Alchemilla sp. / Vrouwenmantel


ALCHEMILLA VULGARIS L. 
Vrouwenmantel 

Algemene en Botanische Informatie 


Familie: Rosaceae - roosachtigen. 
Naam: Alchémille (fr.), Frauenmantel (d.), Ladies mantle (e.). 
Volksnamen: Synnauw, Onzervrouwenmantel. 
Etymologie: Alchemilla (arabisch alkemelich) = alchemie. Vrouwenmantel: vorm van blad als mantel. 
Soorten: 
A. xantochlora Rothm. = A. vulgaris Auct., 
A. glabra Neygenf. - Kale vrouwenmantel, 
A. acutiloba Opiz. - Spitsbladige vrouwenmantel, 
A. filicaulis Buser - Fijnstengelige vrouwenman tel, 
A. alpina - Alpenvrouwenmantel, 
A. erythropoda, 
A. mollis Rothm. - Zachte vrouwenmantel. 
Verwante geslacht: Aphanes L. - Leeuwenklauw. 



  1. Alchemilla[genus](9/8)
    1. acutiloba[species]
    2. filicaulis[species]
    3. glabra[species]
    4. micans[species]
    5. mollis[species]
    6. monticola[species]
    7. subcrenata[species]
    8. vulgaris[species]
    9. xanthochlora[species]

Teelt, ecologie: Hemikrypt in weiden, graslanden, wegbermen en bosranden. Gemakkelijk te vermeerderen door scheuren van de wortelstok. 
Het blad heeft last van de schimmel Uromyces alchemil lae. 

Materia Medica, gebruikte delen van Alchemilla 

Alchemillae herba, de hele bovengrondse bloeiende plant van Alchemilla vul garis auct. Non L. (= Alchemilla xantochlora Rothm.). 

Oogst: tijdens de vroege bloei; later wordt het blad soms lelijk door een schimmel infectie; twee oogsten per seizoen zijn mogelijk. 
Beschrijving: groen gelige bladstukken met witzilverige onderkant door de beharing van vooral het jonge blad, bladrand grof getand, hoofdnerf onderkant sterk uitstulpend, gelige bloemknopjes en behaarde stengelstukjes. 
smaak: licht, bitter en samentrekkend (looistoffen). 
Import: vooral uit Polen, Rusland, Bulgarije en Hongarije. 

Ganzdroge: Aussehen. Hohle, dicht seidigschimmernd behaarte Stiele; Rosettenblätter langgestielt, 5- bis 7fingerig, 1 bis 2 cm lang, länglich-elliptisch bis lanzettlich, fiedernervig, an der Spitze gesägt, oberseits kahl, am Rande und unterseits dicht silberglänzend seidig behaart; Nebenblätter 1 bis 2 cm lang, hoch hinauf unter sich und mit dem Blattstiel verbunden; wenige Stengelblätter, rasch an Größe abnehmend, im Blütenstand auf die Nebenblätter reduziert; Blüten klein, kurz gestielt, mit kreiselförmigem, behaartem Kelchbecher, zu mehr oder weniger kleinen, kugeligen, traubig-rispigen Gesamtblütenständen vereinigte Knäuel; Außenkelchblätter verkümmert, Kelchblätter gelb, vier Staubblätter zwischen den Kelchblättern stehend.
Mikroskopisches Bild: Obere Epidermiszellen der Blätter in der Flächenansicht derbwandig, reichlich getüpfelt, nahezu geradlinig-polygonal; Zellen der unteren Epidermis in der Flächenansicht wellig, zart; im Gegensatz zur oberen Epidermis zahlreiche Spaltöffnungen vom anomocytischen Typ und dicht anliegende, schmale, dickwandige Haare; Mesophyll bifacial gebaut, zahlreiche Kristallkammern mit relativ großen Oxalateinzelkristallen insbesondere unter der oberen Epidermis. 

Samenstelling, inhoudsstoffen van Alchemilla 

** looistoffen 6-8 % o.a. ellagitannine, pedunculagin (1, 2 en 3) 
* flavonoïden: quercitine-3-glucoronide 
* etherische olie (geur?) 

