Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge

Algemene en botanische informatie
Familie: Fabaceae - Vlinderbloemigen
Naam: Milkvetch (E.),
Volksnamen: hoàng k´y, huang-chi, huangoi, huangqi, huángqi, hwanggi, membranous milkvetch, milkvetch, Mongolian milk-vetch, neimeng huangqi, ogi, ougi, zhongfeng, naomaitong.

Soorten: A. mongholicus Bunge, veel andere Astragalussoorten ook in de Alpen
Astragalus glycyphyllos L. ( Hokjespeul): enige inheemse soort
Ecologie, teelt: Vaste plant, 40 cm hoog, groene bladeren 3 tot 6 cm lang,
Inheems in China, Korea, Mongolie en Siberie (5,6)

Gekweekt in N-China en Korea
Naamverklaring: astragalos (Gr.) hoekig, kantig naar de hoekige stengels en wortels, wervel

Materia medica, gebruikte delen van de plant
Astragali radix,
De wortel van Astragalus membrenaceus (Fisch) Bunge en Astragalus mongholicus Bunge (Fabaceae) (1,2)
Beschrijving: Kleur licht-geel tot geel-bruin. Smaak ietsje zoet. Zachte geur.

Samenstelling
** triterpeensaponinen: astragalosiden en iso-astragalosiden
** polysacchariden: astragalan, astraglucan AMem-P (3,13): immuunmodulerend
* Isoflavanoiden (0,02%) in kleine hoeveeheden, o.a. fromononetine (oestrogeen)

Farmacologie
** immuunmodulerend, verhoogt de weerstand o.a. IgA en IgG worden verhoogd. NK cellen worden gestimuleerd, fagocytose activiteit (RES systeem)verbetert.
* Beschermen cellen tegen verschillende virussen (hepatitis B, coxackie B2, influenza) door o.a. aanmaak van interferon (Yang 1990)
* adaptogeen: verbetert lichamelijke uithouding en geestelijke leerprocessen (dierproeven)
Nota: Astragalus is meer een immuunmodulator met enige adaptogene werking

Indicatie

Immuunsysteem (verhogen weerstand tegen infecties)
** Verkoudheid, griep, vooral bij zwakte Zie Echinacea, Sambucus
* Chronische bronchitis
* Bij kankertherapie om weerstand te verbeteren
* Bij Aids therapie

Hart en Bloedvaten
* Na hartinfarct of ouderdomshart + Crataegus
* Hoge bloeddruk, circulatie

Suikerziekte / Ouderdomsdiabetes + Arctium lappa + Trigonella

Volksgeneeskunde China (Chang)
* Nephritis
* Oedeem
* Lepra

Receptuur en Bereidingswijzen

Radix Astragali
Decoct: 10 tot 30 gr. daags bij chronische neusverkoudheid
3 tot 6 gr. decoct in 150cc water, 3x daags
Tinctuur (1:5) ethanol 30%, 3 tot 5 ml 3x daags
Zalf of olie 10% op wonden

Species (kruidenmengsels uit de Chinese kruidengeneeskunde)
Combinaties met Ligustrum lucidum, Codonopsis en Panax ginseng
Astragalus (outer energy) + Panax ginseng (inner energy): in de sport en bij zwaar buitenwerk om de ademhaling te versterken (Ron Teeguarden)
Astragalus + Angelica sinensis: om de bloedcirculatie te verbeteren (bij zwakte?)
Astragalus + Glycyrrhiza uralensis: om het bloedsuikergehalte te reguleren

Geschiedenis en Wetenschappelijk onderzoek
Zeer lang in gebruik in Oosten, vooral China
Andere soorten in Ayurveda: gomharsen uit A. gummiferum (Tragacanth) en anderen. (Nadkarni - Indian Materia Medica)

