Megaliths

Natural deaths, unnatural deaths: stone planting Vedic samskara


In normal deaths, the soul joins the departed ancestors after this ceremony. In unnatural deaths, the merger does not happen. The soul is directly made to merge with Narayanam param devam through a ceremony called Narayana Bali.


In unnatural deaths, no cremation takes place. The body is buried and a stone is fixed on the site. As in the case of natural death ceremony, the rationale is that the soul gets fixed in this stone. But once the Narayana Bali ceremony is over, the stone (in which the soul was tied) is left in the waters. From the commentary for Pura nanuru verses 263 and 264, we come to know that Nadukal that we see in many places is not the original stone that was used to trap the departed soul for guiding it to leave for the other realm. That stone is left in running water after the ceremony. Later a location is chosen with a bed of small stones on the ground – over which a stone with the engraving of the image of the departed person and his name is installed. Red flowers and peacock feathers are decorated to this stone and regular poojas are done with incense and food. ..

In verse 260 also we find a clear mention that the soul has left for Higher worlds. The stone that is installed where the person died is used as a memorial. The Yajur Vedic mantras do describe the stone culture whereby the soul is trapped and left in the waters by which the transfer to the other realm is made. (1)



*A curious information is that this ceremony of the Nadukal is restricted to Mullai lands of Tamil nadu (forest tracts). In his commentary on sutra 5 of Tholkaapiyam Puraththinai, Nachinaarkiniyar says that it is the custom of people of Mullai tracts to leave the stone in the waters, followed by planting a stone (as a memorial). (கல் நாட்டுதல் பெரும் படைக்குப் பின்னாக கூறிர்ராலேனின் நீர்ப் படுத்தப் பின்னர், கல் படுத்து , பெயர் பொறித்து, நாட்டுதல் காட்டு நாட்டோர் முறைமை ). This is written by him for explaining the Tholkaapiya sutra 5 Puratththinai - காட்சி கால்கோ ணீர்ப்படை நடுகல்.



Kaal kol is the first level ceremony of establishing the stone.

This is followed by neer-padai by which the stone is left in the waters (the ceremony of transferring the soul to the realm of departed soul)

This is followed by planting a stone as memorial. This memorial is what we see as nadukal in many places in Tamil nadu.



* The curious feature is that Tholkaapiyam says that this custom is prevalent in Mullai of Maayon. Similar stones are found in Saraswathy Basin (Harappan) also. I have always theorized that the saraswathy civilization is post Krishna civilization of the people who left Dwaraka in the wake of the deluge...

Photo courtesy :- Dept of Archeology http://images.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl=http://www.tnarch.gov.in/images/epi-


Memorial for a hero who lost his life in a cattle ride, 6th Century CE Tiruvannamalai Dist

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_j7IwynrIhuk/S5QEZFiWIQI/AAAAAAAABGw/OrLA4c7OcoQ/s320/nadukal.bmp

Reference:-


(1)


(1) Dear friends! A river filled with stones is flowing, try to cross it, stand up and strive to go beyond. Renounce all that which is painful and accept all, that which gives happiness.


This world is alike a river and the human being has to cross it to reach the paraloka(heaven) if the human being strives with preservance and grit he can easily cross the river of material life. (http://www.aryabhatt.com/vedas/yajurveda5.htm) YV 35/10.


ashmanvatI rIyate saM rabhadhvam uttiShThata pra taratA sakhAyaH |

atrA jahAma ye asann ashevAH shivAn vayam ut taremAbhi vAjAn || RV 10.53.8 ashmanvatI flows by. Hold tight together, keep your self erect and cross [the river], friends. There let us leave that which is not good, and we cross over to that which is auspicious. [This is the single most important element of the sauchIka agni hymns in terms of a date. It clearly mentions crossing of the river ashmanvatI to the other side where the auspicious lies. http://manasataramgini.wordpress.com/2006/11/26/the-crossing-of-ashmanvati


ashmanvatI rIyate saM rabhadhvamut tiSThata pra taratAsakhAyaH |\\

atrA jahAma ye asannashevAH shivAn vayamuttaremAbhi vAjAn


A river full of stones is flowing very fast. O friends! Get up with a zeal and cross this river well.But there is a condition. Whatever pains or restricts you, leave that here. We should cross this river to attain a position of welfare and well-being.


10.53 (varga 14) verse 8a

ashmanvatI rIyate saM rabhadhvamut tiSThata pra taratAsakhAyaH |\\

10.53 (varga 14) verse 8c

atrA jahAma ye asannashevAH shivAn vayamuttaremAbhi vAjAn ||\\

See Aashvalaayana Grhya Mantra Vyaakhya, Chapter 4, p. 248.