Farmacologie, algemene fysiologische werking

** adstringentium: verstevigend op weefsel, wondgenezend (vulnerarium) 
** tonicum vooral voor de baarmoeder. 
* spierversterkend. (?) 
** luteotroop, gonadotroop (4), heeft via hypofyse invloed op ovarium 

Several Rosaceae species, including A. xanthochlora , have high tannin content and elastase inhibitin activity. In a similar vein, flavonoids extracted from Alchemilla inhibit the activity of the proteolytic enzymes elastase, trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin. These results suggest a possible role by these inhibitors in the protection of conjunctive and elastic tissues.

Indicatie, medisch gebruik van Alchemilla

Hormonaal - endocrinologie 
* amenorroe, wegblijvende menstruatie, te sterke menstruatiebloedingen 
                R./ Alchemillae hb. 0,100 + Aesculi fol. 0,150  + Vitis fol. 0,150 ber.: poeder 1 capsule, 3x daags 1 
* premenstrueel syndroom PMS 
* premenopauze met amenorroe 
                R./ Alchemillae neb. 0,050 + Inulae pulv. 0,150 ber.: Voor 1 capsule, 3 x d. 1-2 capsule 
* zwangerschap: preventie tegen striemen en abdominale atonie 
                R./ Ajugae hb. 30 + Millefolium hb. + 70 Alchemillae hb. 30 ber.: dec. 5', 50 g/1 l. als lotion 
* kuur na bevalling als uterustonicum. (spierversterkend, toniserend) 
* baarmoederfibromen. Zie receptuur.
* borstversteviging. R./ kompres: Alchemilla decoct met fenegriekpoeder
* endometriose (ziekte waarbij weefsel dat enigszins lijkt op de bekleding van de baarmoeder (het baarmoederslijmvlies) buiten de baarmoeder wordt gevonden)

Darm 
* diarree. Zie looistofplanten. 
* colitis, enteritis. Zie ook Echte kamille e.a. 

Huid - uitwendig (looistoffen) 
** acné                               In- en uitwendig 
* wonden                            Vooral verse plant 
* jeuk                                 Zie R./ 
* conjunctivitis                    Oogbad 100 g/1 liter.  Zie ook Foeniculum, Euphrasia, Matricaria
* gingivitis                          mondspoeling 
* rimpels (inhibitie elastase)

Receptuur en Bereidingswijzen van Alchemilla

Infuus: 10', 30 g/1 l, bij pijnlijke maandstonden 2x daags 1 kop, 1 week voor. 
Decoct: 10', 100 g/1 l als looistofplant voor uitwendig gebruik (lotion) bij o.a. jeuk, acné, keelpijn, borstversteviging(?) te combineren met hydrolaat 
Nota: Alchemilla kan goed gecombineerd worden met Millefolium en / of Capsela bursa pastoris.

Vinum: 
R./ Alchemilla 10 g vers of gedroogd  + vinum 1/4 l,  ber.: inf. 10'.dos.: 1 glas daags. Ind.: diarree. 

Species: R./ Leclerc (zalf) 
Alchemilla hb. extr. 2 g 
rozenwater 18 g 
lanoline 10 g 
vaseline 30 g                        indicatie: pruritus / jeuk (genitaliën) 

R./ recept dr. Gérault 
Vitex agnus castus ø 
Lithospermum ø                   ber.: gelijke delen van de 4 tincturen 
Alchemilla ø                         dos.: 3 x daags tot 80 druppels. 
Ribes nigrum ø                     ind.: ovariumcyste (inhibitie). 

R./ tegen baarmoederfibromen (Mamaherb)
Boil 50 Gms of Alchemilla vulgaris leaves in 250 ml of water for 30 minutes. Strain and drink the Alchemilla vulgaris leaves extract twice daily for six months along with conventional treatments. The prognosis of Uterine Fibroma is considerably improved in six months of treatment with Alchemilla vulgaris leaves extracts.

Geschiedenis en Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek 

- Alchemisten gebruikten de vochtdruppels op het blad om zogenaamd goud te maken. 
- Brunfels: «voor in- en uitwendige kwetsuren en wonden». 
- Durantus c.: «voor bloedspuwen, rode loop, en onmatige vloed der vrou wen». 
- Dodonaeus: «voor de witte vloed der vrouwen,… op der vrouwen borsten gelegt, maakt die hard ende stijf, belettende dat zij niet te vol oft dick en worden» 
- Le Strange citeert: «... Dronk men het gedistilleerde water 20 dagen, dan bevorderde dit de bevruchting, nam men een bad in het aftreksel dan werd de bevalling uitgesteld». Het baden zou zelfs de maagdelijkheid herstellen! 
- Künzle: «voor alle vrouwen na de bevalling om verzakkingen te voor komen». 
- Leclerc: succes bij onregelmatige menstruatie, witte vloed, vulvaire jeuk (uitwendig zie r.) 

