Jyotisha (astronomy)

By Arun Kumar Upadhyay, IPS,

B-9, CB-9, cantonment Road, Cuttack-753001

 Phone-91-671-2304172/2304433, Mobile +91-9437034172

 Email arunupadhyay30@yahoo.in (22 May 2009

 

(Summary)

 

World civilization has progressed in cycles matching with glacial cycle of the world. Glaciations destroyed the northern hemispheres and center of power shifted to equatorial regions. Glacial floods made temperate climate more suitable and power shifted north wards. However, India, being bound in north by Himālaya remained protected from devastation and maintained long continuity of civilization. The geographical protection gave matching nature of the population to preserve ancient wisdom and tradition. The unification and foundation of knowledge gave rise to Vedas which are collected wisdom of ŗşis for at least 26,000 years. Its scientific explanation as per branch of knowledge and language of current time was by Jaina texts, whose tradition was maintained by munis. In general, same persons were called ŗşi as well as muni. Thus, the two traditions are since time immemorial in India and are complementary. Bauddha system of verbal logic is base of all texts explained in words. Mechanical science, farming, trade, and rules of govt. etc. are based on Chārvāka were also part of both. There has been many cycles of time called yugas. Micro to largest time cycle have two opposing parts called avasarpiņī (descending) and utsarpiņī (ascending). However, historic cycle is of 24,000 years in 2 parts, called a day of human Brahmā, or Kalpābda. 10th part of each is kali, avasarpiņī starts with satya, tretā, dvāpara, kali, It is followed by utsarpiņī of 12000 years in reverse order with kali. At present we are running in 3rd Kalpābda. whose kali had started in 3102 BC. Tretā of utsarpiņī has started in 1999 AD. By mixing up with large time-scales of astronomy, we have given up to 1016 years life period to Ŗşabhadevajī, which is more than life of sun itself. We feel disrespect in reducing the number or similar ages of other great men. Their greatness is not in having life span of million times that of earth, but in achieving world consciousness in normal life and uplifting mankind. This article attempts to outline Jain and Vedic traditions from 61,902 B, based on Purāņa calender.

1.Time Scales - Śatapatha Brāhmaņa (12/3/2/5) defines svedāyana equal to 15-8 parts of a day, i.e. about 11,20,000 parts of a second, and (10/4/4/2) links the number of lomagartta (= 15 svedāyana) in a year (1012) with number of stars in galaxy. Its image is human brain having same number of cells. Smallest time has been defined in Bhāgavata purāņa (chapter 3/16) as the time taken by light ray in crossing smallest length. Starting from man of about 1.35 meter (average of length, breadth) size, smaller worlds are smaller in ratio of 10-5 up to 7 levels (Dhyānavindu upanişad, 4). Thus, the smallest world is of 1.35 x 10-35 meters. This is called Planck’s length. Light will take 10-43 seconds to cross it, which is called Planck’s time in modern physics. Jaina texts also define similar micro units. To the largest end, astronomical yuga is of 12,000 divya years, where a divya year is of 360 solar years (Sūrya siddhānta, chapter 1). This is the period in which planets up to Saturn at 1000 sun diameters make integral number of revolution. That gives rise to cycles of reversal of magnetic poles and motion of geographical poles (also viewed as continental shift).1000 such yugas make 1 kalpa or day of Brahmā in space. This period of 4.32 billion years is the period up to which planetary motion is expected to remain. In this period, earth will cover distance in its orbit equal to circumference of galaxy (Sūrya siddhānta, chapter 12). Night of Brahmā is of same period. 30 day-nights make 1 month and 12 months (+5 = 365 days) make 1 year. 100 years of life of Brahmā is equal to 1 nimeşa (twinkling of eye. For man, it is taken as 4/45 seconds) of Vişņu.100 years life of Vişņu is 1 day of Śiva, and his 100 years are 1 nimeşa of Śakti.  These time scales are similar to estimates of half life of proton-decay which is still a wild guess.

   In the present Kalpa of 4.32 billion years, 6 manvantaras of 71 yugas and 7 sandhyā, each of 1 satya-yuga of 1728,000 years have passed. In the 7th manvantara, 27 yugas have passed. In 28th yuga, Satya, tretā, dvāpara were completed on 17/18-2-3102 BC Ujjain midnight. Then, kali of 432000 years has started. This comes to 1,97,31,44,000 years of the total day of Brahmā of 432 crore years. After deducting 47400 x 360 years spent in creation, it is 1,95,58,80,000 years till start of kali. Sri Vasudeo Poddar in his book-Viśva ki Kāla Yātrā- has assumed that two-day nights of Brahma of 864 crore years each have passed and it is the time in 3rd day. Thus, the total time passed is about 1926 crore years. This tally with the modern estimates of 10 to 25 billion years life of cosmos. Third day of Brahmā has been indicated in-Bhavişya pu, pratisarga (1/1/3), Yajurveda (12/75), Ŗgveda (10/97/1), Brahmāņďa (1/2/6/5-9, 16, 51, 52, 61, 70, 76) and (2/3/1/8). Āryabhaţa has taken 1 kalpa of 14 manvantaras of 72 yugas each, i.e. 1 kalpa =1008 yugas. He takes 4 equal part-yugas each of 10,80,000 years. Here also, kali started on 17-2-3102 BC.

      However, historic yuga is also of 12,000 divya years, but here divya year means 1 solar year. This is clear from Vāyu purāņa (57/17, 99/419) where saptarşi vatsara is stated to be 3030 mānuşa (human) years or of 2700 divya years at another place. Manuşya (man) has mana (mind) which is an image of moon as per Puruşa-sūkta (7). So Mānuşa year is 12 rotation of moon around earth = 12 x 27 = 324 days. Divya also means bright, and it is due to sun. Thus solar year can be called divya year of 365.25 days. Assuming these figures, 3030 mānuşa years = 2717 solar years. 17 (or 18) extra years have been indicated as sansarpa kāla (Chandrāvadāna Kāla-Tantra, by Chandrakanta Bali, page 76). Similarly, Dhruva-year (in Brahmāņďa purāņa 1/1/2/29/18) called Krauñcha year (in Vāyu purāņa 57/18) is of 9,090 mānuşa years or 8100 solar years. Thus, we take 24,000 years of historic yuga with first half of 12,000 years avasarpiņī starting with satya, tretā, dvāpara, kali. Second half utsarpiņī is in reverse order of yugas. In this also, 3rd day is running with kali of avasarpiņī starting on 17/18-2-3102 BC Ujjain midnight.

    The 3rd day of Brahmā started with Vaivasvata Manu from whom Satya yuga started. His father Vivasvān had started this system in Sūrya siddhānta (Vivasvān and Sūrya - both mean sun). Thus, period of Vivasvān is 4800 + 3600 + 2400 = 10,800 years before 3102 BC i.e. in 13,902 BC.  His calendar started with Chaitra month bright half when sun enters Meşa sign (now at time of spring equinox). Mahābhārata, vana parva chapter 230 tells that Kārttikeya had started year from Dhanişţhā (β Delphini) star after pole had shifted from Abhijit (Vega) star in about 15,800 BC. Since year started with rains (varşā), it was called varşa. That tradition of starting year with rains when sun started southward motion was continued from earlier tradition of Asuras who were supreme before Kārttikeya. Till today, Sūrya siddhānta calls it Asura day. This yuga system did not exist in period of Brahmā, so satya yuga did not start with him, he was in earlier (ādya) tretā (Vāyu purāņa 9/46, 31/3, 33/5).