(Source: Ram Gopal, 1983, The history and principles of vedic interpretation, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi, p.26)


http://jayasreesaranathan.blogspot.com/2010/03/stone-binds-energy.html


A stone between the dead body and the living relations, marks off the boundary-line of Death's domain

Rigveda 10.53.8 (cf. AV 12,2,26; VS 35,10) is rendered in a funeral rite.

Monier- Williams remarks that the rules of the AsvaUyana Grihya Sutras relating to funeral ceremonies possess great interest in their connexion with the 18th hymn of the 10th Mandala of the Rig-Veda :

" Although the Sutras direct that the texts of this hymn are to be used yet the rite must have undergone considerable modifications since the period when the hymn was composed."

" We notice even at that early epoch an evident belief in the soul's eternal existence, and the permanence of its personality hereafter, which notably contrasts with the later ideas of transmigration, absorption
into the divine essence, and pantheistic identification with the supreme Soul of the universe.

*' We learn also from this same hymn that the body in ancient times was not burnt but buried ; nor can we discover the slightest allusion to the later practice of Sati or cremation of the widow with her husband.

"The corpse of the deceased person was deposited close to a grave dug ready for its reception, and by its side his widow, if he happened to be a married man, seated herself, while his children, relatives, and
friends ranged themselves in a circle round her. The priest stood near at an altar, on which the sacred fire was kindled, and having invoked Death, called upon him to withdraw from the path of the living, and not to molest the young and healthy survivors, who were assembled to perform pious rites for the dead, without giving up the expectation of a long life themselves. He then placed a stone between the dead body and the living relations, to mark off the boundary-line of Death's domain, and offered up a prayer that none of those present might be removed to another world before attaining to old age, and that none of the younger might be taken before the elder Then the widow\s married female friends walked up to the altar and offered oblations in the fire ; after which the widow herself withdrew from the inner circle assigned to the dead, and joined the survivors outside the boundary-line, while the officiating priest took the bow out of the hand of the deceased, in order to show that the manly strength which he possessed during life, did not perish with him, but remained with his family. The body was then tenderly laid ia the grave with repetition of the words of the hymn :

" Open thy arms, earth, receive the dead With gentle pressure and with loving welcome. Enshroud him tenderly, e'en as a mother Folds her soft vestment round the child she loves. Soul of the dead 1 depart ; take thou the path The ancient path by which our ancestors have Gone before thee."

" The ceremony was concluded by the careful closing of the tomb with a stone slab. Finally a mound of earth was raised to mark and consecrate the spot."
http://www.archive.org/stream/lawsofmanuormana00murduoft/lawsofmanuormana00murduoft_djvu.txt

Murdoch, John, 1898, "The laws of Manu; or, Manava Dharma-sástra, abridged English translation", London, Christian Literature Society of India.
 
Haradatta: “The gods invoked by Agni to a sacrifice address each other: ashmanvatii, i.e. the unobstructed divine army, should march forward. You should also get ready to go to the sacrifice. Traverse the journey, O friends. In our journey let us avoid uncomfortable paths and adopt the comfortable ones for the sake of sacrificial foods.” …ashmanvati (full of stones), i.e. having a stone placed towards the north, this rite riiyate proceeds, i.e. concludes. O relatives! You should get ready to traverse the paths leading to your houses…”
Ashmanvatii riiyate sam rabhadhvam uttishthata pra tarata sakhaayah atria jahaama ye asannashevaah shivaan vayam ut taremaabhi vaajaan (RV 10.53.8)

Dear friends! A river filled with stones is flowing, try to cross it, stand up and strive to go beyond. Renounce all that which is painful and accept all, that which gives happiness.

This world is alike a river and the human being has to cross it to reach the paraloka(heaven) if the human being strives with preservance and grit he can easily cross the river of material life. (http://www.aryabhatt.com/vedas/yajurveda5.htm) YV 35/10.

ashmanvatI rIyate saM rabhadhvam uttiShThata pra taratA sakhAyaH |
atrA jahAma ye asann ashevAH shivAn vayam ut taremAbhi vAjAn || RV 10.53.8

ashmanvatI flows by. Hold tight together, keep your self erect and cross [the river], friends. There let us leave that which is not good, and we cross over to that which is auspicious. [This is the single most important element of the sauchIka agni hymns in terms of a date. It clearly mentions crossing of the river ashmanvatI to the other side where the auspicious lies. http://manasataramgini.wordpress.com/2006/11/26/the-crossing-of-ashmanvati

ashmanvatI rIyate saM rabhadhvamut tiSThata pra taratAsakhAyaH |\\
atrA jahAma ye asannashevAH shivAn vayamuttaremAbhi vAjAn

A river full of stones is flowing very fast. O friends! Get up with a zeal and cross this river well.But there is a condition. Whatever pains or restricts you, leave that here. We should cross this river to attain a position of welfare and well-being.