Referenties
  • Bombardelli E, Pozzi R. Polysaccharides with immunomodulating properties from Astragalus membranaceus. Europe patent, 1991, 441:278.
  • Chang HM, But PPH, eds. Pharmacology and applications of Chinese materia medica, Vol. 2. Singapore, World Scientific Publishing, 1987.
  • Chu DT et al. Fractionated extract of Astragalus membranaceus, a Chinese medicinal herb, potentiates LAK cell cytotoxicity generated by a low dose of recombinant interleukin-2. Journal of clinical laboratory immunology, 1988, 26:183–187.
  • Chu DT, Wong WL, Mavligit GM. Immunotherapy with Chinese medicinal herbs I. Immune restoration of local xenogeneic graft-versus-host reactions in cancer patients by fractionated Astragalus membranaceus in vitro. Journal of clinical laboratory immunology, 1988, 25:119–123.
  • Chu DT, Wong WL, Mavligit GM. Immunotherapy with Chinese medicinal herbs II.
  • Farnsworth NR, ed. NAPRALERT database. Chicago, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, August 8, 1995 production (an on-line database available directly through the University of Illinois at Chicago
  • Hou YD et al. Effect of Radix Astragali seu hedysari on the interferon system. Chinese medical journal, 1981, 94:35
  • Hsu HY. Oriental materia medica, a concise guide. Long Beach, CA, Oriental Healing Arts Institute, 1986.
  • Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, The Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences.Immunity parameters and blood cAMP changes in normal persons after ingestion of Radix Astragali. Chung hua i hsueh t’sa chih, 1979, 59:31–34.
  • Jin R et al. Immunomodulative effects of Chinese herbs in mice treated with antitumor agent cyclophosphamide. Yakugaku zasshi, 1994, 114:533–538.
  • Morazzoni P, Bombardelli E. Astragalus membranaceus (Fish.) Bge. Milan, Indena, 1994.
  • Peng JZ et al. Inhibitory effects of interferon and its combination with antiviral drugs on adenovirus multiplication. Zhongguo yixue kexueyuan xuebao, 1984, 6:116–119.
  • Reversal of cyclophosphamide-induced immune suppression by administration of fractionated Astragalus membranaceus in vivo. Journal of clinical laboratory immunology, 1988, 25:125–129.
  • Tomoda M et al. A reticuloendothelial system-activating glycan from the roots of Astragalus membranaceus. Phytochemistry, 1992, 31:63–66.
  • Wang QL et al. Inotropic action of Astragalus membranaceus Bge. saponins and its possible mechanism. Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi, 1992, 17:557–559.
  • Yamamoto H, Mizutani T, Nomura H. Studies on the mutagenicity of crude drug extracts. I. Yakugaku zasshi, 1982, 102:596–601.
  • Yang YZ et al. Effect of Astragalus membranaceus on natural killer cell activity and induction of alpha- and gamma-interferon in patients with coxsackie B viral myocarditis. Chung-hua i hseuh tsa chih (English Edition), 1990, 103:304307.
  • Zhou KS, Mancini C, Doria G. Enhancement of the immune response in mice by Astragalus membranaceus extracts. Immunopharmacology, 1990, 20:225–233.
  • Zhuang MX et al. The effects of polysaccharides of Astragalus membranaceus, Codonopsis pilosula and Panax ginseng on some immune functions in guinea-pigs. Zhongguo yaoxue zazhi, 1992, 27:653–655.
Klinische onderzoeken vlgs WHO monografie
Oral or intranasal administration of an aqueous A. membranaceus extract to 1000 human subjects decreased the incidence and shortened the course of the common cold. Two months of oral administration of the herb significantly increased the levels of IgA and IgG in the nasal secretions of patients susceptible to the common cold. Details of these studies were not available.

A hot water extract of A. membranaceus root taken by human subjects was reported to have a pronounced immunostimulant effect. Human adults treated with an oral dose of Astragalus root (15.6 g person per day for 20 days) significantly increased serum IgM, IgE, and cyclic AMP concentrations. Extracts of A. membranaceus have been further reported to stimulate the production of interferon, a protein with antiviral activity, in both animals and
humans in response to viral infections. A hot water extract of the drug administered intramuscularly for 3–4 months to patients with coxsackievirus B myocarditis enhanced natural killer cells, a response which was mediated through interferon induction. Furthermore, both natural and recombinant interferons enhanced the antiviral activity of an A. membranaceus extract.

