Bronze age trade and mleccha writing

Svastika in Sarasvati civilization:

The early meaning of Svastika glyph (as wealth) Part 1 Part 2

  •  Annex 1: Svastika and Endless-knot motifs Part 1 Part 2
  •  Annex 2: Svastika seals Part 1 Part 2
  • Indian Numismatics by D.D. Kosambi, ICHR 1991 (Contains a detailed review of devices shown on early punch-marked coins; many devices are comparable to Sarasvati hieroglyphs. A remarkable evocation of the metallurgical tradition of mints producing coinage.)

Mleccha, Meluhha (Language, Dictionary, Writing)

                Legacy of writing system


Decipherment method


Decipherment of Sarasvati hieroglyphs


Sarasvati Epigraph corpus (Indus Script corpus) (289mb pdf file for download only)

Ligatures in Sarasvati hieroglyphs: Repertoire of a smithy

Fish, numerals and Mesopotamian Apkallu parallels 4.6mb

Parallels in Ancient Near East -Sarasvati glyphs: bronze age metals trade  16mb free http download

Four 'rosetta stones' to decode Sarasvati hieroglyphs as mleccha writing:

 Meluhha merchant/smith (Akkadian cylinder seal)

Two Tin ingots discovered at Haifa (with Sarasvati hieroglyphs)

tabernaemontana glyph in front of zebu bull (mleccha: tagaraka, 'flower', 'hair fragrance', 'tin' (Ur cylinder seal)

Monograph presented on Bronze Age trading and mleccha writing

Ppt presentation at 5th Intl. Congress on Archaeology of Ancient Near East, Madrid, April 2006

See also 

1. Engraved celt tool of  Sembiyan-kandiyur with Sarasvati hieroglyphs: calling-card of an artisan

2. Sarasvati hieroglyphs and inscribed celt tool of Sembiyan-kandiyur

3. Hieroglyphs (Signs and Sign variants after I. Mahadevan)

Gundestrup cauldron and Sarasvati hieroglyphs

Four 'rosetta stones'  validate

  • cryptography in Mahabharata related to mleccha (indic language family)


  • Vatsyayana's reference to mlecchita vikalpa (crypotography of mleccha 'copper merchants, smiths')

Why are these 'rosetta stones'?

  • Akkadian cylinder seal validates meluhha as a non-akkadian language.
  • Two tin ingots with hieroglyphs -- read rebus -- validate the metal as pure (furnace) tin.
  • tabernaemontana is read rebus as tagaraka (indic language family); other hieroglyphs on the epigraph on Ur cylinder seal also relate to smithy/mint.

Bronze age trade and writing system are related inventions.

Necessity was the mother of these inventions.