Referenties Alchemilla
1 Beguin: Composition chimique d'Alchemilla vulg. Pharm. Act. Helv. 6/195-240 - 1931. 
2 Mühlemann: Composition chimique de l'Alchemilla vulg. (acide lutéïque). Pharm. Act. Helv. 13 - 1938. 
3 Lund k.: Dissertation univ. Freiburg - 1986. 
4 Schwartz: Action d'Alchemilla sur la sphère genitale femelle. Pharm. Ind. 11/374 - 1944. 
5 Petcu e.a.: Clujul med. 52, 266 (1979), c.a. 93/843 - 1980. 
Overzicht: Schimmer en Felser: Alchemilla xantochlora rothm. Ztschr. F. Phytoth. 13/207-214 - 1992. 
  • Fraisse D, Heitz A, Carnat A, Carnat AP, Lamaison JL. Quercetin 3-arabinopyranoside, a major flavonoid compound from Alchemilla xanthochlora. Fitoterapia. 2000 Aug; 71(4): 463-4. 
  • Fraisse D, Carnat A, Carnat AP, Lamaison JL. [Standardization of the aerial parts of Alchemilla]Ann Pharm Fr. 1999 Sep; 57(5): 401-5. 
  • Lamaison JL, Carnat A, Petitjean-Freytet C, Carnat AP. [Quercetin-3-glucuronide, main flavonoid of Alchemilla, Alchemilla xanthochlora Rothm. (Rosaceae)] Ann Pharm Fr. 1991; 49(4): 186-9. 
  • Lamaison JL, Carnat A, Petitjean-Freytet C. [Tannin content and inhibiting activity of elastase in Rosaceae] Ann Pharm Fr. 1990; 48(6): 335-40. Review.
  • Filipek J. Effect of Alchemilla xanthochlora water extracts on lipid peroxidation and superoxide anion scavenging activity. Pharmazie . 1992;47:717-718.
  • Effects of Alchemilla vulgaris and glycerine on epithelial and myofibroblast cell growth and cutaneous lesion healing in rats. Ravi Shrivastava,  Nathalie Cucuat,  Gareth W. John. Phytotherapy Research Volume 21, Issue 4, pages 369–373, April 2007

Typologie, het karakter van Alchemilla

M. Uyldert: 
samentrekkende kracht hebben alle roosachtigen en daar door geven zij ons zelfbeheersing, kuisheid, waardigheid en distinctie. Looistofplanten zijn yang planten. Signatuurleer: bladvorm zoals een mantel, betekent beschermend.

Weblinks algemeen


http://christian-escriva-helichryse.promonature.com/precis%20phytotherapie%20extrait%203.pdf


Les Alchémilles sont douées de vertus ‘progestérone mimétiques’, c'est-à-dire agissent à la manière de la progestérone ; il est bien connu que l’un des multiples effets de la progestérone sécrétée naturellement au niveau ovarien est de contribuer à l’élimination de l’eau des tissus (les oestrogènes agissent de manière inverse).
Il n’est pas clairement établi si les Alchémilles renferment un ou plusieurs composants qui ‘mimeraient’ la progestérone, mais les effets observés rappellent ceux de la progestérone. Dans les règles douloureuses, chez la jeune fille, les extraits d’Alchémilles peuvent contribuer à améliorer un équilibre hormonal déficient : certaines jeunes filles paraissent fortement perturbées par la venue de leurs premières règles, ou par leur absence (aménorrhées dites ‘primaires’, c'est-à-dire qui concernent les jeunes filles qui n’ont jamais eu de règles) ; il est vrai que des plantes à effets ‘œstrogène-mimétique’ peuvent aussi aider, telle la Sauge sclarée
par exemple ; les deux catégories de plantes ont des effets complémentaires, apportent des informations complémentaires à l’organisme.

