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HISTORY OF KAMBOJ PEOPLE 

Mostly foreigners or non-Kamboja Indian people wrote the books of history. The outsiders or unattached writers no doubt can write more positively about us but they tend to miss some of the salient aspects of our tribes.

People seems to be very much ignorant about the existence of the modern descendents of the once ruling elite known as the Kambojas, now mainly scattered in the North India and Pakistan. .

These Kamboja Aryan people, the famous frontier highlanders of the by-gone era, had contributed greatly to the spread of Aryan culture in Ceylon, Cambodia and in ancient India & Iran.

Thus the Kambojas people were the true frontier people and they were living on the remoter outer skirts of mainland India on its extreme north and even beyond the Gandhara country. This land was truly the remotest lying area so far as the Madhyadesha land its people/its writers were concerned. This is one important single reason why the post-epic Sanskrit and Pali writers of Madhyadesha have written very scantily about these remote lying ancient Kamboja people, Kamboja countries & Kamboja kings in the ancient Sanskrit and Pali literatures. The is simply because the writers themselves were living far from these Kamboja people and Kamboja lands and thus were not very much updated or familiar with these remote frontier people and their kings as well as their administration systems.

Thus, we see that most of the times, whatever has been written about these Kamboja people was written as if these people were a little known people or as if they were an outsider people or a foreign tribes and further as if, they had ceased to be an active part of the main stream of the Aryan population of mainland India and were thus not to be given any detailed and respectable reckoning or account in the writings of the later Sanskrit/Pali writers. This is one glaring problem of the history of the ancient Kamboja people of the post-epic era. But if we read between the lines, all the references to Kambojas quoted in various Sanskrit and Pali scriptures, epigraphic and rock inscriptions and several foreign sources, we can draw some intelligent inferences and solid conclusions about the Kamboja people, their countries. And we can reconstruct their political, social and economic set up or system fairly accurately. The numerous learned scholars and writers on Kamboja history have done exactly the same thing and now we have started to have some believable and authentic historical material about the Kamboja country, KambojaPeople and Kamboja rulers, in the celebrated writings of some of these learned scholars. But still we have touched only the tip of the ice-berg. We have long way to go to fully know and understand the history of these famous ancient people who undoubtedly formed a very important Aryan segment of the ancient Indo-Aryan society as well as of the Iranian Aryan society as you will see as we stream through the bulk of this SANSKRIT TERM 'KAMBOJ' AND ITS VARIOUS.

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  • KAMBOH- WORD DERIVATIVE

The word Kamboh and its synonymous words like Kambocha (as in Ashoka's Dhauli Rock inscriptions), Kamboya (as in Ashoka's Shahbajgari rock inscriptions), Kabo, Kambo, Kammo, Kamo (Panjabi), Kambhu, Kambhi, Kambe, Kambey or Cambey and Kamboi (Gujrat), Kaam, Kam, Kamma, Kaum, Camoje/Kamoj, Camojee, Camoze/Kamoz, Kamtoz (in Pushtu, the name of Shiaposh tribes, in Kafirstan (Nuristan), south-east of Hindukush), Kambodha, Kamuda, Kumuda (Vayu Purana), Komde, Komdei, Tamboza (Ptolemy), Kieufieu, (Tathatataguhya-Sutra) Kambu/Kaofu, Kipin, Chipin (Chinese), Kampoce, Kampoch, Kapoce, Kapoch, Kampotes, Kampochih (Tibetan religious texts), Kambojka, Kamboika, Kamui, Kamoi, Kamuia (Khroshti) etc etc are the Prakritic/other malformations, variants or derivatives of the original Sanskrit standard term KAMBOJ which stands for Kamboja people as well as Kamboja country

Ref : (Hindu Polity--A Constitutional History of India ( Part I & II) by Dr K. P. Jayaswal, Kamboja People and the Country by Dr. Jia Lal Kamboj D. Lit, These Kamboj People by K. S. Dardi).

The entire ancient and medieval Indian literature is replete with profuse references to Kamboja or Kamboj, which represent Kamboj people, Kamboj Prince, and Kamboj country. (e.g. "The Reference Kamboja-uluk of Panin's Ashatadhyai (4,1,175) indicates that the reference Kamboj variously stands for Kamboja King, Kamboja Prince, Kamboja people and Kamboja country", ref : Panini's India, 1954, page 6 by Dr V. D. Aggerwal,. Ancient India by Dr. D. R. Bhandarker).

The word Kamboj in reference to Kamboja Vamsa, Kamboja King and Kamboja country occurs again and again in India's Buddhist and Sanskrit religious literatures (Ref: Sir George Griesen) like Vedas, Puranas, Shastras, Mahabharta, Ramayana, Manusimirtis, Jatkas, Mudrarakshasa, Rajatrangini etc and other famous classics of ancient and medieval India like those of Panini, Yasaka, Kautalya, Bhaas, Kali Das etc etc., to mention only a few (Ref: Kamboja People and the Country by Dr J. L. Kamboj, These Kamboj People by K. S. Dardi).

The fact that the Kautalya's Arathasastra calles the Kamboja people as Kambhoja (Ref: Kautalya'a Arathasatra 1956 translated by Dr R Shamasastry, page 407, book XI, Chapter I) obviously refers to the Persian influence (Dr N. K. Sastri, Dr D. D. Kosambi etc) on the customs and language and name of the Kamboja people of 3/4 th century B.C who were living in the Pamir/Badakshan as well as Parapamisadaen area south of Hindukush mountain systems. In some shlokas of Mahabharata, the term Kambujana has also been used in reference to the Kamboja people of Epic India. Again the word Kampoj/Kamboj/Kambu/Kambuj in reference to Kamboja country, Kamboja King, & Kamboja Vamsa etc also occurs in countless ancient and medieval rock inscriptions in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, and Cambodia (Kamboj Desh) per Dr J. L. Kamboj of Delhi University.

In Pali literature, also a variation of Kamboja occurs as KAMBOJESU.

In Persian, this word occurs as Kambujia or Kambojia in the old Persian rock inscriptions refering to Achaemenian (Kainad) kings and their vamsa i.e. "………..Later, Kamboja people crossed Sindh north-westwards and expanded into Iran where their name stands preserved as Kambujia in old persian rock inscriptions relating to Achaemenian Kings."

(Ref: Ancient Vedic India by Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar, Vedic Index of Names & Subjects by Dr. A. A. Macdonell and Dr. A. B. Keath, Hindu World Vol I, by Benjamin Walker, Pre-Aryen et Pre-Dravidien dan d'Indi, JA (Jan-March 1926) by Sylvain Levi . Also ref to researches of Dr Hoffman, Dr Lassen, Dr Kuhn, Dr S. Sen, Dr Chattopadhya, Dr. Nariman, Dr D. R. Bhandarkar, Dr. Acharya R. Raman Pandey, K. S Dardi and other Indologists).

In the rock inscriptions in Sanskrit, Pali and Khmer language in Cambodia, we find wordKambu/Kambuj/Kampuchih/Kamboja, /Kambodscha/Kambodja, Camboja etc refering to Kambodge, Cambodge, Kambuj or Kamboj Desh (Ref: Inscriptions of Veal Kantel….Inscriptions Sanscrites de Champa et du Cambodge page 30 (e. g. Kambupuri, Kambuja etc in King Yaso Varman's rock inscriptions Angkor Thom in Cambodia), The Cultural Heritage of India Vol II, by Dr. C. P. Ramaswami Aiyer, Vice Chancelor, Banaras Hindu University, UP, India, : Les Estats Hindouises d'Indochine et d'Indonesie 1964 by Prof G. Coedes …Translated as Indianized States of South-East 1964 ) which has been transliterated as Kambodge or Cambodge into French by the French writers from which the modern name Kambodia or Cambodia in English has originated.

The Pali chronicles (i.e. Chamadevivamsa, Jinakalamali, Mulasasna) in Chiangmai use Kamboja, and 'Kambojaraja' for the Kamboja king of Siridhammanagara ( Ligor) in south basin of Cambodia (Ref: : Les Estats Hindouises d'Indochine et d'Indonesie 1964 by Prof G. Coedes …Translated as Indianized States of South-East 1964 page 136). Thai chronicles left by Thai principalities (12th century AD) of upper Menam in Indo-China mentions the people of Lova in the upper basin as 'Kambojas of Lova' (op cit page 161). Sylvain Levi identifies Tambuza or Tamboza of Ptolemy's geography, with the Sanskrit Kamboj (Pre-Aryen et Pre-Dravidien dans l'Inde, JA January-March, 1926 by Sylvain Levi) and the word Cape Camboj seems to have been used for Cambodia. (Ref: Intercourse Between India & the Western World 1971 page 133 by H. G. Rawlinson M.A. I.E.S).

In the Chinese writings, the reference occurs as Kambu/Kafu/Kaofu for Kambojas of India and Chen-la for Khmer Kambojas of Cambodia.

The Tuthagataguhya-Sutra of Ratnakuta Collections of the Buddhist religion uses the word Kieufieu for the Kamboja people and Kamboja country. The reference Kieufieu of Tuthagataguhya-Sutra stands translated variously as Kampoce, Kampochih, Kapoch and Kapoce and Kampotse etc in the Tibetan religious texts. According to Tibetan religious text Paag-Saam-Jone-Zang, the country between Bengal and Burma was known as Kampotse. The Kamboja country mentioned in the Braham Purana of Sanskrit literature refers to this very same Kampotse country located in the eastern parts of India, in the neighborhood of Assam, sandwiched between Burma and Bengal. The author of Vayu Purana uses Kumuda-dvipa for Kusha-dvipa. This Kusha-dvipa or Kumuda-dvipa is the Alexandrian Sugadha Strapi (Sogdiana) situated on north west frontiers of India comprising northern parts of Tajikstan and Uzbekstan and which country appears named variously in ancient writings as Kumuda, Komuda, Komdai, Komdei, Kamdei, Kamdesh or Kambojdesh etc. This Kumuda and Ptolemy's Komdei (Kamdesh or Kambojdesh) are synominous words and they both stand for Komdesh, Kamdesh or Kamboj desh i.e Kamboja country of Kamboja people of the Iranian affinities living on the borders of ancient India and ancient Iran i.e. in the Badakshan/Pamirs and surrounding regions, says Dr. Buddha Parkash (Ref: India and the World 1964 page 71 by Dr. Buddha Parkash, Kamboja People and the Country by Dr. J. Lal Kamboj. Also ref. to researches of Dr H. C. Seth, Dr. P. C. Baghchi and other historians).