2. Historic cycles - For history, Matsya purāņa (129/76, 77), tells that after Svāyambhuva Manu there were 43 yugas till Vaivasvata Manu. Bhavişya purāņa, pratisarga parva (1/4/26) tells this period as 16,000 years. Thus, each yuga here is only of 360 years-called a divya year in astronomy. Divya-day (translated as Baɖā-dina) starts with northward motion of sun, which was originally meant to be start of Julian calendar year in 46 BC, but people started after 7 days to coincide with start of Pauşa dark half of Vikrama year 10. The start of north motion was termed Kŗşņa māsa (Chris-mas) as night is longest on that day in north hemisphere.. These texts also mention 28 yugas or 10,000 (360 x 28 = 10,080) or more correctly 10,800 years after Vaivasvata Manu-till Kali start when Purāņas were finalized by Veda-Vyāsa (Kŗşņa Dvaipāyana). Combining both, Brahmāņɖa purāņa (1/2/9/36, 37) tells that 26,000 years or 71 yugas (called manvantara, historic one) have passed from Svāyambhuva Manu till kali start.

    In historic cycle also, 24,000 years period has been called Brahmābda in Bhavişya purāņa, pratisarga parva , (91/1/3) and Ayanābda yuga in Vāyu purāņa (31/29). Thus, there are two complementary cycles-

(1) 26,000 years of 71 yugas of 360 years each (more correctly, of 365 years equal to days in solar year.

(2) 24,000 years in 2 halves- avasarpiņī of 12000 years starting with satya, tretā, dvāpara, kali-of 4,3,2,1 parts, followed by utsarpiņī is in reverse order of yugas.

26,000 years is the period of precession of earth’s axis, called ayana-chakra in Indian astronomy. From position of equinox point or of solstices, we can verify the yuga mathematically. Civil yuga is the real cycle of glacial periods which is a combination of rotation of major axis of earth’s orbit in about 1,00,000 years and precession of equinoxes in 26,000 years in reverse direction. When earth is at apogee (highest point of earth’s orbit) or is farthest from sun, it gets least heat. Combined with that, if the north-pole is inclined away from sun, glaciation sets in. When north-pole is towards sun at apogee, then there will be glacial flood. Thus, glacial cycle will be joint effect of the two cycles, as propounded by Milancovich of Czechoslovakia in 1923. That comes to 21,600 year cycle-

However, the real cycle is of 24,000 years as the speed of precession varies and there is nutation also. Rotation of major axis also has some long term components of 4,12,000 years and above. It can be seen that nodes of glacial cycle have always occurred in tretā - floods in avasarpiņī and ice age in utsarpiņī. In taking 24,000 year cycle, we are merging 312000 year cycle part of major axis rotation with precession-  

The yuga cycle also tallies with civilization as stated in Mahābhārata, śānti parva (232/31-34). Dvāpara is time of changes and revival, but yajña (science of production) reaches to top in tretā only. By taking cycle of 24,000 years instead of 26,000, there has to be correction in cycle of 24,000 years, called Bīja-sanskāra by Brahmagupta in his Brāhma-sphuţa-siddhānta (1902 edition), madhyamadhikāra, 61. Bhāskarāchārya-2 has in his Siddhānta-śiromaņi, bhū-paridhi, 7-8 has stated in his comments that he does not know the logic, it was since āgama (purāņa tradition). Combining, dhruva-saptarşi and glacial cycles, the yuga cycle from 61,902 BC will be as below-

                                            Yuga Cycle

Day Of Brahmā   Part    BC year Start of Yuga     Glacial cycle   Notes/Saptarşi period

                                                61,902    Satya    Ice age 69,200 (in Tretā of previous utsarpiņī)

                           Avasarpiņī    57,102   Tretā      Glacial flood 58,100 BC-Maņijā era, time of some sūktas as        

                                                 53,502   Dvāpara           calculated on basis of nutation in veda-kāla-nirņaya by

Dark age                                  51,102   Kali                         Dinanatha Shastri Chulet, Indore, 1925.

Day 1                                       49,902   Kali

                          Ut sarpiņī        48,702 Dvāpara

                                                 46,302   Tretā       Ice age 45,500

                                                 42,702 Satya

                                                 37,902  Satya

                       Avasarpiņī         33,102 Tretā        Glacial flood 31,100

Day 2                                        29,502 Dvāpara   Ādya Tretā-Brahmā-Varāha Kalpa

Ādya (initial) yuga                     27,102, Kali                                       29,102

(Svāyambhuva Manu)              25,902 Kali                                                                      27,376-Dhruva-0

                                                  24,702 Dvāpara                  43 x360 = 16,000 years

                          Utsarpiņī          22,302 Tretā         Ice age 20,000                                  19,276-Dhruva-1

                                                  18,702 Satya

                                                  13,902 Satya                                 13,102-Vaivasvata Manu  11,176-Dhruva-2

                        Avasarpiņī          9,102 Tretā        Glacial flood 9,200                        8476-End of Ikśvāku-Saptarşi-1

                                                   5,502 Dvāpara                        28 x 360 = 10,000                5,776-Saptarşi-2

Day 3 (current)                           3,102 KaIi                                        3,102 Kali          3,076-Laukika-Saptarşi-3

(Vaivasvata Manu)                     1,902 Kali               Mahāvīra 1905, Siddhārtha Buddha 1887

                                                    702 Dvāpara           Śūdraka-755, Śākambharī śaka-612

                          Ut sarpiņī         1,699 AD Tretā           1700-Industrial revolution

                                                  5,299 AD Satya        2000-End of Tretā  junction-Information technology

 

3. Parts of Yuga-(1) Parivarta yuga-Brahmāņɖa purāņa (1/2/6/6-8) tells that the current kalpa or day of Brahmā is called Varāha-kalpa. Parts of yuga are counted only for this kalpa. In list of  28 Vyāsas, each part of a yuga has been called parivarta.

1 parivarta = 360 years (Paridhi = circumference divided into 3600,  parivartana = change).

1 Tretā  = 3600 years = 10 Parivarta Yuga.

Start of Tretā was in 22,302 and in 9,102 BC. These had 10 +10 = 20 parivarta or parts. Even after second Tretā ended in 5,502 BC, this counting continued till age of Rāma (birth on 11-2-4433 BC as per horoscope in Vālmīki Rāmāyaņa) as era of advancement continued. Vāyu purāņa, chapters (70, 86, 98) mentions these parts-

Asura king Bali-3rd Tretā –This count should start from 22,302 BC, but this yuga-system itself started after Vaivasvata Manu, hence it should more properly be counted 3600 years before 13,902 BC, i.e. from 17,502 BC. Second Tretā will be completed in 16,802 BC and the third will continue till 16,442 BC. In this period of Bali, Vāmana had achieved supremacy of 3 lokas for Indra. But Asuras thought that they could have defeated Devas in war and continued attacks. Finally Kārttikeya defeated them convincingly. In his period, pole star had shifted from Abhijit  to Dhanişţhā and in consultation with Brahmā, he started year with entry of sun in Dhanişţhā (Mahābhārata udyoga parva, 230/8-10). That should be in 16,000 BC. Bali period is 1 saptarşi = 2700 years after completion of Dhruva cycle in 19,276 BC, i.e. after 16,576 BC when Asura empire based in Krauñcha Dvīpa (north America) was most powerful.. Year started with south ward motion of sun, or varşā (rains), so year itself was called varşa. 

Dattātreya -10thTretā,-It appears to be in 9102 BC when second Tretā started after end of glacial floods.  

Māndhātā - 15th Tretā-started in 9102-4 x 360 =7,662 BC and continued till 7,302 BC. 18 generation after him was Bāhu, who had been defeated by Yavanas with help of Haihaya, Tālajangha, Śaka, Pārada, Kāmboja, and Pahlavas (Brahmāņɖa purāņa, 2/3/63/119-120). Megasthenes, Arian, Solin and other Greek authors have given the date of this first Yavana attack by Dionysus (Bacchus) as 6451 years 3 months before Alexander, i.e. in 6,777 BC.