10.53 (varga 14) verse 8a
ashmanvatI rIyate saM rabhadhvamut tiSThata pra taratAsakhAyaH |\\
10.53 (varga 14) verse 8c
atrA jahAma ye asannashevAH shivAn vayamuttaremAbhi vAjAn ||\\
See Aashvalaayana Grhya Mantra Vyaakhya, Chapter 4, p. 248.

(Source: Ram Gopal, 1983, The history and principles of vedic interpretation, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi, p.26)

S. Kalyanaraman, 22 Feb. 2010

Living tradition, venerating ancestors: dolmen and Rigveda

 

Stone that separates the living from the dead: Rigveda

This note points to the essential connection between dolmen in many parts of the globe and the funerary practices described in the Rigveda.

Planting the stone is a way of venerating the ancestors.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dolmen A dolmen is a megalithic tomb with three or more upright stones.

The dolmen is derived from taol maen ‘stone table’ in Breton, a Celtic language. Dolmen are found in all continents of the globe.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/48/Muniyara.jpg/220px-Muniyara.jpg See dolmen in Marayoor, Kerala belonging to Adi Chera.

See the megalithic portal http://www.megalithic.co.uk/

See Morernani a megalithic site in India: http://www.megalithic.co.uk/article.php?sid=15839

Megalithic site found in South Sumatra

Wed, 02/17/2010 2:13 PM  The Archipelago The findings are said to date back to 5000 BCE

http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2010/02/17/megalithic-site-found-south-sumatra.html

 

The living megalithic tradition in eastern Indonesia by Haris Sukendar, Indonesian National Research Centre of Archaeology, Jakarta: http://ejournal.anu.edu.au/index.php/bippa/article/view/502/491

 

The Continuity of Megalithic Culture and Dolmen in Indonesia

By Dr. Agus Aris Munandar, Departement of Archaeology

Faculty of Humanities University of Indonesia Dolmen is the “stone table

completely with menhir as legs” (SOKMONO, R., 1973, Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia I. Yogyakarta: Yayasan Kanisius, p. 72) http://www.idolmen.org/file/pdf/s149-152.pdf

 

Rigvedic rite of burying the bones from the cremation includes the planting of a stone. This is intended to separate the living from the dead.

 

RV 10.18.9 Taking his bow from the hand of the dead man, for the sake of our vigour, energy and sgtrength, (I say) you are there; may we (who are) here, blessed with male offspring, overcome all the enemies who assail us.

 

Dhanur hastaad aadadaano mrutasyaasme kshatraaya carcase balaaya

Atraiva tvam ih vayam suveeraa vishvaa sprdho abhimaateer jayema RV 10.18.9

 

With this rica, a stone is set up between the dead and the living to separate them

“According to this approach, food or water that is offered to the pitrs is first offered to 

Visnu and thereby transformed into visnu-prasada. The word prasada means "mercy" or 

"grace." Thus visnu-prasada is God's grace. This prasada of Visnu is then offered to the 

pitrs, who now receive God's grace instead of mere food or water. In this way, the grace 

of God has the power to elevate and sustain the pitrs in a manner that no human power 

can match. In the case of a homa or havan, a ritual performed with fire, the fire is used 

as the "delivery system" by which Visnu is first offered food. This food offering, which is 

now God's grace, is then offered to the pitrs through the fire. It is thus  Agnideva, the fire 

God, who acts as the link between this world and the world of the pitrs.” (Pancharatra tradition: Hindu Funeral Rites and Ancestor Worship [1] Antyesti, Sraddha and Tarpana http://www.scribd.com/doc/2676491/sraaddha1 )

 

Megaliths, menhir, planting a stone: abiding tradition for thousands of years

http://sites.google.com/site/kalyan97/megaliths

The page provides scores of examples of megaliths with menhirs all over Bharat. The practice of venerating the ancestors by planting a long stone continues even today in the antyeshti ceremonies performed after cremation of a person. The person authorized to perform the samskara, usually the eldest son or a jnaati (relative of the deceased person), includes an important process: planting of a stone. This is referred to as The meaning of the gloss, kal  is: (Tamil. Telugu. Tu. Ka. Ma.) Memorial stone in a village, as for a hero; வீரக்கல். பலர் . . . கன்னின்றவர் (குறள், 771).  A stone fixed in the house of a deceased person for ten days since his demise;சாச்சடங்கில் இறந்தார்பொருட்டுப் பத்துநாளைக்கு நாட் டப்படுங் கல். 10. A flaw in emeralds, one of eight marakata-k-kuṟṟam, q.v.; மரகதக்குற்றம் எட்டனுள் ஒன்று. (சிலப். 14, 184, உரை.) 

Megaliths are standing memorials of this Hindu samskara. A stone is planted in the house of the deceased, after cremation, for a period of ten days.


What has been found in Sembiyan Kandiyur is consistent with the practice of Pitru-medha described in As’valayana Grhya Sutra.