Another modified version of Kamboj is described as Kamusa, Kamuda, Kamuia, Kamoia, Kambuja, Kambujaka and Kambojaka etc in the Mathura lion Capital Inscriptions (Kharoshti language). "The reference Kamusa, Kamuda, Kamuia, Kambojaka etc represents the name of the Kambuja (Kamboja) tribe", says famous Indian historian Dr. Nil Kanth Sastri (vide Comprehensive History of India Vol 2, page 270 by Dr N. K. Sastri. Also ref to works of Dr Buddha Parkash, Dr R. K. Mukerjee, Dr J. Lal Kamboj etc).

Several Greek historians use Cambysis for Kamboj or Kambujia (O.P.) while referring to several Kamboja kings (Cambysis I, Cambysis II or Kambojia I, Kambojia II.. etc) of Achaemenian dynasty. The word Kamboj appearing in IRDA Copper Plate (i.e Kamboj-Vamsa-Tilak) and the Kamboja appearing in Dinaaj Pore Capitol Inscriptions (i.e Gaudesewara Kamboja) are used for the Kamboja Vamsa of several Kamboja Kings of Gaur Desa as well as a compellation used by one victorious Kamboja King i.e. Gaudeswara Kamboj ruling also over Gaur desh in the 9 th century AD. In the Mathura Lion Capitol Inscriptions, we find this word inscribed in Khroshti as Kambojka/Kamuia (Queen Aiyasi Kambojka/Kamuia) and Kamui/Kamudha (Prince Khrosta Kamui/Kamudha etc). We can also find the term Kamboja in its Perkritized form in the Kamaon hills of the Himalyan foothill spurs, adjoining Pauri-Garhwal area, where the Kamboja once held their own and gave their own name to these hills. Some writers and historians have used word Kanauj in the same context as the word Kamboj (Idrisi) while others opine that the word Kanyakubja from which word Kanauj evolved is yet another variation of the original Sanskritic word Kamboj (H. S. Thind etc). In Kathiawar, Gujrat, we find some Indo Aryan Kasatrya caste now engaged mainly in Agriculture and are refered to as Kambhi, Kambhe etc (Ref: Historical and Cultural Dictionery of India 1976, page 141 by George Thomas Kurian)

There is also famous medieval sea port town called Kambey or Cambey, and there is said to be another geographical place called Kamboi (Ref: Hist and Culture of Indian People, Delhi Sultanate page 155, By Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar)) or Kambhu, a famed historical place name, a site of war during 1392 between Zafar Khan and Farhat Mulk of Gujrat (vide ref: Chronology of Indian History, Vol II, 1972 by C. Mabel Duff).

These words are undoubtedly the Prakritic variants of the original Sanskritic word 'Kamboja' and are reminiscent of the Western Rajayapalas (Kashatrapas) who, after the death of Kamboja emperor Mause or Moga of Taxilla (20BC -22AD), had become independent and later ruled over Malwa/Kathiawar from the start of Christian era until the end of 3rd century AD. These Western Rajayapalas have been identified as Kamboja people by historians

(Ref: Ancient India Vol III, page 94, 125 by Dr. T. L. Shah).

We can find numerous Kamboja subcastes like Jammu,Gandhi, Chandi, Chandna, Dhote, Vinayak, Patnayak, Torna/Taruna, Sarang, Nagpaul, Soni, Asoi, Kaura, Juj etc still intact in Gujrat. Sri Guru Gobind Singh ji, while refering to the invasion of Alexandra of Macedonia, uses the reference Kamboj for the frontier people or Uttarpatha people, living on northwest frontiers of India ('Kamboj, Kilmak kathin pal me kat dare': vide Triya Chritra 217 page 1125 of Sri Dasam Granth Sahib 2024 published by Bhai Jawahar Singh, Bhai Kirpal Singh Amritsar).

The word Kamboj referring to Kamboja People appears also in Ashoka's Girnar, Kalsi and Mansehra rock inscriptions, though we also find Kambocha in Ashoka's Dhauli Rock inscriptions and Kamboya in Shahbajgarhi rock inscriptions, in reference to the same people. "The name Kambo (Kamboj) of numerous Hindu caste found in Panjab is derived from this Kamboya of Ashoka's Shahbajgarhi rock inscription" says celebrated Dr. K. P. Jayaswal. (Ref: Hindu Polity --A constitutional History of India (Part 1 & 2) by Dr K. P. Jayaswal).

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MUSLIM KAMBOHS

A PROMINENT RULING ELITE, OF MUSLIM ERA

According to well known historian, Mr A. L. Bhasham:

“The administrative reforms of Akbar had over-hauled the entire set up of muslem leadership. Not only the Iranians but even the Afghans as well as Indian Moslems like Sheikhzadas, Sayads & Kambohs formed an equal partners in the administrative set up of the Moslem rule.” (Cultural History of India by A. L. Basham, Oxford, 1975, p 261). 

The Ain-I-Akbari of Abu Fazal (Translated by H. Blochman) states that :

“under Akbar and Jahangir, it was indeed a matter of distinction to belong to the Kamboh (Kamboj) caste and that no Kamboh was in economically bad circumstances in whole of India during this period”. (Aina-I-Akbari by Abu Fazal, Trans H. Blochman). 

“Thus during the mediaval period, the Kambohs or Kambojs were considered and classed among the ruling elites” [Dr. (Prof) Jaspaul K Dhanju].


“The Moslem rule was indeed a golden period for the Indian Kambojas after they had lost their ancient kingdoms in course of time” , rightly states S Kirpal Singh Dardi.[These Kamboj People, 1980, p 202, K. S. Dardi].

(1) Among the Zuberi Kamboh Moslems, the name of Makhdum Sheikh Samayudin Kamboh (also called Sheikh Nasirudin Kamboh) is very prominent. He was born in 1405 in Multan in Pakistan. His father Maulana Sheikh Fakhrudin was a respectable religious leader of the time. Makhdum Sheikh Samayudin was the royal religious adviser or Pir to emperor Behlol Lodhi and later to Sikandar Lodhi and commanded greatest respect amongst the entire religious community of the time.

(2) Mufti Jamal-u-din Kamboh was the grand son of Makhdum Sheikh Samayudin(Sheikh Nasirudin Kamboh) Zuberi. Jamaludin remained chief Judge of Delhi during the reigns of Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi, Emperor Babur and his son Emperor Hamayun. Interestingly, he maintained this prestigious position during the brief rule of Pathan ruler Sher Shah Suri also. Probably, he was also the Chief Justice of Delhi during Akbar times. This is because he lived more than 90 long years and thereby, he must have been also a contemporary of Akbar for some times. Therefore, he must have maintained his highly respected position during the days of Akbar also. He died in 484 Hijri (Aina-a-Akbari by Abu Fazal Alami, English Trans H. Blocheman, Second Ed, 1965, p 614). His respectable father and Mia Ladan Khan Kamboh, his uncle, a welknown scholar of his times, tutored him. Author of Muntakhbu-a-Twarikh writes: “Mia Jamal-u-din delivered religious sermons. He never went to the homes of the emperor and other Aristocratic Amirs/Viziers. He always kept company with the Danashmands (intellectuals), philosophers, holymen and high class respected magistrates. Numerous of his students became great intellectuals and philosophers of their times.” (3) Mian Ladan Khan Kamboh : was son of Sheikh Nasirudin Kamboh: He was a scholar and philosopher Moslem Kamboh from the Zuberi Kamboh line. He was the intellectual and religious teacher of Mian Jamal-u-din Kamboh.

(4) Sheikh Jamali Kamboh : “He was one of the greatest poets-cum-scholar of the times in Persian language. He was much a respected and favored religious personage in the court of Sikandar Lodhi and later that of Babur. He had traveled to Arab, Egypt, Rome, Sham, Iran, Irak, Turkistan, and Afghanistan countries in those days of limited communication means. He had greatly enriched Persian literature and is considered a great sufi poet and philosopher of Persian literature”.(ref: Silsila Alya, by Anayat Hussain Mahravi) (5 )Nawab Aitmad-Al-Malik Kamboh Sambhvi: Was a great Surbeer Yodha …a very brave person who had steadfastly helped Sher Shah Suri in defeating Hamayun. As a result, when Sher Shah Suri later became emperor, Nawab Aitmad al Malik Kamboh was appointed his prime minister. Nawab sahib was instrumental in moulding Emperor Sher Shah Suri to concentrate on the administrative reforms for the benefit of the public whom he ruled. Thus Sher Shah under took, with his help, to open numerous hospitals for men & animals, dug up wells, erect Sarais or Dharamshalas etc. He also pioneered the land reforms to improve the economic condition of farmers and increase food produce. This great person is the author of Great Trunk Road which lies now between Peshawar and Calcutta. Sher Shah Suri and Nawab Aitmad al Malik Kamboh are remembered for these works they undertook for the welfare of the public in a short span of only six years of Sher Sha Suri's rule.

(6) Sheikh Abdul Gadai Kamboh : Had been a great religious leader during the times of Hamayun and Akbar. He was sada-a-sadur (Chief-Justice or administrative General) of Akbar. He was the son of Sheikh Jamali, who was a great Sufi and poet of Persian language. Sheikh Gadai was greatest scholar of Akbar times and always kept company with great scholars and philosophers of the times. Everyone in Darbar-a-Akbari was obligated to bow his head and shake his beard to pay obeisance to Akbar as entered the court. But Sheikh Gadai Kamboh was an exception. Rather, the emperor personally would visit Shiekh Gadai Sahib to obtain his blessings. He had limitless powers in the matter of Administration in Darbari-a-Akbari. He had unlimited powers to grant & take back fiefs and pass on & remit death sentences etc. He undertook numerous reforms including land reforms. He was also a famous poet of Persian language.