Paraśurāma-19th Tretā - It started in 5502 + 2 x 360 = 7222 BC. After his death, Kalamba (Kollam) samvat started in 6,177 BC which still continues in Kerala. As incarnation of Vişņu, he has been called Hercules (as sun or Vişņu, he holds the earth). He was 15 generations after Dionysus as per Greek writers. He destroyed kings (kingdoms) 21 times, which has been called republic era for 120 years by the Greeks. This should start 120 years before the death of Paraśurāma in 6297 BC, when he must have been about 30-35 years. Thus, he lived up to at least 155 years of age, so he is famous as long lived.

Rāma-24th Tretā- This actually started 3 parivartas after end of Tretā, i.e. 5502-3 x 360 = 4422 BC, i.e. when was 11 years of age. Thus his life was mostly in 24th Tretā.

(2) Saptarşi era-As per, Rājatarangiņī,1/50-52), Laukikābda started with death of Yudhişţhira in kali year 25, i.e. in 3076 BC when Saptarşis left Maghā after 100 years stay in that star.  3 Saptarşi cycles i.e. 8100 years are cycle of Dhruva  starting after death of King Dhruva, grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu as per Bhāgavata purāņa. It was called Krauñcha year, when Asura kings up to Bali were supreme in that continent.

(3) Glacial cycles have been given as per modern estimates.

(4) Brahmā-There were 7 human Brahmā as per Mahābhārata, śānti parva (chapters 348, 349)-

1. Mukhya –From mukha (mouth) of Nārāyaņa) or main Brahmā-He taught Vaikhānasa.

2. From eyes-He was taught by Soma and himself taught Bālakhilyas.

3. From Vāņī – He has been called Apantaratamā, son of Vāņī in Mahābhārata, śānti parva (349/39). He taught Trisuparņa Ŗşi. As per purāņas, he lived on banks of Gautamī (Godāvarī). The suparņa, is stated to have entered sea-tending coastal land has been called Reļhi (Ŗgveda 10/114/4), so farmers in Andhra are still called Reddi. Brāhmī script of 64 letters still continues as Telugu and Kannada having vowels of 1, 2, 3 meters.

4. In ādi kŗta yuga (37902-33102 BC)- Brahmā  was from ears. He taught Vedas with Āraņyaka, Rahasya, and Sangraha to Svārochişa Manu, Śankhapada, dikpāla Suvarņābha.

5. In ādi kŗta yuga -From nose of Nārāyaņa-He taught Vīraņa, Raibhya Muni, and Kukśi (Dik-pāla = Ruler of a region).

6. Aņɖaja Brahmā-taught Barhişad Muni, Jyeşţha Sāmavratī,  king Avikampana.

7. Padmanābha Brahmā taught Dakśa, Vivasvāna, Ikśvāu-This could not have been a single man from Vivasvān in 14000 BC to Ikśvāku in 8576 BC. This appears to be institution of Brahmā who was first consulted by Kārttikeya for new calendar. His tradition appears to have continued till 9,500 BC at time of Ŗşabhdevajī after glacial floods. He might have been in east Himalayas. Catchment of Brahmaputra river is called Brahma-viţapa in Trivişţapa (Tibet), or at Manipura which means navel (of Nārāyaņa) giving birth to Brahmā, adjacent country.

One of the Brahmā in ādi kŗta yuga was in Puşkara (Bukhara of old Persia, now in Uzbekistan), which has been stated 120 west of Ujjain (Vişņu purāņa, 2/8/26) and at 350 north latitude (maximum day length of 16 hours in Vedānga jyotişa).- See Ŗgveda (6/16/13), Brahma purāņa (8/87), Gopatha Brāhmaņa (1/16). Till today, the convention of scripts centered around place of Brahmā is continuing-north east part of China, Japan write down wards, east part (India) writes to right  and west Asia in left direction. That institution appears to have continued till Svāyambhuva Manu who was king at Ayodhyā.

(5) Kaśyapa, and Manus-In astronomy, 7th Manu period is running and 7 more are yet to come. These are periods of geological changes which has been also described in purāņas and Vedas. But in historic era, all 14 Manus have passed. There were 7 main Manus and their 7 cousins, called Sāvarņi in same periods-

Sl. No.                       Main Manu                             Sāvarņi Manu

1.                         Svāyambhuva                                        Meru Sāvarņi

2.                         Svārochişa                                             Dakśa Sāvarņi

3.                         Uttama                                                  Brahma Sāvarņi (Kaśyapa)

4.                         Tāmasa                                                 Dharma Sāvarņi

5.                          Raivata                                                Rudra Sāvarņi

6.                         Chākśuşa                                                Rauchya

7.                        Vaivasvata                                               Bhautya

Brahmāņɖa purāņa (1/2/36/65) tells that 4 Manus- Svārochişa, Uttama, Tāmas, Raivata were descendants of Priyavrata, elder son of Svāyambhuva Manu. Mother of Svārochişa was Ākūti who was daughter of Svāyambhuva Manu and was married to Ruchi Prajāpati, father of Rauchya Manu. The other 3 were sons of Priyavrata. Brahmāņɖa purāņa (3/4/1/23-24) tells that the other 5 Sāvarņi Manus were sons of Priyā (Kriyā), daughter of Dakśa Prajāpati.

Harivamśa purāņa (2/15) tells that Chākśuşa Manu was son of Ripu, grandson of King Dhruva. Almost same exists in Vāyu purāņa (4/100, 58/30). Prior to Vaivasvata Manu, list of kings is scanty. That gives 52 kings from Svāyambhuva to Chākśuşa and then 12 kings up to Vaivasvata Manu. Kaśyapa influence is for 5 generations from Chākśuşa Manu to Pŗthu, between them came Vŗ, Anga, Vena.

Svāyambhuva…………………………….. Chākśuşa……………………………. Vaivasvata

                                40 generations                                12 generations

52 generations (incomplete list) = 15,120 years.

1 generation = 15,120  52 = 290 years.

Period of Kaśyapa and Chākśuşa = 29102(Svāyambhuva) [i]- 40 x 290 = 17,500 BC.

Pŗthu period = 17,500 – 5 x 290 = 16,050 BC.

Thus, Kaśyapa period is from 17,500 to 16,050 BC. It may be noted that Institute of Brahmā from Svāyambhuva Manu continued till glacial ice period in 20,000 BC. Then, it was revived by Kaśyapa. After that, period of each Vyāsa till Ŗşabhadeva can be taken as 2 parivarta = 720 years. Period of 6thVaivasvata-Yama is taken as 4 parivarta = 1440 years as there was deluge in his period. After Ŗşabhadeva, period of all Vyāsa is taken as 1 parivarta = 360 years.

(6) Mahāvīra, Buddha  etc-Jain scriptures are unanimous that Mahāvīra was at the end of avasarpiņī , thus he has to be before 1902 BC. The horoscope given in astrology book tallies with the date 11-3-1905 BC which was Chaitra śukla 13th.

     Date of Siddhārtha Buddha is known more accurately-Birth 31-3-1886 BC, Vaiśākha śukla 15th, i.e. pūrņimā till 5-24 ghaţī.  Departure for Kapilavastu-29-5-1859 BC, Sunday, āşāɖha śukla 15. Achieving Buddha  stage-3-4-1851 BC, Vaiśākha pūrņimā till 11 ghaţī  before sunrise. Death of his fatherŚuddhodana 25-6-1848, śrāvaņa pūrņimā, Saturday. Nirvāņa  (death) of Buddha-27-3-1807, Tuesday, Vaiśākha pūrņimā, slightly before sunrise.

Rāma birth at Ayodhyā at 81024’ east, 26048’ north, on 11-2-4433 BC at local time 10-47-48 h/m/s. lagna-9000’1”, sun-900’0’’, moon-9000’1”, mars-29800’0”, mercury-2100’0”, Jupiter- 9000’1”, venus-35700’0”, Saturn-20000’0”, Rāhu-12004’26”, balance in period of Jupiter-4 years.