Chez la femme, les Alchémilles peuvent être efficaces dans le syndrome pré menstruel et les dysménorrhées, comme chez la jeune fille : elles conviennent à des femmes qui ont tendance à grossir en fin de cycle ou même dès le milieu du cycle (rétention d’eau), au niveau des seins, des hanches : elles se sentent mal à l’aise et attendent avec impatience la venue de leurs règles. Les Alchémilles doivent alors être prises en commençant vers le dixième jour du cycle, et jusqu’à la fin des règles.

Les Alchémilles peuvent favoriser la fécondité, dans certains cas : elles sont indiquées pour les femmes chez lesquelles ‘la nidation’ ne peut pas se réaliser, ou bien qui ne peuvent pas poursuivre normalement une grossesse après quelque temps (fausses couches après une période plus ou
moins longue, quelques semaines ou quelques mois…). Les Alchémilles semblent ici agir en ‘calmant’ l’utérus, en favorisant ce qui est parfois appelé ‘le silence utérin’.
L’on sait bien que cet effet est opposé à celui des oestrogènes. Il est bienvenu aussi en fin de grossesse, quand il y a risque de contractions prématurées. En fait les Alchémilles peuvent être conseillées en cures régulières, entrecoupées de périodes d’arrêt, tout au long de la grossesse.
Après l’accouchement, les Alchémilles ont l’effet bienvenu de favoriser la ‘remise en place de l’utérus’, de cicatriser les plaies au niveau utérin, de réparer les plaies d’éventuelles épisiotomies, voire de césariennes. Elles sont indiquées après tout accouchement ! Elles ont un geste de ‘resserrement’, après la période de la grossesse pendant laquelle tous les tissus de la région gynécologique étaient distendus.
Elles contribuent au rétablissement du cycle, aident la maman à se ‘ressaisir’ après la période très particulière de la grossesse.
Pendant l’allaitement, elles sont très utiles en cas de montée de lait excessive.
Elles sont données dans les leucorrhées, le prurit vulvaire (dans ce dernier cas la teinture mère diluée au dixième peut être appliquée localement en compresses).
En cas d’interruption volontaire de grossesse, ou de fausse couche, elles facilitent la cicatrisation et le retour de l’équilibre hormonal.

Elles sont intéressantes dans nombre de pathologies accompagnées d’une carence en progestérone ou d’un excès d’oestrogènes : fibrome utérin, kystes ovariens, endométriose, mastoses…
Lors de la pré-ménopause et de la ménopause, elles contribuent à la venue d’un nouvel équilibre hormonal : elles sont indiquées dans les ménorragies et les métrorragies, aux côtés de l’Achillée millefeuille. Elles sont utiles chez les femmes qui ont tendance à grossir pendant cette période.

> POSOLOGIE
Deux fois 30 gouttes à quatre fois 30 gouttes par jour, par cures de trois semaines renouvelables après arrêt de huit jours. Il faut faire coïncider ces cures, dans certains cas (syndrome pré menstruel, dysménorrhées......


Lady's Mantle Drugs.com
Scientific Name(s): Alchemilla xanthochlora Rothm. (Syn. Alchemilla vulgaris auct. non L.). Family: Rosaceae

Botany
Lady's mantle is a perennial herb with a short rhizome carrying ascending or sprawling stems, and a rosette of basal leaves with dentate lobes of a circular or kidney-shaped outline. The inflorescence is a compound terminal cyme made up of dense clusters of small yellow-green flowers. Sepals are seen in two rings of four without petals. The fruit is of the achene type. Overall, the plant is softly pubescent. It is found throughout Europe in meadows, woodland clearings, pastures and in the lowland areas of the British Isles. Currently, it is distributed in Europe, North America, and Asia. 1 , 2

History
Alchemilla is one of an aggregate of species collectively referred to as lady's mantle, all possessing similar medicinal properties. Many are cultivated. Medieval alchemists collected rain water or dew collected in the leaf center and used it for its purported magical and medicinal powers. This custom derived from the plant's generic name, alchemilla , which is from the Arabic word, “alkimiya” (universal cure for disease). In medieval tradition, it was used to treat wounds and female ailments. It has long been dedicated to the Virgin Mary, since the leaf lobes resemble the edges of a mantle. Among lady's mantle's historical uses are as a mild astringent, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, menstrual cycle regulator, treatment for digestive disorders, and relaxant for muscular spasms. Externally, it was used widely in bath preparations, wound healing, skin bruises, and as an herbal cosmetic. 1 , 2

