C. monogyna is actually wild collected in non-native countries, namely in Chile,  where it was introduced and has since escaped from cultivation.

HISTORY AND CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE
The generic name, Crataegus, comes from the Greek kratos, meaning hard or strong, referring to the plant’s wood.13,14 The common name refers to the plant’s thorns and fruit, known as haws, and may also refer to its use to form hedges, which were called haws in earlier times.13 Other common names  for C. laevigata include English hawthorn, white thorn, May tree (referring to when it blooms), and two-style hawthorn; and English hawthorn, one-seed hawthorn, and one-style hawthorn for C. monogyna.3,12,15,16 General common names for the genus include haw, mayhaw, thornapple (not to be confused with Datura stramonium [Solanaceae], which is also called thornapple).

At least 1 hawthorn species that is not the focus of this article (C. pinnatifida) has been used in Chinese medicine dating back to 659 CE to treat arteriosclerosis, high blood pressure, and heart pain.17 In current practice, the dried ripe fruit, either “stir-baked” (by placing the dried berries in a pot, stirring constantly over gentle heat until color darkens, removing and cooling) or “charred” (by stir-baking until the berries become burnt-brown externally and yellowish-brown internally), is indicated for treating stagnation of undigested meat with epigastric distension, diarrhea and abdominal pain, amenorrhea due to blood stasis (local stoppage or slowness of the blood flow or general sluggishness of blood circulation), epigastric pain (over the pit of the stomach), or abdominal colic after childbirth, hernial pain, and for hyperlipemia (aka hyperlipidemia; excessive quantity of fat in the blood).18 Additionally, hawthorn fruit has been used in China for stomach complaints and for its vitamin C content to treat scurvy, as well as to make jam, sweet wine, and candied fruit slices.17

Infusions and decoctions of the bark, fruit, leaves, root and root bark, sap and sapwood, thorns, twigs, and young shoots of at least 11 species of Crataegus have been used by various North American tribes to treat conditions including back pain, bladder ailments, consumption (pulmonary tuberculosis), diarrhea, mouth sores, and stomach complaints, and also as a mild laxative, to promote appetite, to prevent spasms, to poultice swellings, and to stop menstrual flow.19 Additional external and internal uses include treating “large stomachs,” “female weakness,” “general debility,” and “to ward off tacklers.” At least 1 tribe, the Cherokee, used an infusion of the bark of 1 species, C. spathulata, to promote circulation. Furthermore, the berries have been used as food, both fresh and dried, and were considered by the Thompson tribe as a good health food for general sickness. The inner bark was chewed as gum, and the thorns were used as fish hooks, awls, pins, and to probe boils and areas of arthritic pain.

The first mention of hawthorn’s cordial actions on the heart may have been made by the Swiss physician Paracelsus (1493-1541).12 The English physician Nicholas Culpeper (1616-1654) wrote that dried, powdered hawthorn berries added to wine would help with “stones” and dropsy (edema of lower extremities caused by congestive heart failure); an infusion of the flower would stop diarrhea or flux; and that the seed, bruised and boiled in wine, was “good for inward tormenting pains.”20 In her 1931 classic, A Modern Herbal, Maud Grieve attributes cardiac, diuretic, astringent, and tonic actions to C. oxyacantha.13 While the plant mainly was used as a cardiac tonic, the flowers and berries also were used, due to their astringency, to treat sore throats.

The use of hawthorn for heart conditions had entered European clinical practice by the 17th century and became popular in the late 19th through early 20th centuries.3 In North America, hawthorn was used for cardiac medicine by 1896. Today, hawthorn preparations are one of the best-selling botanical medicines in Germany.16 Tea made from the leaf and flower are available loose and in teabags; dry and fluid extracts, tinctures, soft extracts, and injectable forms are also available. In France, hawthorn is used for anxiety and insomnia.21 It also is utilized as a mild sedative, often in combination with lavender (Lavandula spp., Lamiaceae) or lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, Lamiaceae) in cases where mild heart disease is accompanied by nervousness.14