Kŗşņa birth at Mathurā 27025’ north, 77041’ east, on 17-7-3228 BC at midnight. Sun-139048’, moon-47042’, mars-9106’, mercury-152048’, Jupiter-148054’, venus-102054’, Saturn-224042’, rāhu 106024’, lagna-500.

Śankarāchārya at Kālaţī 10040’ north, 760 east, on 4-4-509 BC, Tuesday, 2252 hrs LMT, vaiśākha śukla 5 till 1132 hrs, punarvasu star from 4-4-509 BC -0139 hrs till 5-4-509, 0406 hrs. Lagna-261024’, sun-25038’, moon-90068’, mars-305019’, mercury-44034’, Jupiter-247045’, venus-67053’, Saturn-343022’, rāhu-31047’.

Śūdraka- He was born as Indrāņīgupta in Brāhmaņa family and was king of Mālavā (Ujjain). He united 4 main royal families in a yajña at Abu (Arbuda parvata) performed by Vişņu incarnation Buddha born as son of Ajina in Kīkaţa (Magadha). Śūdraka-śaka  was started in 756 BC on that occasion indicated in Jyotişa-darpaņa of Yallaya. For uniting 4 kings, he was called Śūdraka as honour and his era was called Kŗta (satya) yuga. These 4 families-Pratihāra, Paramāra (Pramara), Chālukya, Chāhamāna (Chauhāna)-took lead in protecting the country against attack by Asuras (Assyria),so they were called of Agni-kula. Agni normally means fire, but Śatapatha Brāhmaņa (2/2/4/2) defines it as agni (agrī) =agraņī =leader. Pratihāra, and Paramāra stopped Asuras and Chālukya continued to block, but decisive victory was by king Chāhamāna who completely routed Asura capital Nineve in 612 BC. This has been indicated in Bible as final destruction of Asura  empire by king of Medes east of Indus river (= Madhya-deśa between Gangā and Himālaya). Chāhamāna were devotees of Śākambharī whose blessing for destroying Asuras in Kali era is indicated in Durgā-saptaśatī (11/49). Era was started on that occasion has been indicated by Varāhamihira in Bŗhat-samhitā (13/3).

After Chāhamāna, there was temporary incursion by Śakas of central Asia who were trounced by Śrī-Harşa of Mālavā, in 456 BC and set up a pillar (Vişņu-dhvaja = Kutub-minar), called pillar of Hercules by Megasthenes. It has also been indicated by Ibn-Batuta, traveler from Morocco in 13th century. This samvat has been mentioned by Al-Biruni and Abul-Fazal. The 300 year period of Mālava-gaņa has been stated by Greek writers like Megasthenes as 300 years of democracy.

(6) Other Buddhas-There were 28 Buddhas listed in Bauddha text-Stūpa (Thūpa) vamśa. Vişņu incarnation Buddha was born as son of Ajina in Kīkaţa (Magadha) slightly before Śūdrala-śaka i.e. in about 800 BC. He was not among 28 Buddhas. Mañjuśrī Buddha was born in China-he might be among 7 Brahmā, and was called Fan. Kaśyapa Buddha was in 17,500 BC. Pūraņa Kaśyapa was in Kasap (Rohtas district in west Bihar) in time of Siddhārtha Buddha. Amitābha Buddha was in China at time of Rāma whose teaching to Rāvaņa is called Lankāvatāra sūtra. In Yoga-Vāsişţha, Nirvāņa khaņɖa, chapters 14-17, he has been called Kākabhuśuņɖi, who was north east from Meru, i.e. in China. Vasişţha had gone to him for learning. His views have been criticised in Vālmīki Rāmāyaņa, Ayodhyā kāņɖa, chapters 108-109. In verse (109/34) he has been called Budha, Buddha, Tathāgata, Śakyatama (Śākya).

Sumedhā Buddha taught Paraśurāma after Dhanuşa yajña at Mithilā when Rāma was married. He lived at Mahendragiri where a place named Baudha still exists which is a district. His teaching to Paraśurām is called Tripurā-Rahasya. He is the same ŗşi who taught Durgā Māhātmya to king Suratha. His explanation of śakti as 10 Mahāvidyā is called 10 Prajñā-pāramitā in Baddha  texts. Śākya sinmha Buddha had gone to Nepal just before Mahābhārata in time of king Jitedasti. Fahien has described times and places of 3 Buddhas just before Siddhārtha Budda. Krakucchanda, Kanakamuni and Kaśyapa. Stūpa of Kanakamuni had been doubled by king Ashok in14th year of his rule. After Siddhārtha, there were 3 Lokadhātu Buddhas, out of which 2 were in Kashmir-at time of Ashoka, 48 th king of Gonanda vamśa (1400 BC), and in time of 53 rd king Kanişka (1505 BC). Maitreya Buddha was in Dhānya-Kataka which is Cuttack in Orissa, a region of dhānya (paddy) with places as Chauliaganja, Dhānamandal, Salepur, etc. As per Fahien, he was about 300 years after death of Siddhārtha Budda (1807 BC) i.e in1500 BC. Dīpankara Buddha was after Sumedhā. Orissa king Indrabhūti was his disciple. His son Padmasambhava started Lama tradition in Tibet. Siddhārtha has named 3 more Buddhas whose teachings did not survive inabsence of written text-Vipaśyī, Śikhi, Viśvabhū.

4. List of Vyāsa-On these logics and calculations, Sri Kunvar Lal Jain  Vyāsa-śişya” in his books (Purāņon men Vamśānukramika Kāla-krama, and Purāņon men Aitihāsika Parivarta Yuga-Itihas Vidya Prakashan, Delhi, 1990) has indicated period of 28 Vyāsas given in many purāņas (Vāyu, Brahmāņɖa, Kūrma etc). This is quoted by 18 Vol. Indian History by Sripad Kulkarni from BHISHMA, Thane, Mumbai-in vol. 4).

1. Svāyambhuva Manu (Brahmā)-(29,102-17,500 BC)-Svārochişa, Tāmasa, Raivata also were in this period.

2. Kaśyapa (Brahma-Sāvarņi Manu)-(17,500-16,050 BC)-Chākśuşa, and other Sāvarņi Manus. In this period Pŗthu (17,050 BC) was most important king who did extensive mining all over the world-so earth was called Pŗthvī. This led to co-operation between Deva and Asuras for samudra-manthana which was world-wide joint exploration of minerals. Vena was father of Pŗthu and possibly a jaina Tīrthankara as he has been blamed as Jaina in many Purāņas. There are many sūktas by him. Śukra planet was named venus after him.

3 Ūśanā  Kāvya or Śukrāchārya (16,050-15,330 BC)-Son of Bhŗgu. Atharva-veda was by Bhŗgu-Angirā. He was Guru (Preceptor) of Asura, Daitya, Dānava. Treatises on Rājanīti (politics+economics), Dhanurveda, Āyurveda, Purāņas were written. Kārttikeya starts new calendar in 15,800 BC with year from entry of sun in Dhanişţhā star.

4. Bŗhaspati -(15,330-14,610 BC)-Complete form of Vedas. He explained grammar for each word separately which is still used in China- where there is separate sign for each word.

5. Vivasvāna (Savitā)- (14,610-13,900 BC)-New calendar and yuga-system as per Sūrya-siddhānta. Year started from Āśvina month with entry of sun in meşa sign and crossing of equator in north motion of sun. Avasarpiņī yuga started with Satya yuga. Then Tretā, Dvāpara came and ended after (4800 +3600 +2400 = 10,800 years) in 3102 BC.

