Whole note-A note having the time value of two half notes or four quarter notes, represented by a ring with no stem.
Half note-: A note having the time value of two quarter notes or half of a whole note, represented by a ring with a stem.
Quarter note- A musical note having the time value of a quarter of a whole note or half a half note.
8th note-An eighth note (American) or a quaver (other English-speaking countries) is a musical note played for one eighth the duration of a whole note, hence the name.
Music Bar with notes-The music staff is five lines with four spaces between the lines. The lines and space correspond with the note names. Both the lines and spaces are counted from the bottom up. A good trick for memorizing the names of the spaces is, they spell FACE from the bottom up and Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge going up the scale as well.