Post cremation Burial (Pitr-medha)

During the Vedic and early Grhya periods it was common to bury the incinerated bones of a deceased person in an urn. This was the pitr-medha ceremony. The Grhya-sutras of Asvalayana describe how the burned bones were to be collected on the third lunar day (tithi) after death. In the case of a man who had died, the bones were to be collected by elderly men and placed into a male urn. In the case of a woman, the bones were to be collected by elderly women and placed into a female urn. Urns were designed by their shape to be male or female. The performers of this ceremony were to walk three times in a counterclockwise direction around the bones while sprinkling milk and water from a particular kind of twig (sami). The bones were then placed into the urn as they were picked up individually with the thumb and fourth finger. First the bones of the feet were to be gathered and then successively the other bones were to be gathered working toward the head. After the bones had been purified and gathered they were sealed and buried in a secure location.

http://hindutva97.blogspot.com/2008/04/hindu-cremation-rites-including-pitru.html


Megaliths, menhir, planting a stone: abiding tradition for thousands of years

http://sites.google.com/site/kalyan97/megaliths

The page provides scores of examples of megaliths with menhirs all over Bharat. The practice of venerating the ancestors by planting a long stone continues even today in the antyeshti ceremonies performed after cremation of a person, the person authorized to perform the samskara, usually the eldest son or a jnaati (relative of the deceased person), performs an important process: planting of a stone. The meaning of the gloss, kal  is: (Tamil. Telugu. Tu. Ka. Ma.)  Memorial stone in a village, as for a hero; வீரக்கல். பலர் . . . கன்னின்றவர் (குறள், 771).  A stone fixed in the house of a deceased person for ten days since his demise; சாச்சடங்கில் இறந்தார்பொருட்டுப் பத்துநாளைக்கு நாட் டப்படுங் கல். 10. A flaw in emeralds, one of eight marakata-k-kuṟṟam, q.v.; மரகதக்குற்றம் எட்டனுள் ஒன்று. (சிலப். 14, 184, உரை.) 

Megaliths are standing memorials of this Hindu samskara. A stone is planted in the house of the deceased, after cremation, for a period of ten days.

Kalyanaraman 19 Dec. 2009

 


Atharva Veda refers to Iron as a metal:

Atharva Veda: 11.3.5, 6, 7

ashvaa kanaa gaavastandulaa mashakaastushaah ||5||

kabru faleekaranaah sharo'bhram ||6||

shyaamamayo'sya maamsaani lohitamasya lohitam || 7||


Horses are the grains, oxen the winnowed ricegrains, gnats the husks. (5)

Kabru is the husked grain, the rain cloud is the reed. (6)

Grey iron is its flesh, copper its blood. (7)

The above hymn is in glorification of Odana or the boiled rice, a staple diet for most Indians even now. It glorifies Odana metaphorically in many ways by saying that Brihaspati is its head, Brahma the mouth, Heaven and Earth are the ears, the Sun and Moon are the eyes, the seven Rishis are the vital airs inhaled and exhaled, and so on.

Links: 
Bronze Age India and the State in History
Metal work in Bronze Age India 
See also: 
Bronze Age and Iron Age artifacts unearthed in Myanmar
The Bronze Age of Southeast Asia
The Bronze Age of Southeast Asia By Charles Higham
Bronze age stone urns in Assam, Sulawesi, Laos: migrations over millennia from northern India through SE Asia to Indonesia
Recreating an ancient trade route

Bronze age indus quarries of Rohri hills and Ongar in Sindh

















Source:

 
By Charles Higham, 1996, The Bronze Age of Southeast Asia, p. 295
http://www.ling.hawaii.edu/austroasiatic/AA/pinnow-map-small.jpg 


Location map of Austro-speakers and location map of mineral resources
evidence a remarkable overlap,suggesting a hypothesis that mleccha
speakers were the inventors of bronze-age alloying and also of Indus script.

Megaliths, ancient temples and Sarasvati civilization continuum

This webpage provides an overview of megaliths of Bharat and perspectives on Bronze age iron in Bharat.

The so-called gap in history between post-Indus valley (ca. 1900 BCE) and historical periods (6th cent. BCE) has been bridged. The early iron assemblages of Bhagawanpura and Dadheri have bridged this gap. See notes at: 

http://www.docstoc.com/docs/17836531/megalithiciron


What were once categorized as megalithic sites [e.g. Kanmer (Kutch), Farmana (near Rakhi Garhi)], have now been recognised as Sarasvati civilization sites with the discoveries of metal artefacts and objects with Indus script.


The discovery of bronze ratha, bronze sculptures of typical Indus script animals and of a round seal containing only one pictograph: the rim of a narrow-neck jar (the most frequently occurring Indus script sign) at Daimabad, dated to ca. 1400 BCE have extended the civilization impact area south of the Vindhyas to the banks of Pravara river in Maharashtra.