According Muntakhbu-a-Twarikh, “He obtained the position of Sadar-a-Sadur. In the religious affairs in India, Khorasan, Irans, and the Central Asian countries beyond the Oxus river, for many years he continued to be considered the chief among the Pirs and great religious leaders of these countries. He was indeed a born poet and wrote numerous poetry in the Indian tradition and sung them in scholarly gatherings about which he was always very excited. He would visit the Dargahs of Saints, Pirs & religious philosophers and would arrange annual fairs on their ursa. He breathed his last in 976 Hijri (1568/69).” [Muntakhbu-a-Twarikh] (7) Sheikh Hasham Khan Kamboh was grand son of Mufti Jamaludin Zuberi. He was a famous Manasabdar (General) during the reign of Jahangir.

(8) Nawab Amadul Malik Kamboh : He was the grand son of Sheikh Hasham Khan. He was the chief justice of Lahore during Shah Jahan. Later, he became the governor of Lahore and Multan during the rule of Aurangzeb.

(9) Sheikh Abdul Aziz Multani : Was Prime minister of Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi.

(10) Hasham Mohammad Akram Khan Kamboh was the chief justice of Delhi during the times of Aurangzeb.

(11) Shah Baaz Khan Kamboh : General Shahbaz Khan was one of the finest general of Emperor Akbar. Credit for most of Akbar ‘s expansions goes to this valiant Shah Baaz Khan Kamboh. Shahbaaz Khan won for Akbar the territories of Jaunpore, Bengal, Avadh, Ajmer, Udaypore, Jodhpore, Southern and Western Punjab etc. This valiant general had reduced to submission the famous Rajput Hindu chiefs like Rajaput Rana Partap, Raja Jai Chandra sen, Rana Komalgir, Rana Sangram and Raja of Surat etc. The famed Rana Partap, a proud Rajput was decisively crushed by Shahbaaz Khan and there was enormous blood shed resorted by Shabaaz upon the soldiery of Rana Partap. Rana Partap however, succeeded in saving his life by escaping from the siege of Shahbaaz Khan in the guise of a recluse or an ascetic.

Abu Fazal states that Shahbaaz Khan was an excellent general, faithful officer but he also accuses him of fanaticism. In matter of magnanimity and generosity he had no equals and his collegue generals were jealous that he has got a parse or a touchstone in his possession. His army division was always found in the best possible condition. He owned an excellent fleet of 10,000 horsemen which was made up entirely of the Kamboja soldiers. The total annual pay for his unit was over Rs 30,00000.00 in those good old days .He was the best friend of the Kambojs of whatever religion they came from and had helped them to the best of his capacity. It is stated in the Ain-a-Akbari that he helped and gave so much to the Kambohs that not even a single Kamboj was in a bad economic condition in those days.(Aina-a-Akbari by Abu-Fazal Alami Trans by H. Blochman, 1965, Second Edition).

The well known saying ‘Kukur Kaan Kamboh Kabila Palde' had indeed become vogue as a consequence to Shah Baaz Khaan's over-generosity towards his ethnicl kins from Kamboja tribe.

Daily, Shabaaz Khan would donate 100 Asharafis to the poor in the name of famous Gavas, Abdul Kadu-a-Jilani. By his valiant achievements in the field of military, Akbar was so much pleased with him that he awarded him jagir after jagir. Probably, he was the richest General of his times and thus also earned the jealousy of numerous people like Birbal, a Hindu minister in Akbar's court. After Akbar, his enemies succeeded in prevailing upon Jahangir to seize from his successors the entire fiefdom and other estate he had been awarded by Akbar for his military achievements.


Shahbaaz Khan was indeed a very arrogant General and his clash in the court of Akbar with other Generals and ministers was a routine matter. But as he was an excellent general and faithful officer, Akbar had a great regard and appreciation for Shahbaaz Khan and liked to invite Shahbaaz khan to keep company with him. In the matters of religion (Islam) Shah Baaz Khan did not even care for Akbar's authority and even defied Akbar at times. His arrogance & fanaticism indeed earned obsctacles in his way for further promotion as he did not achieve what he was really worth for. (Abu Fazal in Aina-a-Akbari). He was dedicated Nimazi and never failed in the performance of five nimaaza/day. The above text is based on Aina-a-Akbari by Abu-Fazal (Translated by H. Blochman.) [Ref p 436-444, 344, 365, 382, 197, 347, 197, 440 etc).

(12) Ilham-u-lah Kamboh : He was the son of General Shah Baaz Khan Kamboh. He held a position of Diwantan for Baglana but soon he died there. (Aina-A-Akbari by Abu Fazal, Trans H. Blochman, 1965, Second Edition, p 440)

(13) General Ranbaaz Khan : He was son of General Shah Baaz Khan. Originally he commanded a cavaliery of 1200 soldiers. Later he was promoted and became 2000 manasabdar (General) in the reign of Shah Jahan after 13 years of meritorious service. During 20th year of his service, he was propmoted and became full general for the military expedition that was sent to Bangash (Aina-A-Akbari by Abu Fazal, Trans H. Blochman, 1965, Second Edition, p 440)

(14) Maulana Sheikh Hamad, Bin Fazal Allah Jamali Multani Kamboh : He was son-in-law as well as desciple of Hazrat Sheikh Samayudin. He was the religious tutor of Emperor Sikandhar Lodhi.

(15) Sheikh Abdul Aziz Multani Kamboh : He was the prime minister of Ibrahim Lodhi. (16) Nawab Iatmadul Malik Sambhvi Kamboh : was a senior minister (some say Prime minister) of Pathan ruler Sher Shah Suri.

(17) Sheikh Abdul Moman Kamboh : He was from Aristocrats of Sambhal. He was minister in the court of Shah Jahan.

(18) Nawab Sadula Khan Chanyoti Kamboh : He was the prime minister of Shah Jahan and carried out his responsibilities of prime ministership very well.

(19) Nawab Vakaral Malik, Maulvi Mushtak Hussain : Was the governor of southern state of Nizam Haidrabad, later became home minister of Haydrabad and later his deputy prime minister. For long time he had been secretary of Aligarh Moslem University. (20) Sheikh Anaytulah was a Moslem Kamboj from Lahore. By virtue of his intelligence and abilities, he was promoted as Mir Munshi (General) and later a minister in the court of Shah Jahan.

(21) Sheikh Mohammad Saleh Kamboh Lahori : He was nephew (sister's son) of Sheikh Anayatulah. He was a Diwan of Lahore during Shah Jahan. He wrote a book Shah-Jahan-nama in Persian language. This is a well known book in history.

(22) Khwaja Hassan Multani Kamboh : He was a Multani Kamboh. Sher Shah Suri awarded him rulership of Pargana Marhara in 1502. He was very respected courtier in Darbare Sher Shah Suri.

(23) Abu Mohammad Khan Multani Kamboh : son of Khwaja Hassan Multani, was a Amir Vizier in the court of Aurangzeb.

(24 )Nawab Bahudur Khan Merathi : was another a Amir Vizier in the court of Emperor Aurangzeb. (25) Nawab Dadan Khan : He remained for some time the Governor of Lahore and had some tussels with rebel Sikhs.

(26) Nawab Mohabat Khan : He was son of Nawab Dadan Khan. He remained the Governor of Peshawar.

(27) Nawab Khair Andesh Khan : Was first son of Nawab Mohabat Khan. Very able person indeed. When the governorship of Gujarat fell vacant, in his choice of the names for the vacant position, Emperor Aurangzeb wrote to his prime minister Jamal-tal-Malik Asand Khan that for the governorship of Gujarat, he does not see more able a person than Khair Andesh Khan Kamboh.

(27) Nawab Khairyat Andesh Khan : Nawab Mohabat Khan's second son Khairyat Andesh Khan was 5000 Manasbdar (General) and was also a governor of Kashmir. This sahib had constructed the Nawab Bazar of Kashmir.

(28) Ahisan Ali Khan: was the brother of Kharyat Andesh Khan and was the governor of Kashmir during times of Ahamad Shah Durani.

(29) Afet Andesh Khan : was also son of Khairyat Andesh Khan. He was 2000 Manasabdar (General) as well as was appointed governor of Otawa during the last phase of Mogul rule.

(30) Hasham Mohammad Akbar Khan : Was Lahori Kamboj. He was the Chief justice of Delhi during the rule of Aurangzeb.

(31) Dr. Zialudin Kamboh, Ph D. Had been a great Moslem leader of modern times. Remained Vice Chancelor of Moslem University of Aligarh for long time.

(32) Hamad Ali Khan Kamboh : was a well known barrister of UP. He obtained Bar-at Law in 1885 from England and was one of the topmost legal expert of the State of Uttar Pardesh of his times. He wrote several books on Law in the early twentieth century. (33) Hakim Anayat Hussain Mahravi : Was a famous historian. He wrote a book named Sil-Sila Alia, on Kamboj history at the start of 1119th c AD.

(34) Bahavudin Kamboh : Was another prestigious Moslem Kamboj in the court of Akbar. Akbar had deputed Bahavudin Kamboj to negotiate with rebel king of Kashmir Yusuf Khan Chaak (a Kamboj?).


(35) Yusuf Khan Chak : Another well known Kamboj of ‘Chaak' sub-caste. Was the king of Kashmir during Akbar's reign. But was a rebel and at odds with Akbar.

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  • PRE-BUDDHIST OR EPIC PERIOD

Epic ramayan talks about kamboja kashatrya janapada as

The Kambojas did not participate in Ramayana war as they did in Mahabharata but we have references where Ramayana specifically talks about Kamboja Janapada or kingdom in couple of contexts. When the Mata Sita was kidnapped, we read Sugariva directing Shatabal to go and search here whereabouts in several countries including the Kamboja. 

