Non-influenza Orthomyxoviruses

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Thogotoviruses mainly infect ticks, including the Boophilis, RhipicephalusAmblyomma variegatum, and Hyalomma species. Thogotoviruses can also infect humans, cattle, sheep, donkeys, camels, buffaloes and rats, among other animals. These viruses have been found in many parts of the world, including parts of Africa (Kenya, Nigeria, Egypt, Central African Republic, Cameroon, Uganda and Ethiopia), Asia (India and eastern Russia) and Europe (Sicily, southern Portugal). Thogotoviruses consist of 2 species, the Thogoto virus (THOV) and the Dhori virus (DHOV). These species differ by infectivity (THOV infects humans naturally, DHOV has only infected humans in a laboratory setting), genome structure (THOV has 6 segments, DHOV has 7) and clinical manifestation in humans (THOV is unknown, DHOV can cause fever and encephalitis).



Isaviruses mainly infect salmon, including Salmo salar in the Atlantic and Oncorhynchus kisutch off the coast of Chile. Isaviruses have been shown to transmit to other fish, although no transmission has been documented in the wild.