Hydroalcoholic extract of hawthorn leaf with flower (flowering twig tips of C. monogyna, C. laevigata, or other species of the genus Crataegus cited in a valid pharmacopeia and effective dosage preparations made from them) was approved by the German Commission E for decreasing cardiac output as described in functional Stage II (slight limitation of physical activity; comfortable at rest) of the New York Heart Association’s 1994 Revisions to Classification of Functional Capacity and Objective Assessment of Patients with Diseases of the Heart (NYHA).22 Hawthorn berry, flower, and leaf as single components received negative evaluations from the German Commission E in 1994 due to insufficient scientific evidence at that time supporting their use, although combined leaf with flower extracts were approved that year.12 Other sources recommend it for Stage I of NYHA as well as cardiac degeneration that does not yet require digitalis, bradycardic arrhythmias, and a sensation of pressure in the chest. The European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP) also recommended herbal tea and preparations other than a hydroalcoholic extract for support of cardiac and circulatory function in nervous heart complaints.23

CURRENT AUTHORIZED USES IN COSMETICS, FOODS, AND MEDICINES
In 2011, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) called for scientific data to be used by its Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) for assessment work toward the establishment of Community herbal monographs and/or Community list entries for both hawthorn and hawthorn leaf and flower preparations.24,25 Once these monographs are established, they will have relevance for the registration of traditional herbal medicinal products and/or well-established use herbal medicinal products in the European Community. A prerequisite of product registration is that quality complies with the corresponding quality standards monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia, in which there are presently 4 hawthorn monographs (i.e., Hawthorn Berries PhEur, Hawthorn Leaf and Flower PhEur, Hawthorn Leaf and Flower Dry Extract PhEur, and Quantified Hawthorn Leaf and Flower Liquid Extract PhEur).26 Concerning use in cosmetic products, the European Commission Health and Consumers Directorate lists several hawthorn ingredients for skin-conditioning function, including Crataegus Monogyna Flower Extract, Crataegus Monogyna Flower Water (aqueous solution of the steam distillate), Crataegus Monogyna Fruit Extract, Crataegus Monogyna Leaf Extract, Crataegus Oxyacantha Extract (extract of the whole plant), Crataegus Oxyacantha Flower Extract, and Crataegus Oxyacantha Fruit Extract. However, Crataegus Oxyacantha Flower Water is listed for masking function while Crataegus Oxyacantha Stem Extract is listed for antimicrobial function.27

In the United States, hawthorn is regulated as a dietary supplement component requiring manufacturer notification to the US Food and Drug Administration within 30 days of marketing a product (if a “structure-function” claim is made), while in Canada hawthorn is regulated as an active ingredient of licensed natural health products (NHPs) requiring pre-marketing authorization from the Natural Health Products Directorate (NHPD). The authorized use for labeling of hawthorn berry NHPs (decoction or infusion, dried hydroalcoholic extract, fluidextract, or tincture) is “(Traditionally) used in Herbal Medicine to help maintain and/or support cardiovascular health in adults.”28 For labeling of hawthorn leaf and flower NHPs (infusion or decoction, or standardized hydroalcoholic extract), the authorized statement is the same as for the berries, except the qualifier “Traditionally” is removed because the claim statement in this case is based on clinical data rather than on traditional use evidence. The finished hawthorn NHP must comply with the minimum specifications outlined in the current NHPD Compendium of Monographs and the medicinal ingredient may comply with the specifications outlined in the aforementioned European pharmacopeial monographs or with those of the United States Pharmacopeia (USP).28 For quality specifications of hawthorn dietary supplement components in the US and/or hawthorn NHP active ingredients in Canada, the USP has 2 monographs available, Hawthorn Leaf with Flower and Powdered Hawthorn Leaf with Flower.29

MODERN RESEARCH
Pharmacological studies suggest that the primary active components of hawthorn leaf and flower are the flavonoids and oligomeric procyanidins, specifically those with a lower degree of polymerization.1 Hawthorn fruit consists mainly of oligomeric and polymeric procyanidins and relatively low levels of flavonoids.

In the 1990s, 13 clinical studies with 6,815 participants showed positive effects on cardiac insufficiency.1 Most of these studies were conducted using a dry extract of hawthorn leaf and flower standardized to a dose of 9 mg or more per day of oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs). Since the turn of this century, more than a dozen clinical trials have been conducted assessing the safety of hawthorn (occasionally in combination with other botanical components) and its cardiovascular benefits, especially cardiotonic activity.