Amongs the countries or the Janapadas so mentioned we read the names of Mlechcha, Pulinda, Surasena, Parsathala Bharata, Madardesha, Kuru, Kamboja, Yavana etc. [Ramayana: 4-4-12 cf: Kishkanda, Bhashyakar Pandit Bhagwan Gautam, Parkashak Bholeshwara Pustak Bhandar, Mathura, p 441]. Also Kamboja kingdom is respectably mentioned in reference to its famous powerful breed of horses.(Ramayana: 1-6-22). Kaambhojavishhaye jaatairbaahlikaishcha hayottamaih

vanaayujairnadiijaihshcha puurNaa harihayottamaiH || (Ramayana : I-6-22)




This abundantly proves that THE KAMBOJA KASHATRYAS WERE RULING FULL BLOOM IN THEIR KAMBOJA COUNTRY, DURING RAMAYANA PERIOD. EPIC MAHABHARATA MENTIONS THE KAMBOJAS AS A POWERFUL KASHATRYA JANAPADAS: KASHATRYA JANAPADAS: Anga, Vanga, Kalinga, Magadha, Jasi, Kosala, Vatsa, Garga, Karupa, Paundarak, Avanti, Dakshinatya,Parvartak, Dasherak, Kashmir, Ursa, Paishach, Mudgal, KAMBOJ, Vatdhaan, Chol, Pandya, Trigarta, Malava, Dardas, Khasha, Shaka, Yavana Kashatryas.(see Mahabharata 7/11/15-17).

 

  • KAMBOJA KASHATRYAS AND KARANA WAR :

Again during Karana Digvijay also, Karana had to fight with the KAASHATRYAS OF THE JANAPADAS like Kamboj, Avanti, Gandhar, Matsya, Panchal, Kasi, Kosala, Anga, Vanga , Vatsa, Kalinga and Ashmaka Kashatrya Tribes of Bharatavarsha (Mahabharata 8/8/18-20). KAMBOJA/PARAMKAMBOJA KASHATRYAS AND WAR WITH ARJUNA: In Arjuna Digvijay, Arjuna had to fight both with (1)KAMBOJA KASHATRYAS as well as (2)PARAM KAMBOJA KASHATRYAS:

SEE EVIDENCE:

Grahitava tu balam saram fhalgun: Pandunandan:/

Dardan saha KAMBOJAI rajyate pakshasini://

Pragutran disham ye che vasantaya tritatya dasayva:/

Nivsanti vanai ye che tansvaranjayat prabhu://

Lohan PARAM KAMBOJAN Nrishkanutranpi/

Sahtastan mahadaj vayajayat pakshasin:// (MBH 2I/27/23-25.


This clearly establishes that KAMBOJA KASHATRYAS were ruling in at least two seperate countries during the time of Mahabharata war. Powerful king Sudakshina Kamboja ruled in the kingdom of KAMBOJA where as another powerful Kamboja king Chander Varman Kamboj was ruling in the country of PARAM KAMBOJA (These Kamboj People, 1979, p p 63-64, K. S. Dardi)

  • KAMBOJA KASHATRYA REPUBLICS OF MAHABHARATA:
Besides these two specific Kamboja monarchies, Mahabharata also makes a separate mention of several KAMBOJA REPUBLICS in the same time frame of history: 

SEE EVIDENCE:

Narayanaashach gopala: Kambojaana che ye ganahas://

Karanayan vijita: purava sangramai shursamata/(Mahabharata 7/91/39).

i.e. the Kamboja Republics which were noted for their valiancy and military power in war and which in the former times Karana had to fight with and reduce them….” 

Panini is supposed to have lived around 500 BC. Panini mention 15 very PROMINENT KASHATRYA JANAPADAS including the Kamboja Janapada mentioned in his list of Janapadas. On the other hand, Buddhist texts mentions traditional 16 great Nations or Mahajanapadas and they also include the Kambojas & Gandharas as the two most PROMINENT MAHAJANAPADAS or GREAT COUNTRIES of the Uttaraptatha. Some of the Mahajanapadas mentioned in the Buddhist texts are not seen in the list of Panini's list of Janapadas where as some new ones have taken their place in Panini. Regarding KAMBOJA & GANDHARA, we see them both in Buddhist list of Mahajanapadas and Panini's list of Janapadas. Thus from Buddhist literature, we also find the Kambojas as one of the 16 most prominent RULING KASHATRYA FAMILIES (RAJPUT TRIBES) of Ancient India.[ref: Anguttara Nikaya, P.T.S., Vol-1. 213, Vol-4. 252, 256, 261].

Following Mahajanapada list is based on:

(A)Ancient India 1956 by Dr R. K. mukerjee, p 97

(B)Political History of Ancient India, 1996, Dr B. N. Mukerjee, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury,

page 85,133, 610)


(1)ANGA [east Bihar etc]

(2)MAGADHA [west Bihar etc]

(3)KASI 
(4)KOSALA [Avadh etc]

5)VAJJI [noth Bihar etc]

(6)MALLA [Gorakhpore]

(7)CETI/CHEDI [Doab of Jamuna/Narmada etc]


(8)VANSA/VATSA [Allahabad etc]

(9)KURU [Thaneswer, Delhi, Merath]

(10)PANCHALA [Bareli/Badayun/Farukhabad etc]

(11)MACCHA/MATASYA [Jaipur etc]

(12)SURASENA [Mathura etc]

(13)ASSAKA [Godavari/Potna etc]

(14)AVANTI [Mehishmati etc]

(15)GANDHARA [Peshawer/Rawalpindi etc]

(16)KAMBOJA [Kashmir/Kafirstan/Kabol Valley]


Actually, modern scholars locate Kamboja/Param Kamboja in Trans-Hindukush regions. The Kamboja Republics (Kambojaana che ye ganaha)are located in Kashmir/Kabol/Kafirstan. Ancient Kamboja was indeed a vast tribe and the name applied to general Indo-Iranian Aryan Speakers lying in the geographically, linguistically and culturally transitional regions between the Indo Aryans and Iranian Aryans groups.

See also Buddhist Jataka evidence below:

"Just as though, Visakha, one might have power, dominion and kingship[11] over sixteen great countries abounding in the seven treasures[12] -- that is to say, Anga, Magadha, Kasi, Kosala, Vajji, Malla, Ceti, Vansa, Kure, Pancala, Maccha, Surasena, Assaka, Avanti, Gandhara and KAMBOJA, yet it is not worth a sixteenth part of the Uposatha undertaken with its eight practices. For what reason? Miserable is kingship over men compared with heavenly bliss. [Ref: Buddhist Jataka: Anguttara Nikaya VIII.43: Visakhuposatha Sutta]. For further ref: SEE ALSO: BUDDHIST JATAKA: [Anguttara Nikaya (P.T.S.) 1. 213; 4. 252, 256, 261].
  • Early India (Epic/Post Epic Period).

In India, the ancient kingdoms were called Mahajanapadas. There were several of them all over Northern India. Anga, Ashmak, Avanti, Chedi, Gandhar, Kashi, Kosala, Magadha ( in Bihar and later annexed part of Bangla and adjoining areas when it started expansion), Matsya, Shursen and Vatsa (today: Kasuambi in Bihar, King of Vatsa, Udayana was Buddha's follower) were the major kingdoms. Some Mahajanapadas like Banga, Kamboj, Koliya, Kuru, Lichhavi, Moriya, Panchal, Shakya(Buddha's family ruled here), and Vrijji were republican* states. The REPUBLICAN STATES were not ruled by kings but had assemblies of senior and responsible elders called 'Gana-parishad'. (This is still visible in villages in India.) The Magadha (see map of Mauryan Empire), Kosala (see map of Mauryan Empire), Vatsya (Bihar), and Avanti (Ujjain in Madhya Pradesh) were the most notable kingdoms of ancient India.


”……….Kamboja adjoined Gandhara. Originally regarded as a land of Aryan speakers, Kamboja soon lost its important status, ostensibly because its people did not follow the sacred Brahmanic rites--a situation that was to occur extensively in the north as the result of the intermixing of peoples and cultures through migration and trade. Kamboja became a trading centre for horses imported from Central Asia…

 

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  • ACCEPTANCE OF KAMBOH BY ENCYLOPEDIA BRITANNICA
  • Encylopedia Britannica accepts the existence of Kamboja Janapada since Vedic times. 
    “…..Buddhist writings and other sources from the beginning of this period mention 16 major states (mahajanapada) dominating the northern part of the subcontinent. A FEW OF THESE, SUCH AS GANDHARA, KAMBOJA, KURU-PANCHALA, MATSYA, KASI, AND KOSALA, continued from the earlier period and are mentioned in Vedic literature. The rest were new states, either freshly created from declining older ones or new areas coming into importance, such as Avanti, Asvaka, Surasena, Vatsa, Cedi, Malla, Vrjji, Magadha, and Anga. The mention of so many new states in the eastern Ganges Valley is attributable in part to the eastern focus of the sources and is partly the antecedent to the increasing preeminence of the eastern regions…………….(See map, India c. 500 BC.)” 
    (EXCERPTS TAKEN FROM: On Line Encylopedia Britannica)


This clearly establishes that the KAMBOJA JANAPADA was in existence since as early as the Rig Vedic Times. Or, put it another way, the Kamboja Kashatryas had been A RULING KASHATRYA TRIBE since as early as the Rig Vedic time.

The Atharvaveda and Yajurveda texts also strongly attest to the existence of Kamboja Kashatrya Janapada.

States Dr K. P. Jayswal: “Kambojas are known to Panini for he gives rules for the derivative to denote their king. This would indicate that Panini is referring to a Monarchy. But the special rule and exceptional form of the derivative raises a doubt as to weather the RAJA of the Kambojas was monarch or a consul. In the time of Kautalya, their constitution certainly did not admit of even a titular ‘king'……”(ref: Hindu Polity, A Constuttional History of India In Hindu Times, 1978, p 52, Dr Jayswal).

Perhaps during times of Panini, Kambojas were in the transition from Monarchy to pure Republican constitution.

But Dr Jayswal also writes:

“…Katyana, commenting on Panini, IV.1.168, says that the rule (of the ‘an' partaya or affix) in making a derivative from the national designation of KASHATRYA will hold good only if the KASHATRYA is not a member of a SANGHA or REPUBLIC, for the rule is limited to the case of a Monarchy only” (ref: Hindu Polity, A Constuttional History of India In Hindu Times, 1978, p 29, Dr Jayswal).


According to Dr Romila Thapar, in ancient India, “The Sangha (or Republican) and Monarchical form of Governments were not very rigid and mutually exclusive and change from one form to another was not unheard of. Kamboja for example changed from Monarchy to Republican form of Governments (Ref: History of India Vol I, p 53 by Dr Romila Thapar).