The typical megaliths of Kanmer are found in the length and breadth of Bharat in scores of megalithic sites, most of which are also temple sites. Together with dolmens and mehirs, most of these megalithic sites have been recognized as iron age sites with discoveries of iron artefacts.


The discovery of iron smelters in Ganga basin (Malhar, Lohardewa, Raja-nal-ki-tila) by Rakesh Tiwari point to the dating of bronze age iron to ca. 18th cent. BCE and iron age continued into the historical periods in this basin.


The archaeological team of DK Chakrabarti and RN Singh of Univ. of Cambridge have located over 100 archaeological sites near Rakhigarhi (the largest site of the civilization excavated so far).  There are larger sites in Bhatinda, Gurnikalan (ca. 200 ha.) which need to be explored.


Together with the exploration of over 1800 archaeological sites on Sarasvati River Basin, it will also be necessary to excavate selected Megalithic sites to unearth the continuity of Sarasvati civilization beyond Daimabad in the regions south of the Vindhyas.


Megaliths are a veneration of ancestors of the civilization. So are the stupas (dagobas) found in Sarasvati civilization area and in many other parts of Bharat and regions north-west of Bharat. 


It is not a mere coincidence that the word kole.l means both a smithy and a temple in Kota and Toda languages. The artisans who worked with metals also invented the temples as places to venerate the ancestors and adarsha purusha. The techniques of ligatures used on Indus script and Indus age sculptures continue in the shilpa of utsava beras and also divinities depicted with multiple arms carrying weapons and other cultural artefacts.  All these sites become, together with water-bodies endowed with sacredness, tirthasthanas. At the tirthasthanas (as in Pehoa, Prthudaka on the banks of River Sarasvati in Haryana, near Kurukshetra), pitr-s, ancestors are venerated by the offerings of tarpanam and pinda pradaanam. If Gaya on Ganga is pitr-gaya, Sarasvati has maatr-gaya in tirthasthana such as Siddhapura (Gujarat).


The legacy of stone-cutters [sangataraasu (Te.); sang 'stone' (K.)] who could create a rock-cut reservoir continue into rock-cut caves such as those of Udayagiri and other megalithic cave/rock-art sites. Pillars similar to the polished stone pillars created in Dholavira are found in many temples and shivalingas of many megalithic sites. The image of Varaha and Mahishasura mardhini become a pan-bharatiya hindu metaphor.


The blending of adhyaatma with the sculptural tradition is unique in Hindu civilization, a veritable reverberation of dharma in its many ethical facets and facets of cultural expression as in yoga, aasanas, namaste, wearing of sindhu, veneration of shiva with perpetual dripping of water in abhishekam evoking the water-giver doing tapasya sitting on the summit of Mt. Kailas and yielding 10 of the greatest rivers of the world from Manasarovar glacier nearby. The celebration of divinity in every phenomena, in men, in women, in mountains, in waters rendering them all sacred makes the bharatabhumi itself sacred, a geographical manifestation of bharatamaataa. The world-view of Bharatiya immersed in dharma expands and merges secular, aadhyatmika and mundane life into a seamless web, eka neeDham (a web).


Sarasvati heritage is a challenge to archaeologists, geologists, art historians to help unravel the continuum of Hindu civilization and culture which lives on, as Sarasvati flows on.


A beginning can be made by revisiting megaliths and identifying sites for further exploration to define the cultural continuum of Hindu civilization.


kalyanaraman

kalyan97@gmail.com 29 Nov. 2009


http://www.acme.com/GeoRSS/?xmlsrc=http://www.megalithic.co.uk/cache/georss_79.689532_12.842249.xml (Map)