6. Vaivasvata-Yama (13,900-12,460 BC)-He was Ahur-Mazda (Asura-Mahādeva) of Zend-Avesta. There was deluge in his period. He had explained the secrets of death to Nachiketā (Kaţhopanişad), so he is called Śrāddha-Deva also. He is called younger brother of Vaivasvata-Manu, but in action only. There is large difference between their periods. His place was called Yama-loka, place of dead with capital at Sanyamanī Purī. These are now called Yaman, Amman, Sana, Dead sea etc.

7. Indra-Śatakratu (12,460-11,740 BC)-Śata =100, Kratu = yajña = science of producing desired objects in cycles. Most needed object is food, whose production is most important yajña done in annual cycle. Other human activities also match the natural cycle of revolution of earth-like financial or educational session. Ideal for man is to do yajña for 100 years life-time. There were many Indras in 3600 years supremacy of Devas, but 14 among them were important who ruled for 100 years each-and were called Śatakratu . In space, Indra is the radiation which is present even in vacuum i.e. Śunāsīrah. On earth, Indra means king. That too is called Śunāsīrah because his influence is everywhere or he is owner of un-claimed property (with no owner). Most of the sūktas of Vedas were written at time of 7th  Indra-Vaikunţha. Indra was Lokapāla (ruler) of east direction (from center of India). With assistance of Marut (Lokapāla of north-west) who was expert in science of sound-he made Deva-nāgarī script with 49 letters for 49 maruts in space of galaxy. It has 33 letters for 33 devas which are prāņa of 33 dhāmas of solar system. Being a Chiti (City, arrangement) or nagara of devas in symbols, it is called Deva-nāgarī which is still used from Indra (east) to north-west (Marut).

Samvatsara is yajña (Śatapatha brāhmaņa 11/1/1/1), Samvatsara is Indra Śunāsīrah (Taittirīya brāhmaņa 1/7/1/1)

8.Vasişţha (11,740-11,020 BC)-He was son of Mitra (Sun-Iran)) and Varuņa (Ahur-Mazda in Arab) both-may be link between two regions. 8th maņɖala of Ŗk-veda is by him.

9.Apāntaratamā or Sārasvata (11,020-10,300 BC)-Son of Sarasvatī-Alambuşā in gotra (family) of Dadhyaņ-Atharvańa. He lived on banks of Gautamī (Godāvarī) where Brāhmī script is still current as Telugu and Kannaɖa.

10.Tridhāmā  or Mārkaņɖeya (10,300-9,580 BC)-Dattātreya taught Yoga-tantra and Mārkaņɖeya taught purāņa.

11.Ŗşabha-deva ji (9,580-8,860 BC)-After deluge he brought back supremacy of Bhārata as its Chakravartī king (paramount power in world, with famous all-powerful weapon chakra of Vişņu). He was the first jaina-Tīrthankara of the current avasarpiņī. His son also was Chakravartī and as this country fed the world, t he king was called Bharata and the country as Bhārata. Earlier, it was named Ajanābha-varşa. In his period, Maya-Asura of Mexico revised Sūrya-siddhānta of Vivasvān which developed errors due to slowing down of axial rotation of earth in deluge (more pressure on equator region increases angular momentum-to preserve it, rotation speed will be less). The international conference was at Romaka-pattana,900 west of Ujjain (Rabat in Morocco). Due to worldwide authority of Ŗşabha-deva ji, it was accepted for the whole world. Ŗşabha-deva ji restored the civilization started by Svāyambhuva Manu, so he is called his descendant. As ruler of world, he was incarnation of Vişņu and as teacher (Ŗşabha =source of knowledge), he was 9th Śiva (Kūrma-purāņa). In Veda-sūktas of his name and in Jaina texts, he has been called initiator of Asi-masi-kŗşi (= sword, ink, agriculture). Ŗşabha also means Bullock, which does agriculture and carries load, so he is depicted as Śiva on bull-carrying burden of country and feeding it.

12. Atri  (8,860-8,500 BC)-Bhauma-Atri (of India, Bhūmi or Bhūloka among 3 lokas of Indra) was āchārya (propounder) of āyurveda. He also made shorter method of solar eclipse. Sānkhya-Atri went to north-west direction where his Roman script has 25 (or 26 with extra-x) letters is still used, for 25 elements of Sānkhya.

13.Dharma  or Nara-Nārāyaņa (8,500-8,140 BC) - He taught Vedas in Badarikāśrama. Guru tradition of Śankarāchārya starts with this Nārāyaņa. This is period of Kāņva-Medhātithi ŗşi and king Duşyanta and his son Bharata.

14. Suchkśaņa or Suchkśu (8,140-7,780 BC)-Period of Kings Marutta, Avikśita, Karandhama and ŗşis Gautama, Vāmadeva. 15. Tryāruņa (7,780-7,420 BC)-Period of king Māndhātā in line of Ikśvāku, and king Angāra of Gāndhāra.

16.Dhanañjaya (7,420-7,060 BC)    Ŗşi Bharadvāja was contemporary-Dāśa-rāja war in about 7,200 BC. Attack by

17.Kŗtañjaya (7,060-6,700 BC)          Gayāsura or Asita-Dhanvā on India in 6,777 BC- Dionysus, or Bacchus) as per

18.Ŗtañjaya (6,700-6,340 BC)            Megasthenes.

19. Bharadvāja (6,340-5,980 BC)-Purohita (advisor) of emperor Chāyamāna (of Persia) and Divodāsa (of Kāśī)-both.

20.Gautama (5,980-5,620 BC)-He resided on banks of Gautamī (Godāvarī)-wrote sūtras of Nyāya-darśana. Period of Jamadagni, Hariśchandra. Paraśurāma, Kārttavīrya Arjuna.

21. Vāchaspati or Niryantara (5,620-5,260 BC)-Yavanas were expelled by king Sagara, supremacy on oceans. His grandson Bhagīratha brought down Gangā (some glaciers of Himālaya merged with it.

22. Sukalyāņa or Somaśuşņa (5,260-4,900 BC)-Ŗşis Pulastya and Viśravā. Institute of Paraśurāma ends with tretā.

23. Tŗņavindu (4,900-4,540 BC)-He was emperor. His daughter married to Pulastya, father of Rāvaņa, Kubera.

24.Vālmīki (4,540-4,180 BC)-Period of Rāma, son of Daśaratha (4433-4262 BC). Also of Rāvaņa, Hanumān.

25. Śakti-Vāsişţha (4,180-3,820 BC)-Method of Veda-pāţha (recitation).

26. Jātūkarņya (3,820-3,460 BC)-Student of Parāśara, but period is before him. Kaņāda wrote Vaiśeşika-sūtras.

27. Parāśara (3,460-3,100 BC)-Teacher of Vişņu-purāņa. Divided Purāņa-samhitā in 100 crore verses into 18 purāņas of 4 lakh verses. 2 streams of astronomy-of Āryabhaţa (Svāyambhuva or Pitāmaha) and Parāśara (Sūrya-siddhānta or Maitreya mentioned in Vişņu-purāņa).

28. Veda-Vyāsa (from 3,100 BC till today)-Son of Satyavatī (later on married to king Śantanu) and Parāśara-Kŗşņa-Dvaipāyana. Wrote Bhāgavata purāņa, Brahma-sūtra, commentary on Yoga-sūtra of Patañjali. Divided Vedas into many branches to preserve the knowledge. There was no further Vyāsa , so it is still called 28th kali.