“......During the earlier periods, the Kambojas were ruled by kings, but in Kautalya's times, they had a non-monarchaical form or Sangha type of government. (History and Culture of India, Age of Imperial Kanauj, p 15, By Dr B. C. Law).

“......The Epic makes mention of their kings Chandravarmana and Sudakshana. In later times, however, the monarchy gave place to Sangha or Republican form of government. The Kautalya Arathashastra speaks of Kambojas as a ‘Varta-shaster-opajivin' Sangha, that is to say a confederation of agriculturists, herdmen, traders and warriors. Corporations of Kambojas (Kambojana cha ye ganhas…MBH 7/91/39) are also mentioned in Mahabharata” (Political History of ancient India, 1996, p 135, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee).

Kamboja did not abruptly change from ‘Monarchy' (kingly constitution) to Coroporation of warrior (kingless Republic constitution). It had a transitional stage where, at first, the Monarchy gave place to king-consul constitution (=Raja-sabad-opajivi) which later time hadgone further changes and became VARTA-SHASTER-OPAJIVI (NATION-IN-ARMS constution) at the time of Kautalya.

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  • KAMBOJA JANAPADA IN YASAKA PERIOD (700 BC)
THE KAMBOJAS:
ONE OF THE PRE_EMINENT & MOST ANCIENT KASHATRYA TRIBES OF INDIA/AFGHANISTAN.

Between the Epic age (1200BC) and that age of Panini (500 BC), there lived another great Grammarian Yasaka (700 BC). He has commented upon the Kamboja language pecularities which has led numerous scholars to identify Kambojas as Iranian speakers rather than Indo Aryans.


Savtigartir Karama Kambojeseva Bhasyate Kamboja Kambal Bhoja, Kamniya Bhojava Kambalah Kamaniyo bhavati Vikaramasyaryesu bhavyante sava iti [Nirukuta 2/2]

This not only talks about Kamboja language pecularities of Kamboja Janapas, but it further also testifies to the luxurious style and opulence of the Kamboja of Yaskian period (see commentary of Acharya Durg, Swami Brahammuni Parivrajak Vidyamartand on Yasaka's Nirukuta; Ancient Kamboja, People & the Country, 1981, p 255, 224, 225).


The scholars attribute Panini to around 700 BC. Panini has written a Grammer book...Nirukuta. As there is no possibility of interpolation in Grammer books as in other texts, scholars generally agree that the Yasaka's Nirukuta is an uncorrupted text. Thus, as attested to by Yasaka's Nirukuta, we find the evidence of a flourishing Kamboja Janapada, around and before 700 BC, where the Kamboja Kashatrya kings had been ruling. KAMBOJA KASSHATRYA JANAPADA IN VEDIC AGE. (1200-1500 BC)

The earliest mention of Kamboja occurs in the Vamsa Brahmana (1/18) of the Samveda where a sage Aaupamanyava Kamboja is mentioned in the line. Aupanmanya was his patric name i.r. being son of Upamanu he was called Aupanyava. He was called Kamboja because he was born in Kamboja Janapada or Tribe.(Ancient Kamboja, People & the Country,1981, p 202, Dr J. L Kamboj; cf History & Culture of Ancient India, Vedic Age, 259, Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar).


The Sage Upamanu mentioned in the Rig Veda 1-102,9) has been identified as the father of this Kamboja teacher (Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar, K. D. Sethna, Dr B. C. Law, Dr Zimmer, Dr Ludwig, Dr J. L. Kamboj etc etc).

Now as sage Upamanu belongs to Vedic era. This shows that Kamboja Kashatrya Janapasda had been in existence since at least as early as Vedic Age.

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  • A STORY IN MAHABHARTA

BHISHMA HAD NERRATED THE FOLLOWING STORY OF SWORD INVENTION TO PANDU SON NAKULA WHICH STANDS RECORDED IN THE SHANTIPARAVA SECTION OF MAHABHARATA:

The world was all darkness and silence prevailed at first. Then Brahama was born. He created the five elements. Thence afterwards appeared space, time and mass which led to the creation of firmament, stars, sun, moon, planets, years, months, days, seasons etc. Then Brahama created sages Maricha, Atri and Rudri. And thence were born sea animals, land animals, and the birds by process of Andaj, Jeraj, Sethaj and utabhuja. Also were thus evolved Deva, Pritagana, Gandharava, Nymphs, Rakshasa.

After the above creations, Brahama created Dharama. When the sages, Acharyas, purohits and all devas, Rishis, munis, etc were engaged in the study of Vedas and spread of Dharma thence there arose cupidity, avarice, jealousies, anger, arrogance etc that led the uprightous kings (danavas) like Hirnakashpu, Hirnakasha, Virochana, Shambar etc to transgress the limits of Dharama and thus started commiting injustice & cruality on the devas & public. The devas approached Brahama and protested against the evil doings of the Danavas or Asura-like like kings.


As a consequence, God Brahama took several sages with him went to Himalaya to perform a great Yagna, the purpose of which was to creat a Asmim ‘shakti' which would correct the evil doings of the uprightous rulers over their innocent subjects and set the rule of Dharma or justice.
The Divine Sword is stated to be created during this Yajna performed by god Brahma and a host of other celebrated Vedic sages somewhere on the mountain ranges of Himalaya. The age is stated to be the threshold of Krityuga/Duwaperyuga. During this prolonged Yajna performed on Himalayan somewhere, an extremely terrible,immense, fearfull, deadly, tall and slim Shakti…. ‘black-in-looks' appeared out from the Yajna fire. The earth shook terribly; there was an upheavel in the ocean; the mountains started trembling; the giant trees simply started to fall. There was an extreme terror & fear every where……….. This terrible, fearful immense, slim & tall Shakti was none other than the DIVINE SWORD!!! The purpose of the ‘Sword creation' was to protect the ‘Good' from the ‘Evil', the ‘Devas' from the excesses of ‘Danvas' the ‘Innocents' from the ‘Wickeds'. 

“Thus appeared the Divine Sword, the Devi Kharag….The Cruel, The Fearful, Powerful, Fiery, Unassailable, Affording Wealth, Giving Victory, and the Source of Maintaining Dharma…………….” This revolutionary ‘creation' simply ushered in a terrible revolution in human history. The same kind of revolutions had already occurred earlier with the invention of “FIRE” and then that of the “WHEEL”.

God Brahma, was the first to wield the Divine Sword ferociously but righteously and he had eliminated all the Evils and the Danvas with it. Brahma gave the Sword to god Mahadeva to protect the ‘Innocents' and destroy the forces of Evil. Mahadeva used it righteously, destroyed the danvas and gave it further onwards to god Vishnu, who gave to Maricha, Maricha gave it to Braman Rishis, the Brahman Rishis, in turn, gave the sword to god god Indra, god Indra gave it to Lokepala, who in turn gave it to Suryaputra Manu. From Suryaputra Manu it passed on to king Kushapa, king Kushapa passed it on to king Ishvaku, who passed it on to king Prurva. King Pruva gave it to Ayu, Ayu to Nahuchha, Nahuchha to Yayati, Yayati to Puru, Puru to Amurtarya, Amurtarya to Bhumyshya, Bhumishya to king Bharata, king Bharta to Alvila from whom it was passed on to warrior king Dhundhumar, a great king of Ayudhya. By this way of inheritance, the Divine Sword finally passed on to king of the Kambojas.

Dhundhumarach Kambojo Muchukundastoalbhayat:

Muchukundan Marutashach Marutadpi Rayat (see Mahabharata 12/166/77)


King of Kambojas wielded it righteously and then passed it on to king Muchukunda, from whom it went to king Maruta, who in turn, passed it on to king Rayata, Rayata to king Yuvanashaya, Yuvanshaya to king Raghu, king Raghu to king Hrinashshava, king Hrinashaya to Chhunak, Chhunak passed it on to righteous king Uchhinar, who passed it on to king Yaduvamsi Bhoja, king Bhoja gave it to king Sivi, king Sivi passed it on toking Ashtaka, Ashtaka passed it on to Prishdachhava, who passed it on to great Drona Acharya, from whom it went on to Kripacharya, Kripacharya finally passed it to you Nakula.......... Dr Pargiter has placed this king Dhundhumar or Kuvalashava at 12th generation down Manu. This shows that this story of Divine Sword is extremely old and goes back to remote antiquity. The sword is an undoubtedly symbol of POWER & KASHATRYAHOOD. The fact that a king of Kambojas was given this prized sword apparently for his display of chivalary and heroism in the battle field indisputably establishes that the ancient Kambojas were indeed a FAMED WELL-RECOGNIZED KASHATRYA TRIBE. Hence this traditional legend again classes the Kambojas into ‘KASHATRYAS' or warrior classification. Some Historians have stated that KAMBOJA TRIBE and KAMBOJA NATION of the later centuries took their name from this GREAT KAMBOJA WARRIOR KING.


OILY IRON OF THE KAMBOJA COUNTRY & THE KAMBOJA SWORD: “The best sword measured fifty inches. They were usually made of Pindara iron found in the Jangala country, black iron in the Anupa, white iron in the Sataharana, gold colored in the Kalinga, OILY IRON IN THE KAMBOJA, blue-colored in Gujarat, grey-colored in the Maharashtra and reddish white in Karnataka. The aSi si also known as Nistrimsa, Visamana, Khadga, Tiksnadhara, Durasada, Srigarbha, Vijaya and Dharmamula, meaning respectively cruel, fearful, powerful, fiery, unassailable, affording wealth, giving victory, and the source of maintaining dharma. And these are generally the characteristics of a sword. 

The Powerful Kamboja Sword from Kamboja Oily Iron and the Famed Kamboja Horses had immensely helped the ancient Kamboja Kashatryas to create and maintain their great kingdoms for centuries and centuries.

 

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  • THE KAMBOJAS:
    A PRE-EMINENT AND MOST ANCIENT KASHATRYA TRIBE SINCE ANCIENT TIMES

SEE SOME DOCUMENTED EVIDENCE BELOW:


(1)Foremost and most authentic PROOF OF KAMBOJA KASHATRYAHOOD comes ancient Grammarian Panini ( 500BC).