Excerpts from the article:
“There are four principal archaeological assemblages that document the Early Iron Age in South Asia: the Gandharan Grave Culture, the Painted Grey Ware Assemblage, the Pirak Assemblage, and the Megalithic Complex (although Chakrabarti [1992] points a six region division). The early iron from these assemblages has been dated to the first half of the first millennium BCE, with some dates circa 1000 BCE. (Nagaraja Rao 1971; Gaur 1983)…Painted Grey Ware sites extend from the Bahawalpur region of Pakistan east across the Punjab into Uttar Pradesh in India…The ceramic wares of the Painted Grey Ware assemblage are quite different from those of the Harappan and Post-urban Harappan that precede the assemblace in northern India and Cholistan…Jagat Pati Joshi and his tem…their excavations at Bhagawanpura and Dadheri have found evidence for Post-urban Harappan occupations followed by an overlap between the Post-urban Harappan and the Painted Grey Ware (Joshi 1976, 1978, 1993). Thus the historical gap that once existed separating the Early Iron Age culture from those of the preceding Bronze Age in northern India and Pakistan has now been closed and there is good evidence for cultural continuity between the two periods…Number of Painted Grey Ware sites: Bahawalpur 14, Punjab 108, Haryana 258, Rajasthan 101, Uttar Pradesh 218…The Megaliths of South Asia are an immense field of study…The connections have not yet been sorted out for this complex…Archaeological stratigraphy, radiocarbon dates, and the study of associated materials inform us, however, that the earliest Megaliths in the subcontinent date from somewhat early in the first or in the very late second millennium, and are associated with the early mass production of iron…Numbers of megalithic sites in Peninsular India by state (From Deo 1985-89): Tamil Nadu 389, Karnataka 300, Kerala 188, Andhra Pradesh 147, Maharashtra 90, Pondicherry 3…The earliest iron implements associated with the Peninsular Indian Megalithic are simple implements such as arrowheads, daggers, and domestic vessels. They are associated with the transitional times between the Megalithic Complex and the preceding South Indian Neolithic. There is solid evidence for cultural continuity in the region during this shift in metal technology (Shaffer 1995). The earliest date for iron in the region (ca. 1100 BCE) is from the Neolithic/Megalithic Period of Hallur on the Tungabhadra River in Karnataka (Nagaraja Rao 1971, 1981)…Excavations at Gufkral in the Vale of Kashmir by the Archaeological Survey of India (Indian Archaeology, A Review 1981-82: 19-25) have revealed a ‘Megalithic’ occupation associated with iron…
Radiocarbon dates for Gufkral Period II, Megalithic iron age
Lab. No. Calibrated date BCE (1d CAL) (Calib-3 program)
BS-434            2195 (2035) 1900
BS-431            1885 (1747) 1677
BS-433            2131 (1945) 1779
BS-371            1888 (1747) 1674
…These dates would push back the widespread use of iron into the beginnings of the second millennium BCE. There is an underlying Neolithic at Gufkral, however, and we know almost nothing about the nature and amount of iron found in Period II. Could we be documenting an instance of ‘Bronze Age Iron’ in the subcontinent here?...

Read on… http://www.docstoc.com/docs/17836531/megalithiciron 

 



S.NoIron Age Sites14C/ TL/ OSL Dates
1Ahar [ Rajasthan]2124 – 1707 BC [IB], 1871 – 1526 BC [IC]

The Calibrated points for IB and IC be considered 2100 and 1900 BC

2Gufkral [Kashmir]1850- 1550 BC
3Peshawar and Chitral [ Northwest]1000 BC / Gandhara grave culture- 1800 BC
4  Nagda, Eran, Dangwada [Malwa]c. 2000 – 1750 BC, 1500 BC Calibrated,

Nagda, 1100BC [ un calibrated]

5    Vidarbhac. 1000 BC
6Hallur, Veerapuram,  Kumaranahalli, Watgal - IIB[Deccan]Hallur- 1378 BC, 1255 BC [14C ], Veerapuram – 1525 BC, 1295 BC [14 C], KumaranaHalli – 1470 BC, 1410 BC, 1350 BC, 1160 BC [ TL ], Watgal- IIB- c.2300- 2000 BC , IIC- 2000 BC, IV- c.1500BC
7*Adichanallur,[TamilNadu]3000± 700, 3400± 700, 3160±600, 2700±600, 2600±500, 2500±530, 1920±350 BP [OSL ]
8Bahiri,  [West Bengal]1200- 1000 BC
9Golbai Sasan [Orissa]1100- 900 BC
10Barudih,[Jharkhand]1401 – 837 BC
11Dadupur, Jakherea, Raja – Nal- Tila, Malhar, Belan Valley, Jhusi- Allahabad, Lohuradeva, [UP]1700 BC,[Dadupur], 1882- 1639 BC, [Malhar] 2012 – 1742 BC, [ Raja- Nal- Tila], c. 1300 BC [Belan Valley,

Jhusi- 1100 BC, Lohurdeva- 1200/1100 BC [Calibrated]

SourceIndian Archaeology

*NIOT

Author: D.K Chakravarti

*OSL dates:R.K.Gartia, Manipur University


Iswal iron-age site

Megaliths: Orissa, Karnataka, other states

Ayawal* Burial Chamber (Dolmen) 

Kutkankeri* Cup and Ring marks / Rock Art

Ujjain* Ancient Temple

Vaital temple* Ancient Temple 
Lingraj temple* Ancient Temple 
Bindu Sagar Ancient Temple 
Brahmeshwara temple* Ancient Temple 
Mukteshwar Temple* Ancient Temple 
Kedar Gouri Temple* Ancient Temple 
Parsusrameswar temple* Ancient Temple 
Rajarani temple* Ancient Temple 
Konarak sun temple* Ancient Temple 
Undavalli cave temple* Ancient Temple 