Hawthorn’s ability to lower blood pressure (BP) has been linked to nitric-oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilation, and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is an indirect measure of NO release. A 2012 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 4-period crossover study investigated the relationship between various dosages of hawthorn extract and FMD to determine a guide for dosing to help lower BP.30 Randomly sequenced doses of hawthorn extract (1,000 mg, 1,500 mg, and 2,500 mg of Hawthorn Supreme Liquid Phyto-Caps [250 mg dried extract hawthorn leaf and flower standardized to 50 mg oligomeric procyanidins]; Gaia Herbs, Inc., Brevard, NC) were given to 21 prehypertensive or mildly hypertensive adults twice daily for 3.5 days followed by FMD measurement. There was no evidence of dose-response effect and the authors concluded that any BP-lowering effect hawthorn might have could be due to mechanisms other than NO. They noted that the subjects of the study may have had a more limited ability to produce NO as their average age was 51 and NO production declines after age 40. Additionally, the authors suggested that the preparation used in their study might not be representative of all hawthorn products.

A 2010 double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study investigated the beneficial effects of C. laevigata on coronary heart disease (CHD) biomarkers.31 For 6 months, 49 diabetics with CHD took a micronized leaf and flower preparation (400 mg standardized to 5% procyanidins and 2% flavonoids; Crataesor, Soria Natural SL, Spain) or placebo 3 times per day in addition to their existing conventional treatment. Participants in the hawthorn group showed decreased neutrophile elastase (NE) and a trend toward lowered low-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to placebo. Since NE is elevated in patients with CHD and is correlated with the complexity and severity of blocked arteries (coronary stenosis), the inhibition of NE could provide a viable therapeutic option.

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial published in 2009 sought to determine the usefulness of hawthorn in treating 120 ambulatory patients with NYHA class II-III chronic heart failure.32 For 6 months, patients received, in addition to their conventional medicine, either 450 mg twice daily Crataegus Special Extract WS® 1442 (Crataegutt®, 80 mg hawthorn leaf with flower dry extract 5:1 [w/w], standardized to 18.75% OPCs; Dr. Willmar Schwabe GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany) or placebo. Subjects took a 6-minute walking test prior to starting the study and at 3 and 6 months. There was no significant difference between the hawthorn and placebo groups in the 6-minute walking test at 6 months, nor in the secondary quality of life scores, heart failure symptom scores, functional capacity, risk or mortality, neurohormone profiles, or markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. As these results were not consistent with previous studies, the authors suggested various reasons why that might be, including the following: sample size, participants with milder NYHA scores, less rigorous tests, and/or wider variation in accepted medical treatments in earlier studies, or overlap of hawthorn mechanism of action with that of drugs being taken by participants in this study.

A 2008 study involving 2,681 participants investigated the efficacy and safety of hawthorn as an add-on treatment for patients with heart failure.33 Participants in the hawthorn group received 900 mg daily Crataegus Special Extract WS 1442 for 24 months. While cardiac mortality reduction was insignificant, in a subgroup with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), the hawthorn extract reduced sudden cardiac death by 39.7%.

In 2008, a meta-analysis addressed the benefits of hawthorn leaf and flower extract monopreparations as reported in 14 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials.34 A total of 1,100 participants took either 160-1800 mg/day of Crataegus Special Extract WS 1442 or Faros® LI 132 (100 mg hawthorn leaf with flower dry native extract 4–7:1 [w/w], standardized to 2.25% flavonoids; Lichtwer Pharma GmbH; Berlin, Germany). In a majority of the studies, hawthorn was used as an adjunct therapy to conventional treatment. Treatment with hawthorn extract increased maximum workload better than placebo; it significantly increased exercise tolerance; pressure-heart rate product (an index of cardiac oxygen consumption) decreased; and significant improvements in shortness of breath and fatigue occurred compared to placebo. The authors concluded that, while based on small numbers of studies and patients, hawthorn flower and leaf extract has significant effects as adjunct therapy for patients with chronic heart failure, but that further investigation was needed that reported clinical as well as physiological outcomes.