Panini has defined 15 POWERFUL KASHATRYA JANAPADAS or KINGDOMS in his Sutra IV.1.168-175 (Ashtadhyai):

JANAPADAT-SABADAT KASHATRYADan: [ IV.1.168, Panini Ashtadhyai].

which were governed by monarchical constitution (Ekrajat=monarchies) and has SPECIFICALLY INCLUDED KAMBOJA and 14 other pre-Paninian kingdoms as Monarchies (i.e. EKARAJAT) as contrasted to Republic (SANGHA) form of governments: i.e. KASHATRYAD-EKARAJAT, SANGHA PRATISHEDHARTHAM [IV.1.168.1, Panini Ashtadhyai). The 16 powerful Kashatrya kingdoms listed are the following: Kamboja, Salveya, Gandhari, Magadha, Kalinga, Suramasa, Kosala, Ajada, Kuru, Salva, Pratyagratha, Kalakuta, Asmaka, Avanti & Kunti.

(2)ANOTHER POWERFUL PROOF OF KAMBOJA KASHATRYAHOOD COMES FROM STORY OF DIVINE SWORD OF MAHABHARATA(Refer to Mahabharata, Shantiparava Section: 12/166/64-80):

This legend of “Divine Sword” appears in Santi Parva section of Mahabharata. Bhishama stood mortally wounded by Arjuna and lay pierced with deadly arrows, in the battlefield, waiting death. Pandava son Nakula, who was the most powerful & skillful wielder of Sword in the battlefied approached Bishama and put him the following question:

“Hey Pitama, in my opinion, the Sword is the best of all weapons a warrior can safely rely. In case all other war weapons/equipment like Dhanush (Bow), Chariot etc having been damaged and the horse having killed, the sword comes in handy as his last resort for his personal protection. A skilful warrior armed with sword has the immense capability to keep at bay or outdo his enemy warrior armed with weapons like Mace, chariot & shakti etc. Pitamah I have a great curiosity to know as to who, when and under what circumstances had invented the Sword, and further who was its first Acharya.

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  • Kambojas entering India during 2nd BC

Dr Buddha Parkash Observations:

“During 2nd c BC, along with Saka tribes, the Kambojas had also enterd India and spread into whole of north-west India including Punjab & UP etc. Mahabharata refers to Kambojas and Yavanas having conqureed Mathura (ref: MBH 12/102/5). Kambojas also find mention in Mathura Lion capitol Inscriptions of Saka Kasatrapa Rajuvala. The Kambohs are the descendents of the ancient Kambojas.” (ref: India and the World, p 154, Dr Buddha Parkash, Ancient Kamboja, People And the Country, pp 296-306, Dr J. L. Kamboj, These Kamboj People, 1979, p 144, K. S. Dardi).

We have also evidence from Buddhist Mudrakshas drama where Kambojas, Sakas, Paedas, Pahlavas, Yavanas etc entered army of Chander Gupta Maurya which had proceeded to Magadha and dethroned the king and installed Chander Gupta Maurya on Magdhan throne.

Asti tava Shaka-Yavana-Kirata-Kamboja-Parsika-Bahlika parbhutibhi:


Chankyamatipragrahittaishach Chander Gupt Parvateshvar

Balairudadhibhiriv parchalitsalilaih:

Samantad uprudham Kusumpuram


Dr A. D. Pusalkar & Dr R. C. Majumdar States: “The Mudrarakshasa Play as well as the Jain works Parisishtaparvan refers to Chandergupta's alliance with Himalayan king Parvatka. The Himalyan alliance gave to Chander Gupta a composite army made up of Yavanas, Kambojas, Sakas, Kiratas, Parasikas and Bahlikas as stated in the Mudrarakashasa” ( History and Culture of Indian People, Age of Imperial Kanauj, p 57).

Commenting on this, Dr J. L. Kamboj states that under Mauryas, the Kambojas, Sakas, Yavanas etc had an excellent opportunity to enter the army and move into & permanently settle in interior India.


These Kambojas, Sakas, Pardas, Pahlavas etc had embraced Hinduism in due course of time and therefore were inevitably absorbed in the Hinbdu society.

Also compare: “The Sakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Pahlavas, Pardas were foreign tribes from west but they were evidently absorbed among the Kashatryas.

” ( History and Culture of Indian People, The Vedic Age, p 313-314, Dr R. C Majumdar, Dr A. D. pusalkar, Dr K. D. munshi ).

The Kambojas had always been a KASHATRYA or RAJANYA/RAJPUT tribe. There are numerous instances which shows that for long long time, the Kambojas have been a Kashatrya/ Rajput tribe….i.e. a tribe of ruling Kashatryas. In the olden times, their kings & republican chiefs were also known as RAJANS and the Kambojas as RAJANYAS as Panini has documented. But after 8th c AD, title RAJNYA was replaced by term RAJPUT but with similar connotations. 

There is documented evidence available which shows that the Kamboja Kashatryas/Rajputs have been ruling in their principalities located in south-west India as well as in Bengal as late as 16th c AD which evidence comes to us from the Inscriptions and hence is considered indisputable.

Kamboja people are the only Vedic Kashatrya people amongst the numerous Kashatrya tribes participating in the great Mahabharata war who have especially been glorified in Mahabharata Epic as the Vedic scholars (Kritvidiashach), besides being applausively designated as fiercest & swiftest fighters, deadly warriors, wondrously armed braves, war-intoxcated, Death personified, dreadful as YAMA…the God of Death, elephants gone wild/mad, as deadly as cobras, expert archers, expert cavaliers and expert Mal-Yudh-Kushlah (expert duelists or wrestlers) etc etc (vide Mahabharta Paravas, 7/23/42-44, 7/112/43-44, 7/112/48-52, 12/101/5 etc etc). Also please refer to 'Kamboj Veeron Ki Kahani, Mahabharat Ki Zabani' by Dr J. Lal Kamboj as appeared in a fortnightly magazine Kamboj Samachar, published in 1975-77 from New Delhi, Kamboja People and the Country 1979, by Dr. J. Lal Kamboj, Ph. D, D. Lit, Delhi University, These Kamboj People 1979 by K. S. Dardi etc etc).

In the entire ancient world history, the honor of participating, fighting and then attaining supreme mass martyrdom in the active and hot battle field, and that too, against, Alexandra the Great, one of the greatest military generals the world has ever produced, goes only and only to the heroic Kamboja queen Kripya and the brave Kamboja women of the famous Assakenian Kamboja clan. They have the supreme honor of being martyred, not in a direct and straight fighting, but only through demeaning and unashamed treachery resorted to by none other than 'Alexander the Great' himself, who contemptuously threw to winds all terms of the agreement he had reached with the Assakenian Kambojas and had attacked the Kamboja soldiery from their rear, during the dead of night, when they were off-guard and unprepared and were leaving the Massaga fortress along with their families, per terms of the agreement they had reached with Alexandra. Alexandra's own historians have strongly condemned this dastardly and non-heroic act of Alexandra, stating that "by violating the peace treaty with the Assakenians (Kambojas), Alexandra has put on an indelible and infamous blot on his heroic name" (Ref: McCrindle in Plutarch, p 306).

Commenting on the final and conclusive battle fought at Massaka, between the Assakenian Kambojas and the Alexandrian forces, writes thus an Alexandra's own contemporary and famous historian, Diodoros Siculus: "…..Assakenian (Assakenois) Kamboja women were pouncing upon the fighting Greek soldiers with an elemental fury, (like ferocious lionesses?), and grappling with them and snatching away their swords, spears and shields…………………………..While the Assakenian (Kamboja) soldiers were crossing swords with the enemy, their wives were covering their fighting husbands with the shields they had snatched from the Macedonian army………………. And still other Kamboja women were picking up arms of those who had fallen or were wounded or cut …..and were fighting side by side with their husbands in the active field………. The Assakenois (Kambojas), who had fought valiantly along with their women, could not this time, frustrate the well trained and numerous army of Alexandra and thus met with a glorious death which they preferred to lives of disgrace….". (Ref: Diodoros Siculus in Macrindle p 270). Another glorious Kamboja heroine who had earlier fought valiantly against yet another greatest and proudest general of his times, king Cyrus II, the Great, who founded the great Achaemenian Kamboja empire (and who was a Kambojian himself), was the Assakenian queen Tummeya Kamboj (Tumaris of Greek historian, Herodotus), who after having lost her son (king of Assakenois) in the battle against this Persian Kambojian king, took to arms herself, fought valiantly and had Cyrus II killed in the fiercest and hottest battle of Massaga. The queen Tummeya or Tumaris ( from whom, the Tumme clan of the modern Kambojas took its family name, per K. S. Dardi, vide These Kamboj People 1979 page 88) is then reported to have herself cut Cyrus's head from his dead body and then grabbing it from his hair, said in a wailful and heroic avengeful crying tone: "Cyrus I give you the fill of your blood!" This evidence comes to us from none other than the famous classical historian Herodotus (Ref: Classical writings of the Greek historian Herodotus; Kamboja People and the Country 1979 by Dr J. L Kamboj; These Kamboj People 1979 by K. S. Dardi etc). We, all Indians, proudly salute to the splendid glory of our valiant and martyred Kamboja mothers and sisters of the olden era, of whose, we are the proud descendents. (for complete story, please turn to 'Alexandra of Macedonia and Kamboja People' at page 38 of this article).

These Kamboja Aryan people, the famous frontier highlanders of the by-gone era, had contributed greatly to the spread of Aryan culture in Ceylon, Cambodia and in ancient India & Iran.

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  • KAMBOJAS:
    ONE OF THE MOST ANCIENT KASHATRYS/RAJPUT TRIBES OF INDIA/AFGHANISTAN .

Term RAJPUT has no reference to race or a tribe which means all Rajputs are not from common descent or common blood relationship. They indeed have diverse origin, which shows they descended from different ethnic/racial stocks. The term literally denotes a clan or or a tribe of warlike habits, the members of which claimed aristocratic rank. It was their warlike occupation coupled with their ruling status that gave them distinctive common feature and made the Brahmans recognize them as Kashatryas” (Dr K J. Das). 