Udaigiri Caves Cave or Rock Shelter
Konarak sun temple* Ancient Temple

Read on...http://www.docstoc.com/docs/17876610/megaliths2 

Megaliths in Tamilnadu, Kerala 


Marayoor Muniyaras* Barrow Cemetery 
Sambandhanur burial site Burial Chamber (Dolmen) 
Kollur Burial Chamber (Dolmen) 
Sri Kailasanathar temple* Ancient Temple 
Sri Katchabeswarar temple* Ancient Temple 
Sri Ekambaranathar temple* Ancient Temple 
Sri Ranganathaswamy temple* Ancient Temple 
Rock Fort temple* Ancient Temple 
Edakkal Caves Cave or Rock Shelter 
Mamallapuram* Ancient Temple 
Mamallapuram Shore Temple* Ancient Temple 
Halebidu* Ancient Temple 
Tiger Headed Rock-Cut Cave* Ancient Temple 
Atiranachanda* Ancient Temple 
Sri brahadeeswara temple Ancient Temple 
Sri Brihadeeswara temple* Ancient Temple 
Kerareshwarah Temple* Ancient Temple 
Vijayalaiaieswar temple* Ancient Temple 
Narthamalai temples* Ancient Temple 
Ammachatram* Barrow Cemetery 
Sithannavasal* Barrow Cemetery 
Kudminatha Temple* Ancient Temple 

Read on...http://www.docstoc.com/docs/17827842/megalithstamilnadu


Megalithic sites in Bharat: links

 Bhuj* Ancient Temple Latitude: 23.254139N  Longitude: 69.661111E
 Ghandigram ancient cemetery* Standing Stones Latitude: 22.861492N  Longitude: 69.285253E
 Lothal* Ancient Village or Settlement Latitude: 22.400000N  Longitude: 72.300000E
 Mount Abu* Ancient Temple Latitude: 24.401519N  Longitude: 72.451117E
 Banaravandh* Barrow Cemetery Latitude: 24.401519N  Longitude: 72.451117E
 Maha Kalika temple* Ancient Village or Settlement Latitude: 23.830000N  Longitude: 68.780000E  Lakhpat fort* Stone Fort or Dun Latitude: 23.825503N  Longitude: 68.777458E
 Jakhou port cemetery* Ancient Village or Settlement Latitude: 23.214900N  Longitude: 68.711500E
 Gomtidwarka Temple* Ancient Temple Latitude: 22.250558N  Longitude: 68.964861E
 Dwarka* Ancient Temple Latitude: 22.230828N  Longitude: 68.970722E
 Jaisalmer area* Sculptured Stone Latitude: 26.910000N  Longitude: 70.910000E
 Udaipur* Ancient Temple Latitude: 24.784275N  Longitude: 74.677661E
 Ujjain* Ancient Temple Latitude: 23.175978N  Longitude: 75.784425E
 Bundi* Ancient Temple Latitude: 25.441144N  Longitude: 75.642408E
 Sarasvati River Indus script Ancient Village or Settlement Lat.: 27.370000N  Longitude: 74.280000E
 Ellora cave temples* Ancient Temple Latitude: 20.042492N  Longitude: 75.167508E
 Karla caves* Cup and Ring marks / Rock Art Latitude: 18.740000N  Longitude: 73.420000E
 Bhim Betka* Cup and Ring marks / Rock Art Latitude: 22.927778N  Longitude: 77.583333E
 Sanchi* Ancient Temple Latitude: 23.479342N  Longitude: 77.739819E
 Heliodorus pillar* Ancient Temple Latitude: 23.523364N  Longitude: 77.805214E
 Drugdhamna Stone Circle Latitude: 21.187430N  Longitude: 78.224230E
 Farmana Harappan burial site Ancient Village or Settlement Lat.: 28.985470N  Long.: 76.811110E


Megalithic sites

from Gauri Shankar to Rameshwaram

See http://sites.google.com/site/kalyan97/kanmer The discovery of Kanmer, Rann of Kutch, as a Sarasvati civilization site points to the need for re-visiting the following megalithic sites, some of which show menhir stones and all of which have ancient temples. The heritage may be traceable to Sarasvati civilization times, if systematic archaeological exploratory work is carried out. The grand narrative of cultural artefacts and metallurgical evolution which defined Sarasvati civilization may perhaps explain why kole.l means both a smithy and a temple in Kota/Toda tradition. The sites outlined are: Gauri Shankar, Khadir, Dhrangadhra, Khotay, Anegundi, Badami, Rameshwaram.

