2013-2014 Saturday Academy

    Unit 1-Water‎ > ‎

    Waterborne Disease

    This exercise was developed by Keith Johnson, KUMC Medical Student


    Clean fresh water is essential for many organism and dictates where organism live. It is a renewable resource as long as it is not polluted contaminated or overused. Water can serve as a cleansing agent or be a source vehicle for bacteria, protozoa and viruses that can make humans sick.

    Diarrhea remains in the second leading cause of death among children under five globally. Nearly one in five child deaths – about 1.5 million each year – is due to diarrhea. It kills more young children than AIDS, malaria and measles combined.

    At any given time, half of the world’s hospital beds are occupied by patients suffering from diseases associated with lack of access to safe drinking water, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene.

    The majority of the illness in the world is caused by fecal matter. Almost one-tenth of the global disease burden could be prevented by improving water supply, sanitation, hygiene and management of water resources. Such improvements reduce child mortality and improve health and nutritional status in a sustainable way.

    • 88% of cases of diarrhea worldwide are attributable to unsafe water, inadequate sanitation or insufficient hygiene.
    • 90% of all deaths caused by diarrheal diseases are children under 5 years of age, mostly in developing countries.

    It is estimated that improved sanitation facilities could reduce diarrhea-related deaths in young children by more than one-third. If hygiene promotion is added, such as teaching proper hand washing, deaths could be reduced by two thirds. It would also help accelerate economic and social development in countries where sanitation is a major cause of lost work and school days because of illness.

    Water can be treated with simple bacteria killing methods such as boiling, chemical disinfection and filtration. Water is often sold in stores in distilled form, as purified water and spring water.

     Discuss the following:

    What are the symptoms of diarrhea? How do you cure it?

    Information to use in your discussion:

    World Health Organization water related diseases: Diarrhea

    What are the differences in water that is labeled as distilled, purified and spring water?

     Information to use in your discussion:

    1. Dying for a drink of clean water

    2. How to purify water

     

    Facts and Figures on Water Quality and Health

    The global health challenge: preventing water quality-related disease

    1. No safe drinking-water: almost 1 billion people lack access to an improved supply
    2. Diarrhoeal disease: 2 million annual deaths attributable to unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene
    3. Cholera: more than 50 countries still report cholera to WHO
    4. Cancer and tooth/skeletal damage: millions exposed to unsafe levels of naturally-occurring arsenic and fluoride
    5. Schistosomiasis: an estimated 260 million infected
    6. Emerging challenges: increasing use of wastewater in agriculture is important for livelihood opportunities, but also associated with serious public health risks

    The Health Opportunities: Implementing good practice

    1. 4% of the global disease burden could be prevented by improving water supply, sanitation, and hygiene
    2. A growing evidence base on how to target water quality improvements to maximize health benefits
    3. Better tools and procedures to improve and protect drinking-water quality at the community and urban level, for example through Water Safety Plans
    4. Availability of simple and inexpensive approaches to treat and safely store water at the household-level

    Source: World Health Organization (WHO); http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/diseases/en/

     

     

    Cholera

     


    Exercise

     

    Answer the following questions completely and thoroughly. Use reliable sources (make sure you know what a reliable source is) and list your sources. Please look over the document over plagiarism for a review of why it is important to cite sources.

    Construct a Powerpoint, iMovie or formal presentation to present your answers to the rest of the group. 

     You will be using these materials to help build your e-portfolio so save a copy for yourself when you email it.

    1. What is Epidemiology?
    2. What is Prevalence?
    3. What is Incidence?
    4. What are the causes of this disease and in what locations in the world are they found? Map these locations.
    5. Describe in detail the characteristics of the organism responsible for the cause of your disease. i.e what is the life cycle of the organism that causes this disease. What is it about the lifecycle that causes symptoms, or helps it spread?
    6. What are the symptoms of this disease and what is occurring within the body that causes these symptoms?
    7. How do you treat this disease,(think ways to purify water in addition to medicines)?
    8. How might social economic status effect the chances of contracting this disease and how might it effect the course of treatment?
    9. How does the prevalence of this disease in certain locations relate to the social economical status of that area?
    10. What can be done to prevent the spread of this disease?

     


    References:

    UN. 2007. International Year of Sanitation Global Launch

    UN Water. 2008. Gender, Water and Sanitation: A Policy Brief.

    UN Water. 2008. Tackling a Global Crisis: International Year of Sanitation 2008

    Diarhhoea: Why children are still dying and what can be done. UNICEF, WHO 2009





    This exercise was designed for Middle School students

    Clean fresh water is essential for many organism and dictates where organism live. It is a renewable resource as long as it is not polluted, contaminated or overused. Water can serve as a cleansing agent, or it can be a source vehicle for bacteria, protozoa and viruses that can make humans sick.

    Diarrhea remains the second leading cause of death among children under five globally. Nearly one in five child deaths – about 1.5 million each year – is due to diarrhea. It kills more young children than AIDS, malaria and measles combined.

    At any given time, half of the world’s hospital beds are occupied by patients suffering from diseases associated with lack of access to safe drinking water, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene.

    The majority of the illness in the world is caused by fecal matter. Almost one-tenth of the global disease burden could be prevented by improving water supply, sanitation, hygiene and management of water resources. Such improvements reduce child mortality and improve health and nutritional status in a sustainable way.

    • 88% of cases of diarrhea worldwide are attributable to unsafe water, inadequate sanitation or insufficient hygiene.
    • 90% of all deaths caused by diarrheal diseases are children under 5 years of age, mostly in developing countries.

    It is estimated that improved sanitation facilities could reduce diarrhea-related deaths in young children by more than one-third. If hygiene promotion is added, such as teaching proper hand washing, deaths could be reduced by two thirds. It would also help accelerate economic and social development in countries where sanitation is a major cause of lost work and school days because of illness.

    Water can be treated with simple bacteria killing methods such as boiling, chemical disinfection and filtration. Water is often sold in stores in distilled form, as purified water and spring water.

     



    Facts and Figures on Water Quality and Health

    The global health challenge: preventing water quality-related disease

    1. No safe drinking-water: almost 1 billion people lack access to an improved supply
    2. Diarrhoeal disease: 2 million annual deaths attributable to unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene
    3. Cholera: more than 50 countries still report cholera to WHO
    4. Cancer and tooth/skeletal damage: millions exposed to unsafe levels of naturally-occurring arsenic and fluoride
    5. Schistosomiasis: an estimated 260 million infected
    6. Emerging challenges: increasing use of wastewater in agriculture is important for livelihood opportunities, but also associated with serious public health risks

    The Health Opportunities: Implementing good practice

    1. 4% of the global disease burden could be prevented by improving water supply, sanitation, and hygiene
    2. A growing evidence base on how to target water quality improvements to maximize health benefits
    3. Better tools and procedures to improve and protect drinking-water quality at the community and urban level, for example through Water Safety Plans
    4. Availability of simple and inexpensive approaches to treat and safely store water at the household-level

     

    Source: World Health Organization (WHO); http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/diseases/en/

     

     

    Cholera


     




    References:

    UN. 2007. International Year of Sanitation Global Launch

    UN Water. 2008. Gender, Water and Sanitation: A Policy Brief.

    UN Water. 2008. Tackling a Global Crisis: International Year of Sanitation 2008

    Diarhhoea: Why children are still dying and what can be done. UNICEF, WHO 2009