Astragalus teelt volgens Richter
Market Products: (root); Market size: 1,700 hectares (world), 560 ha (North America)
Culture: Seed density: 130-160 seeds/gram Exposure: full sun, Soil: well-drained, deep, moist, alkaline, Crop duration: 4-5 years. Sowing rate: 6-8 kg/ha (direct), 3-4kg/ha (indirect). Planting: can be started in deep plugs, but suffers transplant shock easily. Probably better to sow direct in field, in early spring or fall. Scarification helps speed germination. Harvested in fall, lateral roots trimmed, dried partially and then sliced 0.5 cm thick, and then further dried. Field spacing: 75-100cm between rows x 25cm within rows. Yield: 7000kg/ha (year 4-5). Pests: no data
Diseases: unidentified root rot when in wet conditions.
Sowing rate: 75g/1000 plants. Planting: sow in deep plugs 19-20 weeks before sale; transplant before plugs are root-bound. Highly susceptible to mites. Seeds to finished plugs: 10 weeks. Plugs to saleable plants: 9 weeks. Pests: spider mite Diseases: damping-off.

Algemene literatuur
Teeguarden Ron - Chinese tonic herbs. Japan Publications 1985
Astragali radix. WHO monografie (doc. Maurice Godefridi)

Typologie
Astragalus behoort samen met Panax ginseng, Schisandra en Polygonum multiflorum tot de major tonic uit de Chinese kruidengeneeskunde.
Invloed op meridiaanbanen: Milt, Longen en Drievoudige verwarmer.
Energie tonicum, warme energie
Smaak: zoet
Zou meer geschikt zijn voor jonge, actieve mensen
Verwarmt de oppervlakte van het lichaam, beschermt daarom tegen koude. 


Astragalus membranaceus monograph

The genus Astragalus , commonly known as milk vetches, is comprised of more than 2,000 species distributed worldwide. The Chinese A. membranaceus and the related A. mongholicus are thought to be varieties of the same species. 1 Both are perennial herbs native to the northern provinces of China and are cultivated in China, Korea, and Japan. The dried root is used medicinally. Astragalus roots are sold as 15 to 20 cm long pieces that have a tough, fibrous skin with a lighter interior. It is sold as shredded roots, and in powder, tincture, and encapsulated form. Some products are produced by frying the roots with honey, although the untreated root itself also has a sweet, licorice-like taste.

History
Astragalus root use is very old and well-known in traditional Chinese medicine and is listed in the Pharmacopoeia of China . It is used in China principally as a tonic and for treatment of diabetes and nephritis. It is an important component of Chinese Fu Zheng herbal therapy, in which the goal is to restore immune system function. There is extensive Chinese-language literature on the herb/plant.

Chemistry
A polymerase chain reaction method for measuring astragalus content in a polyherbal preparation has been published. Markers for each component were developed using decamer oligonucleotide primers. 2 Hairy root cultures of astragalus have been established and produced cycloartane saponins. 3 , 4 , 5

Astragalus root contains a series of cycloartane triterpene glycosides denoted astragalosides Ι to VΙΙ, that are based on the genin cycloastragenol and contain 1 to 3 sugars attached at the 3-, 6-, and 25-positions. 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 In the predominant astragalosides Ι to ΙΙΙ, the 3-glucose is acetylated. Several saponins based on the oleanene skeleton also have been reported. 10 The aboveground parts of astragalus contain similar but distinct saponins in the cycloartane series, 11 , 12 and many other species of astragalus contain cycloartane saponins. 13

A variety of immune polysaccharides have been reported from astragalus root. Astragalan Ι is a neutral 36 kD heterosaccharide containing glucose, galactose, and arabinose, while astragalans ΙΙ and ΙΙΙ are 12 kD and 34 kD glucans, respectively. 1 , 14 Three similar polysaccharides and an acidic polysaccharide, AG-2, were isolated. 1 A complex 60 kD acidic polysaccharide, AMem-P, with a high hexuroic acid content from A. membranaceus 15 and a similar but distinct 76 kD acidic polysaccharide, AMon-S from A. mongholicus were reported. 16 Polysaccharides known as astroglucans A-C from A. membranaceus were patented. 17

Isoflavan glycosides based on mucronulatol and isomucronulatol have been found in the roots of A. membranaceus . 9 , 18 Several products appear to use these compounds for standardization despite the lack of reported biological activity. In addition, the free isoflavones afrormosin, calycosin, formononetin, and odoratin have been isolated from the roots. 19 , 20

A unique biphenyl was isolated from A. membranaceus var. mongholicus as an antihepatotoxic agent. 18

Uses and Pharmacology

Immunostimulant
The most common use of astragalus root in herbal medicine in the United States is as an immunostimulant to counteract the immune suppression associated with cancer chemotherapy. This use is based on several observations.