Chemistry
Lady's mantle contains 6% to 8% tannins (elagitannins, such as pedunculagin and alchemillin) and flavonoids (quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucuronide). 2 , 3

Lady's Mantle Uses and Pharmacology
The historical uses of lady's mantle as an astringent against bleeding and as a treatment for diarrhea seem justified on the bases of its tannin content. 2 Newer studies show that the water extract of A. xanthochlora possesses lipid peroxidation and superoxide anion scavenging activity. 4
Several Rosaceae species, including A. xanthochlora , have high tannin content and elastase inhibitin activity. 5 In a similar vein, flavonoids extracted from Alchemilla inhibit the activity of the proteolytic enzymes elastase, trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin. 6 These results suggest a possible role by these inhibitors in the protection of conjunctive and elastic tissues.

Animal data
A number of traditional plant treatments have been studied for diabetes in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice, but no useful effects for lady's mantle have been found in this disorder. 7

A study on the mutagenic potencies of several plant extracts (including Tinctura Alchemillae) containing quercetin in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 found that the mutagenic potential of the plant extracts correlates well with their quercetin content. 8 The cytostatic activity of a lactone fraction from Alchemilla pastoralis also has been reported. 9

Clinical data
Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of lady's mantle.

Dosage
There is no clinical evidence to support specific dosage recommendations for lady's mantle. Classical use of the herb for treatment of diarrhea was 5 to 10 g of herb daily.

Pregnancy/Lactation
Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.

Interactions
None well documented.

Adverse Reactions
Research reveals little or no information regarding adverse reactions with the use of this product.

Toxicology
No significant toxicological studies appear to have been carried out on lady's mantle and long use for various purposes (internal and external) seem to bear out the fact that it is safe in low doses. The warning in the Standard License about possible liver damage appears to be exaggerated. 2

Bibliography
1. Bunney S, ed. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Herbs . New York, NY: Dorset Press; 1984.
2. Bisset NG, ed. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals . Stuttgart, Germany: Medpharm Scientific Publishers; 1994.
3. Lamaison JL, Carnat A, Petitjean-Freytet C, Carnat AP. Quercetin-3-glucuronide, main flavonoid of Alchemilla, Alchemilla xanthochlora Rothm. (Rosaceae) [in French]. Ann Pharm Fr . 1991;49:186.
4. Filipek J. Effect of Alchemilla xanthochlora water extracts on lipid peroxidation and superoxide anion scavenging activity. Pharmazie . 1992;47:717-718.
5. Lamaison JL, Carnat A, Petitjean-Freytet C. Tannin content and inhibiting activity of elastase in Rosaceae [in French]. Ann Pharm Fr . 1990;48:335.
6. Jonadet M, Meunier MT, Villie F, Bastide JP, Lamaison JL. Flavonoids extracted from Ribes nigrum L. and Alchemilla vulgaris L.: 1. In vitro inhibitory activities on elastase, trypsin and chymotrypsin. 2. Angioprotective activities compared in vivo.] [in French]. J Pharmacol . 1986;17:21-27.
7. Swanston-Flatt SK, Day C, Bailey CJ, Flatt PR. Traditional plant treatments for diabetes. Studies in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice. Diabetologia . 1990;33:462-464.
8. Schimmer O, Hafele F, Kruger A. The mutagenic potencies of plant extracts containing quercetin in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. Mutation Res . 1988;206:201-208.
9. Sokolowska-Wozniak A. Cytostatic activity of the lactone fraction of Alchemilla pastoralis B u s [in Polish]. Ann Univ Mariae Curie Sklodowska [Med] . 1985;40:107-112.