The so-called Rajput community comprises diverse clans. They were indeed an occupational people with war and government as their chief business. The word caught the fancy of time in 8th c AD. Some writers state that term RAJPUT is the continuation of the Panian term RAJANYA which term was applied to kings of the Monarchies, the descendents of the Kashatryas as well as to the chiefs of Republican clans of pre-christian era. Panini has stated that the kings who ruled over the Janapadas were KASHATRYAS and the same word denoted both descendents (citizens) of the KASHATRYAS i.e RAJANYAS and their king as it specifically applied to 15 main ancient Kashatryas tribes during the times of Panini i.e Kuru, Panchala, Kamboja, Gandhari, Kalinga, Magadha, Suramasa, Angas, Kunti, Asmaka, Salva, Pratyagratha, Kalakuta, Ajada, Kosala. (PANIAN KASHATRYAS) 

See Panian evidence below:


KASHATRYA-sammana-sabadat janapadat tasya RAJANYA-PATYAVATA

[ IV.1.168.3, Panisni Ashtadhya].


Rajnyas here apparently equals to the medieval term RAJPUT.

The vast community of Rajputs (in modern context) descended mainly from the following three sources according to many scholars”.

•  Foreign Invaders like Sakas, Kambojas (Iranian affinities), Yavanas, Pahlavas Kushanas, Yuches and Hunas from whom are stated to emerge Parmar, Chohan, Pratihar and Solanki/Chalukya…the four Agnukula clans of the Rajput community.

•  The relics of Kashatrya population of Ancient Indo-Aryans …we have ancient traditional Kashatrya clans like Madras, Kurus, Panchalas, Kosalas, Vedic Kambojas, Anga, Vanga… etc.

•  The Aboriginal tribes like Gondas, Bharas, Kharwars from whom emerged Chandels, Rathors, Gaharwars, Rahsterkutas etc.


Also see V. A. Smith:
V. A. Smith believes that the Rajputs were a mixed race. Some of the Rajput clans were descendents of foreigners like Hunas, Sakas & Kushanas etc and other belonginging to the old Kashatrya tribes. In the beginning, these two groups were opposed to each other but in the course of time they got mixed up with each other. The Kashatryas or Rajputs group of castes at present essentially are an occupational group composed of all clans, following the Hinduised rituals, who actually undertook the work of government; consequently, people of most of the great Rajput clans now in existence inspite of their hoary pedugrees are descended from foreign immigrants or from Indiginous races such as old Kashatryas as also aboriginal castes such as Gonds, Bhars etc…. 

There are numerous references to Kambojas having entered India as frequent invaders as well as merceneray recruits before 2nd c BC. Also in mass migration after 2nd c AD when the Kambojas, Sakas and Pahlavas etc hand entered India in massive numbers from central Asia/Afganistan pushed out by the great Yuchihs***.

About the Kambojas, having entered India in the remote past and standing fully integrated into Indian society, see what Dr P. C. Bagchi has observes:
“The Kambojas were a Nomadic tribe living beyond Himalayans in Central Asia. One of their sections had entered India in the remote past, but they had been fully integrated and admixed with local population so that it is not possible to differentiate them apart now…………………………” (India & Central Asia, p 117, Dr P. C. Bagchi).

The Kambojas Dr P. C. Bagchi talks about are those Kambojas which have figured as following the Vedic Aryan culture in Epic times. They had entered India during/earlier than epic war and now stands fully integrated into the Indian society.

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  • Where Kamboh Live

The Kamboja people, where-ever they went, gave their own name to the places or the areas they occupied or colonized… Their descendents are found in the modern Kambohs of the Northern India. ". (Ref: The Cultural Heritage of India Vol II, p 512 by Dr. C. P. Ramaswami Aiyer Vice Chancelor, Banars Hindu University, UP, India).

Kamboja people are a very ancient and historical people belonging to the famous Indo-Aryan or better still, to the Indo-Iranian Aryan race (Dr Keith, Dr McDonnell: in Vedic Index, Dr Donald N. Wilber: Afghanistan, its People, its Culture, its Society etc etc), now living quite numerously in the plains of East and West Panjab, Haryana and U. P parts of India, as well as around the mountains of Hindukush, northern-eastern parts of Afghanistan, including its Badakshan province, and modern Tajikstan across the Amu Darya (Oxus river) as well as in southern-eastern parts of Iran.

The modern Taijk people of Tajikstan and Afghanistan are the modern descendents of the ancient Kambojas (ref: Dr Jai Chander Vidyalankar, Dr Moti Chander, Dr Suniti Kumar Chaterjee, Ph.D, D.Lit, Dr Radha Krishnan, 2 nd Presdent of India etc etc).

And these Tajiks of Ghur, Afghanistan, even provided the Ghurid dynasty of Delhi in the thirtienth century AD. In the fortieth century, another Tajik dynasty, the Karts, established themselves for a brief period in Herat and attained almost a virtual independence (1332-1370) from the Mongols (Ref: Afghanistan, its People, its Culture, its Society 1964, page14, 44 by Donald N. Wilber ). The Gouri as well as the Abdali tribes of Afghanistan (from this Abdali tribe sprang the famed military general Ahmad Shah Abdali alias Ahmad Shah Durani) are the modern representatives of the ancient Gouraens Kambojas of Panjkora/Konar valley and the ancient Heytali, Heftali, Zabuli or Abdali clan of the Param Kambojas of the trans-Oxian region respectively. Possibly, the modern Turana clan of the Gilzai Afghans and Turna clan of the Kambojas of east/west Panjab have a common lineage as has been specifically pointed out by K. S. Dardi (These Kamboj People 1979 page 169-174).

The Turana tribe of Afghans and Turna clan of the Panjabi Kambojas are a possible offshoot from king Turman or Torman of Param Kamboja whose clan had invaded Afghanistan from across the Oxus and had settled around Gazni around 4/5 th century A.D. This same region later came to be called Zabulstan or Abdal and the people were called Abdal or Abdali, Heftalis or Heytalis. These people also had raided interiror India around 5 th century A.D. and their king Turman (also called Turana: ref: 'Studies in Asian History' page 38 by Dr Ahmad Ali Kohzad, Director, History Deptt, Afghanistan) and his successor king Mehrokole (from whose name possibly started the Mehroke gotra of the 52 division of the modrern Kambojas. Also ref to These Kamboj People 1979 by K. S. Dardi page 174) had established a powerful empire in northern and central India. Later, their descendents continued to rule in Zabulstan till approximately 870 AD when their rule was terminated by Yakub Bin Leh, founder of the Safard Vamsa of Iran. T

The Aspins of Chitral, the Mashkuns of Gilgit, the Isaps, Asaps, Pachais or Yusufzais Pashtuns living across north-west of river Sindh, as also the turbulent Afridis of the historical Khyber pass (mentioned in classical writings of the Greek historian Arrian, Diodoros, Curtius as the Aprytae or Afrikes or Erixes: Dr Fauja Singh, Dr L. M. Joshi, Dr J. L. Kamboj, K. S. Dardi etc etc) are the modern descendents of the famous ancient Ashvaka/Asva Kambojas of Sanskrit and Pali texts or Assakenois/Aspasios Kambojas of the classical writings of the Greeks. The Asvas/Ashvakas of Sanskrit and Pali texts and Aspasios and Assakenois people of the classical writings, according to medern historians, were the (Vedic Indian) Kamboja people living in the Paropamisadea region, lying to the south/east of Hindukush (Ref: Dr E. Lammotte, Dr K. P. Jayaswal, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukherjee, Dr Buddha Parkash, Dr L. M. Joshi, Dr Fauja Singh, Dr McCrindle, Dr J. L. Kamboj, Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar, K. S. Dardi, Dr Romila Thapar etc etc

The Afrikes tribe was an offshoot of the famed Assakenois or Ashvaka tribe (Ref Dr H. C. Raychaudhry, The Political History of Ancient India, 1996 page 217). The brave Ashvak Kambojas of Kunar/Swat valleys and their valiant women, had given toughest fights to Alexandrian forces and had fought the Macedonian army tooth and nail at Massaga (modern Mashkine of N.W.F.P of Pakistan). "………..They (Assakenia Kambojas) finally met with glorious death which they preferred to lives of disgrace.", says Greek historian Diodoros Siculus (ref: Diodoros in McCrindle page 270).

The modern fiercest, most intractable, warlike and most dreaded kafir tribes (modern Nuristanis) variously called as Kamoz, Kamtoz, Kaum,Kams, Kom, Caum, Camoje, Camojee tribes etc (ref: Ref: Elphinstone, An account of the kingdom of Cabol, Vol II, page 375-377; Political History of Ancient India 1996, page 133 by Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee, Sidhant Kaumdei Arathparkashika 1966, page 20-22 by Acharya Radha Raman Pandey,

The Kafirs of the Hindukush 1895 by Sir George Scott Robertson etc) of Kamdesh of Bashgul, Kati or Katir (ancient Katawers) valleys of modern Nuristan province of Afganistan and N.W.F. Province of Pakistan are the undoubted descendents of the ancient Kambojas who had been living since ancient times in the so called Kapisha region which then had comprised Begram, Kaubol and the adjoining areas of Afghanistan (Ref: The Greeks in Bacteria and India 1966 p 170, 461, by Dr W. W. Tarn).

A mixed version of Aryo-Mongol Kamboja people are the Khmers of the modern Cambodia or Kampuchea or Kambujia (the name Kampuchea is derived from Kambuja or Kamboja. The Persian inscriptions relating to the Achemenian Kamboja kings use the word Kambujia which is the Iranian equivalent of Sanskrit Kamboja/Kambuja/Kambujana and the Greek Cambysis/Kambysis).

We can also find some traces of Kamboja blood coursing through the veins of some population of Sri Lanka (Kaboja, Kamboja per Sinhalese epigraphic inscriptions), Tibetat, Assam, Malaysia, Indonesia, south-west parts of China comprising the famous Pamirs as well as in Vietnam, where-in the ancient Kamboja people went, colonized, held sway and finally got mixed with the local population. Brama Purana also makes a mention of the presence of Kambojas in Assam and Tamralipiti regions. Per Paag-Saam-Jone-Jang… a Tibetan Religious Book, the geographical region of northern-eastern India between Bengal and Brahma was also called Kampotse in early middle age. Dr Fouche is of the opinion that Tibet was the Ancient Kamboja and Tibetan Language was the ancient Kamboja language. Dr R. P. Chanda and Dr S.K Chatterjee agree with Dr Fouche. But Dr P. C. Bagchi says that Kambojas were a nomadic tribe living on the northern of Himalya in the Central Asia, from where, one of their section occupied the eastern Tibet and another one migrated to Mekong Valley of Indo-China (Cambodia). According Dr. P. C. Bagchi, the ancient Kumud Davipa (as mentioned in Sanskrit Text Vayu Purana) comprising the Sogdiana and Bukhara regions of Central Asia had been a part of the Ancient Kamboja.