5.Detailed Chronology-

(1) Sūrya-vanśa started with rule of Ikśvāku on 1-11-8576 BC. He has been called son of Vaivasvata Manu (13902 BC) but could have been descendant, or he re-established his system of calendar and polity. In Kish-chronicle of Iraq, his son or descendant Vikukśi has been called Ukusi in 8,320 BC. Obviously, some kings for lesser periods have been left out from the list. Only list of main kings is available now-

(1) Vaivasvata Manu (13902 BC), (2) Ikśvāku (1-11-8576 BC), (3) Vikukśi (Ukusi in 8320 BC), Purañjaya or Kakutstha (also called Āɖībaka =hump of bull)-He defeated Sujambha, second son of Prahlāda in sixth Deva-asura war. (5) Anenā, (6) Pŗthu-not the earlier king of Kaśyapa period, (7) Viśvagaśva, (8) Ārdra, (9) Yuvanāśva-1, (10) Śrāvasta ( set up Śrāvastī town), (11) Bŗhadaśva, attacked by Dhundu Asura. (12) Kuvalayāśva did the job, so he was called Dhundhumāra. Firdausi (Persian poet) has called him Keraspa in his Shāhanāmā. (13) Dŗɖhāśva, (14) Pramoda, (15) Haryaśva-1, (16) Nikumbha, (17) Samhatāśva, (18) Kŗśāśva, (19) Prasenajita, (20) Yuvanāśva-2, (21) Māndhātā-About his kingdom saying was famous that sun always sets and rises in his kingdom (Vāyu purāņa  88/68, Vişņu purāņa 4/2/65, Mahābhārata, Droņa parva  62/11). This was copied by the British in praise of British empire. His subordinate kings were-Angāra (Gāndhāra), Marutta, Asita (Asita-Dhanvā in Śatapatha brāhmaņa 13/4/3/12 was an Asura king-not Dionysus but his predecessor), Gaya, Anga-Bŗhadratha, Janamejaya, Sudhanvā, Nŗga.   His 3 sons ruled different states, and main line continued at Ayodhyā.

                                       3 sons of Māndhātā

22. Purukutsa                    Ambarīşa                          Muchukunda

23. Trasadasyu                  Yuvanāśva-3         

24. Sambhūta                     Hārīta (Brāhmaņa)

Purukutsa was contemporary of king Sudāsa of famous Dāśarāja-war, described in Ŗigveda. (25) Anaraņya was son of Sambhūta-He fought with Rāvaņa who was earlier than the famous Rāvaņa of Rāmāyaņa.  (26) Trasadaśva, (27) Haryaśva-2, (28) Vasumāna, (29) Tridhanvā, (30) Tryāruņa, (31) Satyavrata or Triśanku-He was being set by yajña of Viśvāmitra  to Svarga, but was stopped midway by Indra. (32) Hariśchandra-He donated entire kingdom to Viśvāmitra and worked as chāņɖāla at Kāśī. (33) Rohitāśva, (34) Harita, (35) Chañchu, (36) Vijaya, (37) Ruruka, (38) Vŗka, (39) Bāhu-He was defeated and killed in combined attack of Yavana, Kāmboja, etc in 6,777 BC.

(40) Sagara-He took back the whole empire and spread influence over seas due to which they were called sāgara. He punished Persians by making their beard goat-shaped and expelled Yavanas from Arab when the settled in Greece which was called Ionia (Herodotus). His 60,000 sons were burnt by sage Kapila, who might have been author of Sānkhya-sūtras. In Gītā, he has been named as foremost Siddha and Sūrya-siddhānta, chapter 12 tells Siddhapura at 1800 east of Ujjain, so many persons take his place at California (assumed to be Kapilāraņya)..

(41) Asamañjasa was expelled. (42) Anśumāna-grandson of Sagara became king. (43) Dilīpa, (44) Bhagīratha succeeded in bringing Gangā from Himālaya which was called Bhāgīrathī. (45) Śruta, (46) Nābhāga-was a relation, not son. (47) Ambarīşa-2, (48) Sindhu, (49) Ayutāyu, (50) Ŗtuparņa, (51) Sarvakāma, (52) Sudāsa, (53) Kalmāşa-pāda (His feet became black due to curse of Śakti, son of Vasişţha), (54) Aśmaka, (55) Urukāma, (56) Mūlaka-He was at time of Paraśurāma and was hidden among women for saving him, so he was named Nārī-kavacha. (57) Śataratha, (58) Iɖaviɖa, (59) Kŗśakarma, (60) Sarvakāma, (61) Anarāya (or Anaraņya), (62) Nighna, (63) Anamitra or Raghu-1, (64) Dulīɖuha, (65) Viśvamahat, (66) Dilīpa.

(67) Raghu-2-He is the hero of Raghuvamśa,  epic of Kālidāsa. On his name, the clan was called Raghuvamśa. Whole of ancient India was under him. (68) Aja, (69) Daśaratha,  (70) Rāma was his most famous son (4433-4372 BC) who killed Rāvaņa and set up world empire. His rule is still considered standard for propriety.

(71) Kuśa, (72) Atithi, (73) Nişadha, (74) Nala (different from famous Nala of Nişadha), (75) Nabha,(76) Puņɖarīka, (77) Kśemadhanvā, (78) Devānīka, (79) Ahinagu, (80) Ruru, (81) Pariyātra, (82) Śala, (83) Dala, (84) Bala, (85) Uktha, (86) Sahasrāśva, (87) Chandrāvaloka, (88) Tārāpīɖa, (89) Chandragiri, (90) Bhānuchandra, or, Bhānumitra, (91) Śrutāyu, (92) Ulūka, (93) Unnābha, (94) Vajranābha, (95) Śankhana, (96) Vyuşitāśva, (98) Hiraņya-nābha-He learnt yoga from Yājñavalkya and spread it. (99) Kauśalya, (100) Brahmişţha, (101) Putra, (102) Puņya, (103) Arthasiddhi, (104) Sudarśana, (105) Agnivarņa, (106) Śīghraga, (107) Maru, (108) Prasuśruta, (109) Sandhi, (110) Pramarşaņa, (111) Mahasvān, (112) Sahasvān, (113) Viśvabhava, (114) Viśvasva, (115) Prasenajita, (116) Takśaka, (117) Bŗhadbala-He was killed in Mahābhārata war (3139 BC) by Abhimanyu, son of Arjuna.

After Mahābhārata-(1) Bŗhatkśaņa, (2) Uruyakśa, (3) Vatsavyūha, (4) Prativyoma, (5) Divākara, (6) Sahadeva, (7) Bŗhadśva, (8) Bhānuratha, (9) Pratitasva, (10) Supratīka, (11) Marudeva, (12) Sunakśatra, (13) Kinnara, (14) Antarikśa, (15) Suparņa, (16) Amitrajita, (17) Bŗhadbhāja, (18) Dharmī, (19) Kŗtañjaya, (20) Raņañjaya, (21) Sañjaya, (22) Śākya, (23) Śuddhodana, (24) Siddhārtha -Gautama Buddha (1887-1806 BC), (25) Rāhula, (26) Prasenajita, (27) Kśudraka, (28) Kundaka, (29) Suratha, (30) Sumitra-ended in 1634 BC.

(2)Chandra-Vamśa-(1) Soma (=Chandra) was son of Atri, (3) Budha was son of Soma, (Tāņɖya-mahā-brāhmaņa 24/18/6, Mahābhārata, udyoga parva 147/3). (3) Budha was married to Iļā, daughter of Vaivasvata-Manu. Son of Iļā was Aila Pururavā, first emperor in this line. His basic name was Puru. As son of Iļā, he was Aila. He started institution of yajña (3 agnis for that). He was like vŗşabha (bull) of yajña and was making rava (vibration). So, he was called ravā. This means that he was capable of production, hence ravā is still used as word for respect around Kashi. 

                                                                 3. Pururavā

4. Āyu              Dhīmān                 Amāvasu                         Vişāyu

5. Nahuşa                Kśatravŗddha         Rambha        Raji        Anenā

Yati        6. Yayāti         Sanyāti             +others

5. Nahuşa had held the post of Indra also for some period when Indra had to leave after Brahma-hatyā by killing of Vŗtra. Later on, had to become serpent (a tribe of men where he ruled) by curse of a ŗşi. His daughter Ruchi was married to Apanvān, grand-son of Bhŗgu.