Planta Med 2011; 77 - PL4. Antioxidant Properties and Phenolic Composition of Alchemilla mollis from Turkey
S Ertürk 1, G Şeker Karatoprak 1, M Koşar 1
1Erciyes University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy, Kayseri, Turkey

Congress Abstract
Alchemilla mollis (Buser) Rothm. (Rosaceae) is also known as Lady's Mantle and native to southern Europe and grown throughout the world as an ornamental garden plant (Evenor et al., 2001). In folk medicine, lady's mantle was also used to soothe infections of the mucous membranes of mouth and throat. The leaf tea and dewdrops from the leaves of the living plant are most commonly employed to help female conditions such as menorrhagia, menopause and painful periods. Lady's mantle was also used traditionally for treating blood sugar control diseases, although no evidence exists to support its usefulness (Kisilova et al., 2006; Shrivastava et al., 2007).
Air-dried A. mollis herb material (100g) was powdered and sequentially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and n-butanol using a Soxhlet apparatus for 8h for each. Thereafter, the extract was filtered and evaporated to dryness in vacuo at 40°C. All the extracts were analyzed in in vitro antioxidant assays.
The free radical scavenging activity of the extracts were investigated using 1,1-diphenylpicrylhydrazin (DPPH°) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS+°) radicals. Total phenols, flavonoids and flavonols, and reductive activity of the extracts were also analyzed. BHT, BHA, ascorbic acid, and gallic acid were used as positive controls. Polar fractions were found to be more active as antiradical assays. These active fractions were contained more tannins, especially galloyl tannins. Chemical composition and antiradical activity results of the A. mollis are the first report in the same research.

References: 
1. Evenor D et al. (2001) Plant Cell Tiss Org 65: 169–172.
2. Shrivastava R et al. (2007) Phytother Res 21: 369–373.
3. Kiselova Yet al. (2006) Phytother Res 20: 961–965.

Bull Exp Biol Med. 2017 Jul;163(3):374-377. doi: 10.1007/s10517-017-3807-x. Epub 2017 Jul 25. Antiviral Activity of Lady's Mantle (Alchemilla vulgaris L.) Extracts against Orthopoxviruses. Filippova EI1.
We studied toxicity and antiviral activity of bioactive substances extracted from the roots (ethylacetate extracts) and aerial parts (ethanol extracts) of lady's mantle (Alchemilla vilgaris L.). Plant extracts are characterized by low toxicity for continuous Vero cell culture, but inhibit the reproduction of orthopoxviruses (vaccinia virus and ectromelia virus) in these cells. Of all studied extracts, ethylacetate extract from lady's mantle roots characterized by the highest content of catechins in comparison with other samples demonstrated the highest activity in vitro towards the studied viruses (neutralization index for vaccinia and ectromelia viruses were 4.0 and 3.5 lg, respectively). The antiviral effect of Alchemilla vulgaris L. extracts was shown to be dose dependent.

Pharmacogn Mag. 2015 Jan-Mar;11(41):163-9. doi: 10.4103/0973-1296.149733.
Vasorelaxant and blood pressure lowering effects of alchemilla vulgaris: A comparative study of methanol and aqueous extracts.
Takır S1, Altun IH1, Sezgi B2, Süzgeç-Selçuk S3, Mat A4, Uydeş-Doǧan BS1.
BACKGROUND:
In the last decade, a growing interest particularly in determining the cardiovascular effects of herbal extracts took place among researchers.
OBJECTIVE:
Herein, we aimed to investigate the microvascular and blood pressure lowering effects of two differently processed extracts of the same herb, Alchemilla vulgaris (Rosaceaea), which was revealed to contain high levels of vasoactive compounds.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
For the purpose, endothelium intact rat mesenteric arteries were mounted in a myograph system and contracted with prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α: 3 × 10(-5) M) or potassium chloride (K(+): 40 mM). Then, aqueous and methanol extracts were added at 0.01-10 mg/ml concentrations in a cumulative manner.
RESULTS:
Both extracts produced relaxations in PGF2α (3 × 10(-5) M) precontracted arteries which were insensitive to the inhibitors of endothelium derived vasoactive substances namely, L(G)-nitro-L-arginine (10(-4) M), ODQ (10(-5) M) and indomethacin (10(-5) M) or removal of endothelium. Opposite vascular effects were observed when extracts were applied in K(+) precontracted arteries. In addition, oral administration of the methanol extract of Alchemilla vulgaris, but not the aqueous extract, reduced blood pressure significantly in L-NAME hypertensive rats.
CONCLUSION:
Our results demonstrated that the methanol extract of Alchemilla vulgaris has more prominent and favourable vascular effects in normal and experimental hypertensive conditions reinforcing its traditional use in cardiovascular disorders, in particular hypertension. These results most likely give rise to further studies to reveal its mechanism of action and clinical value of this herb.

Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2015 Sep;292(3):619-28. doi: 10.1007/s00404-015-3665-6. Epub 2015 Feb 21. Phytochemical analyses and effects of Alchemilla mollis (Buser) Rothm. and Alchemilla persica Rothm. in rat endometriosis model. Küpeli Akkol E1, Demirel MA, Bahadır Acıkara O, Süntar I, Ergene B, Ilhan M, Ozbilgin S, Saltan G, Keleş H, Tekin M.
PURPOSE:
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the treatment potential of Alchemilla mollis (Buser) Rothm. and Alchemilla persica Rothm. in the experimentally induced endometriosis model in rats.
METHODS:
Endometriosis was surgically induced in rats by autotransplanting endometrial tissue to abdominal wall. Thirty-six rats were randomly divided into six groups. The groups were orally treated with the methanol:water (80:20) extracts of aerial parts and roots of A. mollis and A. persica. Buserelin acetate (20 mg) was used as the reference drug. The phytochemical contents of the most active extracts were determined by high performance liquid chromatography.
RESULTS:
The cystic formation was determined to be significantly decreased with the aerial part extract of A. mollis. A reduction in the endometrioma was also determined for the aerial part extract of A. persica group. However, significant reduction on the levels of cytokine were recorded for the A. mollis aerial part extract group. Therefore, the phytochemical contents of the aerial part extracts of A. mollis. and A. persica were analyzed.
CONCLUSION:
The results of the present study revealed that the aerial part extracts of A. mollis and A. persica could be beneficial in the treatment of endometriosis.

Biomed Pharmacother. 2017 Feb;86:172-176. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2016.12.005. Epub 2016 Dec 12. Evaluation of hepatoprotective and antidiabetic activity of Alchemilla mollis.
Ozbek H1, Acikara OB2, Keskin I3, Kirmizi NI4, Ozbilgin S2, Oz BE2, Kurtul E2, Ozrenk BC5, Tekin M6, Saltan G2.
Alchemilla mollis (Buser) Rothm aerial part and root methanolic-water extracts were evaluated for their hepatoprotective activity on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity and hypoglycemic activity on alloxan-induced diabetic mice. None of the tested extracts exhibited effects on blood glucose levels. However hepatoprotective activity results have revealed that serum ALT levels were significantly lowered by both the aerial part and root extracts at doses of 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg. Histopathological examination showed that A. mollis aerial parts and roots induced significant recovery from cellular damage; when compared to the carbon tetrachloride group, the most significant activity was observed with A. mollis aerial part extracts at a dose of 200mg/kg. There is evidence of a hepatoprotective activity of A. mollis on the phenolic content of the plant, especially in the case of flavonoids, which have potent antioxidant properties.

Chem Biodivers. 2017 Sep;14(9). doi: 10.1002/cbdv.201700150. Epub 2017 Aug 20. Phenolic Composition, Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities of Alchemilla mollis (Buser) Rothm. Şeker Karatoprak G1, İlgün S2, Koşar M3.
The current study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of Alchemilla mollis (Buser) Rothm. (Rosaceae) aerial parts extracts. Chemical composition was analyzed by spectrophotometric and chromatographic (HPLC) techniques. The antioxidant properties assessed included DPPH· and ABTS·+ radical scavenging, β-carotene-linoleic acid co-oxidation assay. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated with disc diffusion and micro dilution method. In order to evaluate toxicity of the extracts, with the sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay L929 cell line (mouse fibroblast) was used. The anti-inflammatory activities of the potent antioxidant extracts (methanol, 70% methanol, and water extracts) were determined by measuring the inhibitory effects on NO production and pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α levels in lipopolysaccharide stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. 70% methanol and water extracts which were found to be rich in phenolic compounds (184.79 and 172.60 mg GAE/g extract) showed higher antioxidant activity. Luteolin-7-O-glucoside was the main compound in the extracts. Ethyl acetate and 70% methanol extracts showed higher antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis with MIC value of 125 μg/ml. 70% methanol extract potentially inhibited the NO and TNF-α production (18.43 μm and 1556.22 pg/ml, respectively, 6 h).

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