Read on...http://www.docstoc.com/docs/17671649/megalithicsites


Megaliths, India
A good overview of "Preshistoric human colonization of India" is given by V.N. Misra here, although the megalith culture is there seen to date - incorrectly - to the Iron Age, on the unproven presumption that iron tools were necessary to make such sites. Certainly this does not apply to Neolithic megaliths and dolmens



Misra writes: "A variety of megalithic monuments, erected as burials or memorials, are found in the northern Vindhyas in southern Uttar Pradesh, Vidarbha region of Maharashtra and over most parts of south India. These monuments include cairns, stone circles, dolmens, dolmenoid cists, port-hole cists, menhirs, and rock cut caves, the last  confined to Kerala (Krishnaswami 1949; Gururaja Rao 1972; Sundara 1975). At several places in the northern Vindhyas, Vidarbha and south India, there are large megalithic fields containing several hundred burial monuments. In comparison to the burial sites, the habitation sites are few and far between, suggesting that a part of the megalithic population may have led a semi-nomadic life. The erection of these burials could be achieved only with the help of iron tools meant for quarrying and dressing large rock slabs and boulders. Some of the burial types like port-hole cists (a type of megalithic monument) are very elaborate, involving several large dressed slabs and provision of a hole in one of the slabs for insertion of new dead bodies at a later date. A number of burial sites and a few habitation sites have been excavated, the more important being Takalghat and Khapa (Deo 1970), Mahurjhari (Deo 1973) and Naikund (Deo and Jamkhedkar 1982) in Vidarbha; Brahmagiri and Chandravalli (Wheeler 1948) and Jadigenhalli (Seshadri 1960) in Karnataka; Nagarjunakonda (Subrahmanyam et al 1975) in Andhra Pradesh; Adichanallur (Rea 1902), Amirthamangalam (Banerjee 1956) and Sanur (Banerjee and Soundara Rajan 1959) in Tamil Nadu; and Porkalam (Thapar 1952) in Kerala." http://www.megaliths.net/india.htm
A note on MEGALITHS and MEGALITHIC CULTURE of south India by ramchandra rao
A large number of puzzling megalithic monuments are found all over south India: where did these people come from...are they wandering Celts..or Atlanteans fleeing from the destruction? Scythians from central asia, or very much a local group?Prehistoric Megaliths or large stone constructions dating from before written history are found in huge numbers in South India. The monuments are usually found in granitic areas.We still do not know exactly who the megalithic people were, whether they represent an immigrant group, or a local development. Since similar monuments are found in many places around the world, right from Ireland, malta, west asia, baluchistan to south east asia it is possible they represent a single group which spread all over the world. Among the possible groups are The Celts originating from central asia, who later became great seafarers: some group from West Asia like the ancient Elamites of mesopotamia: the Central Asian "Scythians", who roamed all over the world : a group of early Aryan tribes: and more fanciful, the Atlanteans washed off far and wide.The facts are known from archeology : the detailed explanations are yet to come.Structure:Most of the megaliths found appear to be graves or similar constructions. Very common are rectangular chambers made of large stone slabs. For instance near Hyderabad city the slabs are about 2 metres by one metre, about 6 cm thick.A box like structure is formed with the slabs resting on each other without any mortar. Sometimes there is an opening cut into one of the sides. Similar megaliths are found all the way from india, malta to Ireland but the usual dating of the indian megaliths is much more recent than the ones of britain/malta.Pottery:Invariably large well made, well fired wheel turned pottery is found. Usually it is black and red. Some pots still retain a shinypolish. In some areas notably Tamilnadu are urn fields, where large numbers of funeral urns filled with ashes and charred bones are seen. Sometimes terracotta sarcophagus also are found. One was of the size of a modern bathroom tub. It had a large lid and was decorated with a terracotta ram's head. Maybe some important person was buried in it.Metals:In all the south indian megaliths iron tools are found. It was an iron age culture. In sandstone area to the north copper tools were found, and they appear older. The iron tools are well made, massive, usually plough type and long crowbar -- celts or javelins. While the " javelins" might have been used for hunting, the local people even today use long steel rods for excavating soil and breaking granite boulders.Axes, arrowheads and large flat swords are seen. Horse stirrups, ladles, vessels(?), also are commonly found. In some areas bells are common, like the ones tied to necks of cows. In southern areas emblems of roosters ( the cockerel, or male 'jungle hen', gallus are reported.--- This has interesting implications.
Economy It seems to be based on agriculture, with efficient -- in fact expert use of water and irrigation. Rice seems to be introduced by the megalithic people into s. India. Various other grains also are traced. Of particular significance is the making of granite stone dams across small seasonal rivulets. Becasue of the impervious dense and hard granitic bedrock, these dams form little lakes after the rains and keep the land moist for a long time until the height of the following summer. Two crops can be raised in otherwise arid areas. ( one of the few examples of beneficial meddling by our species).Ethnic aspectsMost of the opinions about the megalithic peoples are unfortunately based on pet notions , imaginary scenarios and the like. Today's politics too colour the opinions. But based on the meager facts everyone is welcome to speculate, providing it is clearly understood to be speculation.                    http://www.fortunecity.com/greenfield/tree/21/megal.htm                                                                                                             










 
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