                                                               Bhŗgu +Wives daughter of Hiraņyakaśipu         

                                Divyā,                                                               Paulomī            

  Śukra, called Uśanā, or Kāvya.                                     Chyavana married to Sukanyā

Tvaşţā,    Śaņɖa,    Marka.                                          Dadhīchi       Apanvān + Ruchi

Triśrā      Viśvarūpa (Viśvakarmā)                                                        Ŗchīka+ Satyavatī

                                                                                                                Jamadagni

                                                                                                                Paraśurāma

Noah of Bible or Nuh of Koran = Manu (h), Rayu (Bible) = Āyu, Nahur (Bible) = Nahuşa

First son of Nahuşa was Yati who became sanyāsī (renunciate), so second son Yayāti  became the king. His first wife Devayānī was daughter of Śukrāchārya  (Kāvya in Kaaba, Arab) who had 2 sons- Yadu, Turvasu. Second wife Śarmişţhā was daughter of Asura (Dānava) king Vŗşa-parvā (vŗşa= Taurus, parvata = mountain-in Turkey). She had 3 sons-Druhyu, Anu, Puru. Due to fraudulent second marriage, Śukrāchārya cursed Yayāti  to become old. Then the youngest son Puru only agreed to take his old state, so he was given main kingdom, and in his name the clan was called Puru-vamśa. Yadu got north east part-in that line Kŗşņa (3228-3102 BC) was born. Druhyu got west part, Anu north (Ānava = yavana) and Turvasu in south-east. One branch of Yadu clan is stated to have gone under Ezypt rule where they were called Yid=Yahud (Jew)-escaped to Israel.

(7) Puru, (8) Janamejaya-he did 3 Aśvamedha-yajña. (9) Prāchīnavān or Aviddha, (10) Pravīra, (11) Manasyu or Namasyu-He rules from Sindhu river to east ocean and Vindhya mountain to Himālaya. (12) Abhayada or Subhrū, (13) Subvanta or Dhundhu, (14) Yavuyāna or Bahugva, (15) Samyāti, (16) Ahamyati, (17) Raudrāśva,

(18) Rucheyu-One of his 10 sisters was married to Atri whose son was Svasti. He had 3 sons-Soma (different from the first of Chandra line), Datta (Dattātreya), and Durvāsā. His daughter Apālā also was seer of mantra of Ŗgveda.

 (19) Matināra, (20) Apratīrtha-His son ŗşi Kāņva Medhātithi was seer of many mantras. Her sister Gaurī’s son was Māndhātā-famous world emperor of Sūrya-vamśa. (21) Tamsu or Sumati, (22) Īlina, or Sudyumna , (23) Duşyanta-from his wife Śakuntalā was born famous emperor (24) Bharata-hero of Abhijñāna-śākuntalam-famous play of Kālidāsa. Ŗşis of his time were-Ŗchīka, Jamadagni, Viśvāmitra, and Bharadvāja. Bharata was married to Sunandā, daughter of Sarvasena, king of Kāśī. From her, a son Bhūmanyu was born by niyoga (artificial birth) by Bharadvāja.

                                                          (25) Bhūmanyu

(26) Bŗhatkśtra                 Nara                 Garga                    Mahāvīrya

(27) Suhotra                   Samkŗti               Śini                        Urukśaya

(28) Hasti    Guruvīta     Rantideva          Trayyāruņi             Puşkarin    Kapi 

(28) Hasti  made a town in his name-Hastināpura, As this became capital of kings of India, Chinese called this country as elephant (hasti) kingdom. East and south parts of India adjacent to China are in shape of elephant head, whose trunk (śuņɖa) has gone to the end of Indonesia after which there is strait of śuņɖā. India was main part of Jambū-dvīpa (Asia), so, jumbo also meant elephant. After Hasti, his son (29) Vikuņţhana  became king. All his 3 sons-Ajamīɖha, Purumīɖha, Dvimīɖha-were brāhmaņas, but on order of sage Bharadvāja, eldest son (30) Ajamīɖha became king. He was contemporary to Sūrya-vamśa king Tridhanvā. After that, the list is in-complete, but these names are found-(31) Ŗkśa-1, (32) Ahamyati-He married Bhānumatī, sister of Kārttavīrya-Arjuna. (33) Sarvabhauma, (34) Jayattsena, (35) Avachīna, (36) Ardha, (37) Mahābhauma, (38) Ayutanayī, (39) Akrodhana, (40) Devatithi, (41) Ariha. The list as per Vāyu-purāņa is- (30) Ajamīɖha, (31) Ŗkśa, (32) Parīkśita, (33) Janamejaya, (34) Suratha, (35) Bhīmasena, (36) Jahnu,-in time of Bhagīratha, Sūrya-vamśa king who brought down Gangā, so it is called Jāhnavī also. (37) Suratha, (38) Vidūratha, (39) Sarvabhauma,(40) Jayatsena, (41) Ārādhita or Akrodhana, (42) Mahāsattva, (43) Ayutāyu, (44) Akrodhana, (45) Devatithi, (46) Ŗkśa, (47) Dilīpa, (48) Pratīpa, (49) Śāntanu.

Matināra was in time of Māndhātā in about 7,300 BC and Śāntanu was great-grandfather of Pāņɖavas in about 3,200 BC. Many other names are missing like Kuru, son of Samvaraņa, in whose name the clan is called Kuru-vamśa. Samvaraņa had been defeated by a Pāñchāla king and was living on banks of Sindhu river he was married with Tapatī, daughter of Sūrya (or of his line). Their son Kuru, re-established kingdom and times are found after that

                                                       Samvaraņa –wife Tapatī (4159-4071 BC)

                                                      Kuru-wife Śubhāngī (4071-3999 BC)

Abhisvān                                                     Sudhanvā (3999-3919 BC)                                     Jahnu

9 kings as per Bhāgavata purāņa                Suhotra (3919-3826 BC)

                                                                    Chyavana (3826-3788 BC)

                                                                  Kŗmi or  Kŗti (3788-3751 BC)

Parīkśita                                    Uparichara Vasu (3751-3709 BC) (Pratīpa or Chaidya)

Janamejaya                     Bŗhadratha (3709-3637 BC)-capital at Girivraja (Rājagŗha=Rajgir now)

                                                                                         Kuśāgra (3637-3567 BC)

Bhīmasena                                                                        Ŗşabha (3567-3497 BC)

                                                                                         Satyahita (3497-3437 BC)

Pratīpa (3370-3310 BC)                                                    Puņya or Puşpavanta (3427-3394 BC)

Śāntanu (3310-3251 BC)  Devāpi   Bāhlīka                      Satyadhŗti (3394-3351 BC)

(wives) Gangā       Satyavatī                                               Sudhanvā (3351-3308 BC)

        Chitrāngada (3248 BC) Vichitravīrya (up to 3238 BC)  Sarva (3308-3265 BC)

Bhīşma (3238-3218 BC)         Pāņɖu (3218-3213 BC)      Sambhava (3265-3222 BC)

       Dhŗtarāşţra (3213-3174 BC)                                            Jarāsandha (3222-3180 BC)

      Duryodhana (3174-3138 BC)                                           Sahadeva (3180-3138 BC)

                      Dharmarāja Yudhişţhira (3138-3102 BC)       (Bārhadratha vamśa of Magadha)

(As per Mahāhbhārata,1/95/74-82-from Pratīpa)

Kings after Dharmarāja Yudhişţhira in kali- All sons of Pāņɖavas were killed in Mahāhbhārata war. His yoynger brother Arjuna had a son from wife Subhadrā, sister of Kŗşņa Abhmanyu. Abhmanyu also was killed, but his son in womb of Uttarā was miraculously made alive by Kŗşņa after he was killed by brahmāstra used by Aśvatthāmā after war. He became first king after Kŗşņa left the world at start of kali. (1) Parīkśita (3102-3041 BC)-he was son of Abhimanyu, He was killed by Takśaka, Nāga king, probably from Takśkaśilā. (2)Janamejaya retaliated against Nāgas, called (nāga-yajña) and their region turned into mass-graveyard, now called Moin-jo-daro (place of dead) and Harappā (place of bones). (3) Śatānīka, and his son (4) Aśvamedhadatta arranged revision of purāņas at institute (mahāśālā) of Śaunaka at Naimişāaraņya. (5) Adhisīmakŗşņa,

(6) Nichakśu-In his period there was a great natural upheaval which submerged Hastināpura in Gangā due to which capital had to be shifted to Kauśāmbī. Probably this was at same time ats drying up the great river Sarasvatī in west India. The kingdom remained for name sake only and King of Kāśī had to take charge of managing the country. Probably, he was also named Yudhişţhira, but after 5 years of rule, he took sanyāsa as Pārśvanātha (23rd Jaina Tīrthankara) in 2634 BC, when Jainas take start of Yudhişţhira śaka.