The descendents of ancient Kamboja people are now scattered widely but sparsely in Indian subcontinent, Iran, Afghanistan and Indo-china etc. They are found as Hindus, Moslems, Sikhs, Jains, Parsis, Buddhists or even Christians by religion. They are chiefly engaged in agriculture, animal husbandry, business and services for their living. But only some of their descendents living in UP, Haryana, East and West Panjab have preserved their old Kamboja name till date. Also the turbulent and warlike earstwhile Kafir tribes………..the turbulent and rebellious modern Nuristanis of Nuristan Province of Afghanistan and the N.W.F.P of Pakistan have also retained their ancient Kamboja name in the modern form as Kam or Kaam, Kom, Camojee, Camoje, Kamoz, Kamtoz etc ((Ref: Elphinstone, An account of the kingdom of Cabol, Vol II, page 375-377; Political History of Ancient India 1996, page 133 by Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee, Sidhant Kaumdei Arathparkashika 1966, page 20-22 by Acharya Radha Raman Pandey, The Kafirs of the Hindukush 1895 by Sir George Scott Robertson etc).

The play of time, space and local circumstances have led rest of the Kamboja descendents to change or drop their Kamboja indentity in rest of the geographical areas they had once colonized and ruled. But still, as we will see, numerous relics or remanents of their tribal name, their culture and their language are abundantly found in the countries or places they had settled in and ruled in the olden times.

Surprisingly, and by twists of times and history, these once an extremely famous and powerful warlike and scholarly class of royal and proud Indo-Iranian Aryan people of ancient India and Iran, by all accounts and reckonings, are now living as a little known people these times! And it is extremely painful to see them in their present state of degeneration and degradation. These famous Vedic and Avestan Aryan people of the bygone era once ruled supreme in southwest Asia. They dictated terms for sure, and talked and acted from positions of strengths as is amply and repeatedly evidenced from numerous and copious ancient literatures and epigraphic inscriptions of India, Persia, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, China and classical writings Sanskrit and of Greek historians etc.

According to authentic and dedicated researches of Dr J. Lal Kamboj of Delhi University, "undoubtedly, every inch of the Afghanistan soil stands trampled under the hooves of the world famous Kamboja horses of the war expert Kamboja cavalry".

Furthermore, these Kamboja people have also been known in history as Ashav-Yudh_Kushlah (expert cavalary soldiers) in ancient Sanskrit and Pali religious literature. (Ref: Hindu Polity, A Constitutional History of India, Vol I & II by Dr K. P. Jayaswal). Their sub-clans were found as Asvakas/Asvakan, and Asvas/Asvayan of the Sanskrit and Pali texts and Assakenois and Aspasios of the classical Greek writings. "The people whom the Kamboja people helped and supported in their warfares used to be extremely proud of their friendship with these war-loving Kamboja people".(Also Ref to: These Kamboj People 1979 by K. S. Dardi page 9. Also vide Mahabharata 7 parava,). These warlike people (whom Dr Govind Krishan Pilley has rightly styled as the war loving Kambojas, vide his Traditional History of India, page 300; also refer to Mahabharta 7/119/13-15) had helped in establishing and maintaining some of the famous empires in ancient world history. They were once a royal and scholarly class of people ruling in Kamboja, Param Kamboja, and later in Iran, Tibet, Cambodia, and Sri Lanka etc etc at different times in history, besides ruling in eastern and northern Afghanistan as Kamboja Mahajanapadans and later as numerous Kamboja hyparchs/kinglets/republicans in a dozen small territories in southern-eastern parts of the Hindukush mountain range such as Qandhar, Gazni, Kabol, Kapisa, Alishang valley, Kunar valley, Panjkora valley, Swat & Buner valleys, Ora, Bazira, Hazara, Punch, Abhisar/Rajaori, Srinagar etc. Numerous times, they have subjugated and ruled over various interior parts of India like Mathura, Ayudhya, Gujrat, Bengal/Bihar/Orisa, (Gaur Desha) etc as is witnessed by ancient and medieval Indian Sanskrit and Pali literature, Nepalese and Tibetean religious chronicles as well as various epigraphic inscriptions in Khroshti, Aramaic and Sanskrit language.(Also please ref to Kambojas in Bengal by Dr Jia Lal: Vishal Kamboj, June 1999). They have left their indelible traces and footprints in the Kamaon hills of the Himalyan foothill spurs, where they once held their own and undoubtedly gave their own name to it. Over the centuries, the standard Sanskrit name Kamboja has, as expected, changed to its present Prikritized form (Kamaon), like the same Kamboja changed to modern Kamboh, Kambo, Kabo, Kammo, Kamo etc in the plains of India like Panjab, Haryana & UP; and to modern Kaam, Kammah, Caumoh, Camojee/Camoj/Camoz/Kamoz etc in eastern parts of Afghanistan.

Famous historian Dr Benjamin Walker, while referring to the Kamboja people's rule in Bengal and Bihar (Gauddesha), states that the ancient Kambojas who were the neighbors of Gandharahs had migrated to Bengal from north-western India along the foothills of Himalayan, and accordingly, according this historian, we can find their mention in the Tibetan and Nepalese religious and political chronicles. He further says that Kambojas' descendents are still found in modern Bengal (Ref: Hindu World Vol I, P 510 by Dr. Benjamin Walker). In this case please also ref to 'Some Kashatrya Tribes of ancient India' by Dr B. C. Law, who quotes Dr R. P. Chandra and arrives at the same conclusions and information about the Kambojas of Bengal. Also please ref to Early History of India by Dr V. A. Smith. Several Epigraphic inscriptions relating to Kamboja people have also been located as far as Sri Lanka which is strong indication that these people had also reached as far as Sri Lanka and had established their kingdom in this island (for full details please refere to Kamboja People and the Country 1979 by Dr J. Lal Kamboj of Delhi University)..

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  • KAMBOH SUB CASTS

52+84 Sub-caste (Gotras)

Ajpal, Abdal, Angiar/Angyar, Barar, Tawan, Bhojrath, Baan, Banvait, Bhaun, Banain, Pathaan, Patnayak, Bassi, Bajney, Baghi, Pandu, Pandhu, Pandhi, Patanrai, Vinaiyak, Pahan, Thind, Dhanju/ Dhannu, Thinju, Tanda/Tandna, Tumme/Tummey/Tumma, Trikha/Trakha, Turana,/Turna/Torna, Jossan/Josan, Joiya, Jaiya, Batt/Bhatt/Bhatti, Juj/Judge, Jammu, Jaura/Jaure, Jatmal,Jakhpal, Chandana, Chandi, Chuni, Channi, Chanan, Chandok, Chaak, Chatrath, Dotey/Dote, Dhat , Dhote, or Dhody, Ratanpal, Sandhey/Sindhi, Syami/Sama, Soi, Ashoke, Sawan, Asavan, Sunehar, Sandher/ Sandheyer/ Sandheer, Padaya, Dahraal, Baadbaan, Laitamb, Laihang, Langhaiyd/ Langherh, Karanpal, Kosal/Koshal, Khatey/Khitey, Koiyer/Koyer/Koir/Kaiyer, Kaura, Landey/Landei, Bhokney/Bhukney, Momi. Moti/Muti, Mehroke/Mahroke, Magoo, Magh/Maagh/Maaghi, Nagpal, Nagra, Nandan , Handa, Angotra, Angotey, Bargote, Bihaar/Bihaad, Bahman/Baman, Bahiman, Bastorh/Bastode, Barham, Banjahl, Bagbaan/Bagyaan, Bangar/Bangarh, Amber/Ambarey, Pahdey/Padiyay, Fokney, Taparia, Taper/Taped, Taggar/Taggal, Dhingrey/ Thengrey, Topchi, Jaangla, Jammaan, Jasmaan, Jhand, Jhaam, Karmi, Cheedvey, Chaufaal, Chichaar, Chaamadi, Chirhya, C himnee/Chimney, China/Cheena, Chchachhoti/Chchachhot, Chchanan, Thatta/Thattey, Dode/ Dodey, Daang/Daangey, Dhaara/Dhaarey, Dhill/Dhilan, Dehar, Dhavarha/ Dhavada, Dotaana/Dutaana, Dahai/Dahatai, Dhabar/Dhavar, Dolyaan, Dhattey/Dhadey, Dehl/Dehal/Dhehal, Dongey, Dehggal, Duggal, Sarkaura/ Sarkorha/Sarkoda, Soni, Salehar/Salehari, Soki/Sokhi, Suhaag/Suhaagey, Sainik, Sainapati, Sarang, Momsarang, Sandal/Sandali, Kalra, Kals/Kalsi, KailaashKailaas, Gagarh/Gagad, Gandhi, Gandher, Gainda/Gaynda, Khokhar, Gogan/Gugan, Gossa, Gosal/Gosila, Gore/Goure/Gaure, Gillavey, Gayal, Goyal, Gadrhia, Kirgill/Kargill, Kamar/Kamare, Asoi, Kamal, Khanda, Latambey, Ghaseeta, Lahinga, Langher, Makkar/Makkad, Kukkar/Kokkar, Kakkar, Mall, Mailley, Nirmall, Machchli, Maheyas, Multani, Nepal/ Naipal/Naipaul, Nighamber, Nambher, Nuri/Noori, Nauhrya, Naihrya/Naihru, Hareyas, Harsa, Nibber, Varman, Changara, Rudri/Ludri, Drahmaan, Larmotey/Larmote, Bhujjang/ Bhujangi, Sabada/Saparha/Sapra, Satta, Lakhi, Laihang/Laihinga/Laihinda, Laatey/Laat, Lehiry/Laihry, Jaada/Jaarha, Mand/ Manda/Mandey, Khitey / Khatey, Khanda/Khinda, Lora/Lorey/Lori .

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