Animal/Clinical data
The cycloartane saponins are capable of stimulating the growth of isolated human lymphocytes. 13 The polysaccharides astragalans Ι and ΙΙ were found to potentiate immunological responses in mice following intraperitoneal administration but not after oral administration. 14 The glycans AMem-P and AMon-S increased phagocytic indices with intraperitoneal injection into mice. 15 , 16
Aqueous extract of astragalus root stimulated phagocytosis of murine macrophages and augmented proliferation of human monocytes in response to phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and pokeweed mitogen. 21 , 22 In cells from cancer patients, which were comparatively resistant to such stimulation, astragalus extract also stimulated mononuclear cells. Using a graft versus host (GVH) model, astragalus extract restored the GVH reaction in vivo for healthy and immunosuppressed patients. 23
These in vitro and in vivo effects justify further human trials of the immunostimulant activity of astragalus root extracts in patients whose immune systems have been suppressed by cancer chemotherapeutic drug regimens.

HIV
Another use of astragalus root in the United States is in the treatment of HIV infection. It may help reduce opportunistic infections, but such use depends on a host-mediated response because the aqueous extract of astragalus has no direct effect on viral infectivity 24 and little effect on viral reverse transcriptase. 25

Animal data
Research reveals no animal data regarding the use of astragalus in HIV.

Clinical data
A pilot trial of a Chinese herbal formulation containing astragalus root was found to improve subjective measures and symptomatology; however, the number of subjects was too small to detect statistically meaningful effects. 26
A series of unverified reports from China claim that treatment with herbal mixtures including astragalus can induce seronegative conversion in a small fraction of HIV patients. 27 , 28
In view of revised opinions on the population dynamics of the HIV virus in infected humans, an attempt to stimulate T-cell proliferation may not be a realistic therapeutic objective because the turnover rate is rapid. Nevertheless, improvement in subjective symptoms in the above study 26 cannot be ignored, and a larger clinical trial might confirm these effects as important.

Other uses
Astragalus often is recommended for the prevention of the common cold; however, there are no published clinical trials that support this use.
The biphenyl compound 4,4′,5,5′,6,6′-hexahydroxy-2,2′-biphenyldicarboxylic acid 5,6:5′,6′-bis (methylene), 4,4′-dimethyl ether, dimethyl ester was isolated as the antihepatotoxic principle of astragalus root. 18 The isoflavones afrormosin, calycosin, and odoratin had antioxidant activity similar to butyl hydroxytoluene or alpha-tocopherol in several experimental models of air oxidation of lipids. 19 , 20
Astragalus root saponins also has diuretic activity presumed to be caused by local irritation of the kidney epithelia. 29 Astragalus saponins showed anti-inflammatory and hypotensive effects in rats. 1

Dosage
There is no recent clinical evidence to guide dosage of astragalus products; however, typical recommendations are 2 to 6 g daily of the powdered root. 30

Pregnancy/Lactation
Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.

Interactions
None well documented.

Adverse Reactions
Research reveals little or no information regarding adverse reactions with the use of this product.

Toxicology
An astragalus hot water extract that had been boiled for 90 minutes was mutagenic in the Ames test in S. typhimurium TA98 when activated by S9 rat liver fractions. The activity was dose-dependent. In addition, the mutagenic activity was not removed by XAD-2 resin treatment. The same preparations given by intraperitoneal injection at 1 to 10 g/kg produced chromosomal aberrations in the bone marrow of mice, and increased the incidence of micronucleated cells in bone marrow. No attempt was made to isolate the mutagenic compounds responsible for these effects. 31