A 2006 study investigated the hypotensive effect of hawthorn.35 For 16 weeks, 79 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized to receive 1,200 mg hawthorn extract daily (Faros LI 132) or placebo. Data were collected at baseline, 8, and 16 weeks. There was no significant difference between groups regarding BP measurements or indices of glycemic control but there was a significant different in diastolic BP in the hawthorn group, indicating that hawthorn does have a hypotensive effect.

FUTURE OUTLOOK
In EU Member States as well as non-EU countries such as Switzerland, hawthorn dry extracts, fluidextracts, teas, and tinctures are labeled and marketed as non-prescription drug products available at pharmacies and drugstores.36 There are about 4,000 native European plants with known pharmacological effects, of which about 500 are authorized for medicinal use. Of these, the top-10 best-selling medicinal plants account for one-third of the entire EU market. In recent years, hawthorn has ranked tenth in European herbal medicinal product sales.36 In the US, hawthorn dietary supplement retail sales were ranked 24th, at $281,834, in the food, drug, and mass market channel in 2011, a slight increase over the previous year.37

Demand for hawthorn ingredients with sustainability certifications (e.g. Organic Wild and FairWild®) appears to be increasing, as evidenced by the fact that wild collection firms are implementing ecological and social standards for hawthorn harvesting in a number of countries including Albania and Azerbaijan,38 as well as Bosnia and Herzegovina, Poland,39 and even Chile.40
—Gayle Engels and Josef Brinckmann

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Internetlinks

http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/en/d/Js4927e/9.html
http://www.anaturalhealingcenter.com/documents/Thorne/monos/CrataegusMono.pdf
http://www.annetanne.be/crataegus-meidoorn/
http://www.herbaltherapeutics.net/Crataegus.doc.pdf
http://www.phcogrev.com/article.asp?


J Sep Sci. 2015 Aug;38(15):2630-9. doi: 10.1002/jssc.201500021. Epub 2015 Jul 3.
Quality control of processed Crataegi Fructus and its medicinal parts by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.
Yin F1, Li L1, Chen Y2, Lu T1, Li W1, Cai B1, Yin W1,3,4.
Crataegi Fructus, an edible food, has been used as a traditional medicine to treat diseases for many years. There is substantial evidence that multiple constituents are responsible for the beneficial effects of Crataegi Fructus. To effectively control the quality of this herbal medicine, we developed an ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry protocol to simultaneously quantify ten compounds (chlorogenic acid, procyanidin B2, l-epicatechin, glucosylvitexin, vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside, vitexin, rutin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, and quercetin) in Crataegi Fructus. Multiple-reaction monitoring was used for the quantification in the negative mode for 8 min. This proposed method is simple, reliable, sensitive, and specific. Further, the quantification parameters, including linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, precision, reproducibility, stability, and accuracy were optimized. The quality of the processed samples of Crataegi Fructus was evaluated using this method. Additionally, the method was successfully used to distinguish the medicinal components, including peel, kernel, and flesh. The data described in this study offer valuable information for the quality control and proper use of Crataegi Fructus.

Molecules. 2014 Dec 15;19(12):20962-74. doi: 10.3390/molecules191220962.
Aortic relaxant activity of Crataegus gracilior Phipps and identification of some of its chemical constituents.
Hernández-Pérez A1, Bah M2, Ibarra-Alvarado C1, Rivero-Cruz JF3, Rojas-Molina A1, Rojas-Molina JI1, Cabrera-Luna JA4.
This study focused on the assessment of the vasorelaxant activity of the organic and aqueous extracts obtained from leaves and fruits of a Mexican hawthorn (Crataegus gracilior) on isolated rat aorta, and on the purification and identification of some of their secondary metabolites by the use of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The results obtained showed that the methanol extract has a significantly more potent and effective vasorelaxant effect than the other tested extracts, with an EC50 = 8.69 ± 4.34 µg/mL and an Emax = 94.6% ± 11.30%, values that are close to that of acetylcholine, the positive control. From the same extract, two major triterpenes were isolated and identified as ursolic and corosolic acids by comparison of their experimental NMR spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. Chlorogenic acid, rutin, quercetin, kaempferol and (+)-catechin were also identified using HPLC coupled with PDAD. All these compounds have already been proven to possess on their own antihypertensive effect and other benefits on cardiovascular diseases and they can support, at least in part, the traditional use of this plant species.


ċ
maurice godefridi,
2 sep. 2010 12:12
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