The pharmacology and toxicology of the genus Astragalus have been reviewed. 32

Bibliography
1. Tang W, Eisenbrand, G. Chinese Drugs of Plant Origin . Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1992:191.
2. Cheng KT, Tsay HS, Chen CF, Chou TW. Determination of the components in a Chinese prescription, yu-ping-feng san, by RAPD analysis. Planta Med . 1998;64:563-565.
3. Hirotani M, Zhou Y, Rui H, Furuya T. Cycloartane triterpene glycosides from hairy root cultures of Astragalus membranaceus . Phytochemistry . 1994;37:1403-1407.
4. Hirotani M, Zhou Y, Lui H, Furuya T. Astragalosides from hairy root cultures of Astraglus membranaceus . Phytochemistry . 1994;36:665-670.
5. Zhou Y, Hirotani M, Rui H, Furuya T. Two triglycosidic triterpene astragalosides from hairy root cultures of Astragalus membranaceus . Phytochemistry . 1995;38:1407-1410.
6. Kitagawa I, Wang HK, Takagi A, Fuchida M, Miura I, Yoshikawa M. Chemical constituents of astragali radix, the root of Astragalus membranaceus Bunge. (1). Cycloastragenol, the 9,19-cyclolanostane-type aglycone astragalosides, and the artifact aglycone astragenol. Chem Pharm Bull . 1983;31:689-697.
7. Kitagawa I, Wang HK, Saito M, Takagi A, Yoshikawa M. Chemical constituents of astragali radix, the root of Astragalus membranaceus Bunge. (2). Astragalosides, Ι, ΙΙ, ΙV, acetylastragaloside Ι and isoastragalosides Ι and ΙΙ. Chem Pharm Bull . 1983;31:698-708.
8. Kitagawa I, Wang HK, Saito M, Yoshikawa M. Chemical constituents of astragali radix, the root of Astragalus membranaceus Bunge. (3). Astragalosides ΙΙΙ, V, and VΙ. Chem Pharm Bull . 1983;31:709-715.
9. He ZQ, Findlay JA. Constituents of Astragalus membranaceus . J Nat Prod . 1991;54:810-815.
10. Kitagawa I, Wang HK, Yoshikawa M. Chemical constituents of astragali radix, the root of Astragalus membranaceus Bunge. (4). Astragalosides VΙΙ and VΙΙΙ. Chem Pharm Bull . 1983;31:716-722.
11. Zhu YZ, Lu SH, Okada Y, Takata M, Okuyama T. Two new cycloartane-type glucosides, Mongholicoside Ι and ΙΙ, from the aerial part of Astragalus mongholicus . Chem Pharm Bull . 1992;40:2230-2232.
12. Ma Y, Tian Z, Kuang H, et al. Studies of the constituents of Astragalus membranaceus Bunge. ΙΙΙ. Structures of triterpenoidal glycosides, huangqiyenins A and B, from the leaves. Chem Pharm Bull . 1997;45:359-361.
13. Calis I, Yürüker A, Tasdemir D, et al. Cycloartane triterpene glycosides from the roots of Astragalus melanophrurius . Planta Med . 1997;63:183-186.
14. Liu X, Wang M, Wu H, Zhao X, Li H. Isolation of astragalan and its immunological activities. Tianran Chanwu Yanjiu Yu Kaifa . 1994;6:23-31.
15. Tomoda M, Shimizu N, Ōhara N, Gonda R, Ishii S, Ōtsuki H. A reticuloendothelial system-activating glycan from the roots of Astragalus membranaceus . Phytochemistry . 1991;31:63-66.
16. Shimizu N, Tomoda M, Kanari M, Gonda R. An acidic polysaccharide having activity on the reticuloendothelial system from the root of Astragalus mongholicus . Chem Pharm Bull . 1991;39:2969-2972.
17. Bombardelli E, Pozzi R. Polysaccharides with immunomodulating properties from Astragalus membranaceus and pharmaceutical compositions containing them. Eur pat 441278 A1;1994.
18. He ZQ, Wang BQ. Isolation and identification of chemical constituents of Astragalus root. Plant Biochem . 1991;114:385.
19. Shirataki Y, Takao M, Yoshida S, Toda S. Antioxidative components isolated from the roots of Astragalus membranaceus Bunge (Astragali Radix). Phytother Res . 1997;11:603-605.
20. Toda S, Shirataki Y. Inhibitory effects of isoflavones in roots of Astragalus membranaceus Bunge (Astragali Radix) on lipid peroxidation by reactive oxygen species. Phytother Res . 1998;12:59-61.
21. Sun Y, Hersh E, Lee SL, McLaughlin M, Loo T, Mavligit G. Preliminary observations on the effects of the Chinese medicinal herbs Astragalus membranaceus and Ligustrum lucidum on lymphocyte blastogenic responses. J Biol Response Mod . 1983;2:227-237.
22. Lau BH, Ong P, Tosk J. Macrophage chemiluminescence modulated by Chinese medicinal herbs Astragalus membranaceus and Ligustrum lucidum . Phytother Res . 1989;3:148.
23. Sun Y, Hersh E, Talpaz M, et al. Immune restoration and/or augmentation of local graft-vs-host reaction by traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. Cancer . 1983;52:70-73.
24. Yao XJ, Wainberg M, Parniak M. Mechanism of inhibition of HIV-1 infection in vitro by purified extract of Prunella vulgaris . Virology . 1992;187:56-62.
25. Ono K, Nakane H, Zeng-Mu M, Ose Y, Sakai Y, Mizuno M.. Differential inhibitory effects of various herb extracts on the activities of reverse transcriptase and various deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymerases. Chem Pharm Bull . 1989;37:1810-1812.
26. Burack JH, Cohen MR, Hahn JA, Abrams DI. Pilot randomized controlled trial of Chinese herbal treatment for HIV-associated symptoms. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol . 1996;12:386-393.
27. Lu W. Prospect for study on treatment of AIDS with traditional Chinese medicine. J Tradit Chin Med . 1995;15:3-9.
28. Lu W, Wen R, Guan C, et al. A report on 8 seronegative converted HIV/AIDS patients with traditional Chinese medicine. Chin Med J . 1995;108;634-637.
29. Hostettmann K. Saponins . Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press; 1995:267.
30. Gruenwald J, ed. PDR for Herbal Medicines . 2nd ed. Montvale, NJ: Thomson Healthcare Inc.; 2000:56.
31. Yin XJ, Liu DX, Wang HC, Zhou Y. A study on the mutagenicity of 102 raw pharmaceuticals used in Chinese traditional medicine. Mutat Res . 1991;260:73-82.
32. Ríos J, Waterman P. A review of the pharmacology and toxicology of Astragalus . Phytother Res . 1997;11:411-418.


Chinesischer Tragant (Saatgut)

Bedeutende Heilpflanze für viele Anwendungen
Die wörtliche Übersetzung ‘Gelber Führer’ deutet schon die große Bedeutung dieser Heilpflanze in der chinesischen Medizin an. Die gelbe Wurzel dient in erster Linie dazu, die Qi-(Chi-)Energie zu beleben und ist daraus folgernd gegen nahezu alle Beschwerden einsetzbar. Denn ‘Qi’ ist die Lebenskraft, und wenn diese angeregt wird - wie auch beim Ginseng - dann werden Selbstheilungskräfte mobilisiert und viele Krankheiten verschwinden von selbst.
Trotzdem eine Aufzählung der wichtigsten traditionellen Anwendungen: Bei chronischer Müdigkeit, Herzschwäche, Diabetes, Kreislauferkrankungen, Bluthochdruck, Leber- und Nierenkrankheiten, Störungen des Hormonhaushaltes. Neuere Forschungen zeigen positive Wirkungen auf die Nebennierenrinde und auf das Immunsystem. Kleine, gelbe Blüten; wie von einer Erbsenpflanze. Pflanzung in sandige, durchlässige, leicht alkalische Erde.

Neuere Forschungen zeigen sogar, dass Extrakte aus Astragalus membranaceus durch Aktivierung der Telomerase die Telomere an den Chromosomenenden wieder verlängern können. Damit ist auch aus wissenschaftlicher Sicht die Lebenskraft stärkende Wirkung erwiesen.

Enthält Astragaloside, die in den letzten Jahren dafür bekannt geworden sind, die Telomerase zu aktiveren und damit den Alterungsprozess zu verlangsamen.

Haltbarkeit: frostfest, ausdauernd
Höhe/Platzbedarf: 90/30

Synonyme / Suchworte
Huang-qi

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