(7) Ūşņa (Bhūri), (8) Chitraratha, (9) Śuchidratha, (10) Vŗşņimāna, (11) Suśeņa, (12) Sunītha, (13) Nichakśu-2, (14) Rucha, (15) Sukhabala, (16) Pariplava,(17) Sunaya, (18) Medhāvī, (19) Nŗpa (Ripu-) ñjaya, (20) Durva, (21) Tigmātmā, (22) Bŗhadratha, (23) Vasudāna, (24) Śatānīka, (25) Udayana (Hero of plays by Bhāsa, in time of Pradyoota, mentioned in epic  Meghadūta of Kālidāsa), (26) Vaśīnara, (27) Daņɖapāņi, (28) Niramitra,(29) Kśemaka-ended in 1634 BC by Magadha king Mahāpadmananda.

(5) Magadha kings in Kali-

1.Bārhadratha vamśa-Started with Somāpi, son of Sahadeva killed in Mahābhārata war.

(1) Somāpi (Mārjāri)-(3138-3080 BC), (2) Śrutaśravā (3080-3016 BC), (3) Apratīpa (3016-2980 BC), (4) Niramitra (2980-2940 BC), (5) Sukŗta (2940-2882 BC), (6) Bŗhatkarman (2882-2859 BC), (7) Senajita (2859-2809 BC), (8) Śrutañjaya (2809-2769 BC), (9) Mahābala (2769-2734 BC), (10) Śuchi (2734-2676 BC), (11) Kśema (2676-2648 BC), (12) Aņuvrata (2648-2584 BC), (13), Dharmanetra (2584-2549 BC), (14) Nirvŗtti (2549-2491 BC), (15) Suvrata (2491-2453 BC), (16) Dŗɖhasena (2453-2395 BC), (17) Sumati (2395-2362 BC), (18) Suchala (2362-2340BC), (19) Sunetra (2340-2300 BC), (20) Satyajita (2300-2217 BC), (21) Vīrajita (2217-2182 BC), (22) Ripuñjaya (2182-2132 BC)

Total-22 kings for 1006 years (Brahmāņɖa purāņa 2/3/74/121, Vişņu purāņa 4/23/12 etc)

2. Pradyota vamśa-Last Bārhadratha king was Ripuñjaya  killed by his minister Śunaka (or Pulaka) and made his son-in-law Pradyota, as king (Brahmāņɖa purāņa 2/3/74/122, Skanda purāņa 12/2 etc). (1) Pradyota (2132-2109 BC), (2) Pālaka (2109-2085 BC), (3) Viśākhayūpa (2085-2035 BC), (4) Janaka (2035-2014 BC), (5) Nandivardhana (2014-1994 BC)-Total 5 kings for 138 years.

3. Śiśunāga vamśa- (Kaliyuga Rāja Vŗttānta 2/2, Bhāgavata purāņa 12/2/8 etc.)-(1)Śiśunāga (1994-1954 BC), (2)  Kākavarņa or Śakavarņa (1954-1918 BC), (3) Kśemadhanvā (1918-1892 BC), (4) Kśatrauja (1892-1852 BC), (5) Vidhisāra (Bimbisāra) or Śreņika (1852-1814 BC), (6) Ajātaśatru (1814-1787 BC), (7) Darśaka (1787-1752 BC), (8) Udāyi (1752-1719 BC), (9) Nandivardhana (1719-1677 BC), (10) Mahānandi (1677-1634 BC). In this period Siddhārtha, son of Śuddhodana became Buddha, who was incarnation of māyā and moha, not of Vişņu (Vişņu purāņa 4/23 etc). He was 5 years younger to Bimbisāra and died in 8th year of Ajātaśatru’s rule in 1806 BC. Udāyi in 4 year of his rule established Pāţaliputra on confluence of Son and Gangā (Vāyu purāņa 119/318).

Ten kings of this dynasty ruled for 360 years.

4. Nanda vamśa- Mahā-Padma-Nanda was the son of last Śiśunāga king Mahānandi by his śūdrā wife. After death of his father he became king 1500 years (more accurately 1534 years after birth of Parīkśita in 3138 BC) stated in all purāņas as a landmark of history. He won most of India by exterminating all kśatriya kings like second Paraśurāma. (Vişņu purāņa 4/24/104, Bhāgavata purāņa 12/1/10). He ruled for 88 years followed by 8 sons for 12 years (Matsya purāņa 270/20, 273/23)-a total of 100 years from 1634 to 1534 BC.

5. Maurya vamśa-Kauţilya Chāņakya destyoed and made Chandragupta as king. His family belonged to Murā town (in Sambalpur of Orissa, now submerged in Hirakud  reservoir) which was center of iron ore called mura (murrum). So the family was called Maurya. 12 Maurya kings ruled for a total of 316 years (Kaliyuga Rāja Vŗttānta 3/2, Matsya purāņa 270/32, Vāyu purāņa etc.)- (1) Chandragupta (1534-1500 BC), (2) Bindusāra (1500-1472 BC), (3) Aśoka (1472-1436 BC), (4) Supārśva (Suyaśa, or Kuņāla)- (1436-1428 BC), (5) Daśaratha (Bandhupālita)-(1428-1420 BC), (6) Indrapālita (1420-1350 BC), (7) Harşavardhana (1350-1342 BC), (8) Sangata (1342-1333 BC), (9) Śāliśūka (1333-1320 BC), (10) Soma (Deva-) śarmā (1320-1313 BC), (11) Śatadhanvā (1313-1305), (12) Bŗhadratha (Bŗhadaśva)-(1305-1218 BC).

There was another Aśoka in Gonanda-vamśa (43rd king) in (1448-1400 BC) who had become Bauddha due to which Bauddhas from central Asia destroyed the kingdom. Many of the inscriptions in name of Aśoka are by him (Rājatarangiņī , 1/101-102). No inscriptionincluding one at Hathi-gumpha mentions that had become Buddhist. Only mention is in Bauddha text Divyāvadāna (chapter Aśokāvadāna) that Aśoka was a good Bauddha because he had killed 12,000 Jaina monks on victory over Kalinga. This is too high a figure for a normal war. There is no basis of figure of 1,50,000 killed, 350,000 injured and 550, 000 arrested. This exceeds the population of the then Kalinga  and more than current strength of Indian army. Alexander Army was only 120,000 with 20,000 horses, which was afraid of Magadha army of 600,000. Only possibility maybe that Jainas might be powerful in Kalinga administration which was lost after war. Another fallacy is spread that Magadha  empire was destroyed due to adoption of non-violence by Aśoka. Actually, non-violence is feature of Yoga-sūtra and more stressed in Jainism. Rather, Bauddha themselves including Siddhārtha Buddha himself were strongly opposed to vegetarian food even for Bhikśus. It is surprising as to how Buddha was moved by sacrifice of animals in yajña, which is for food, not for God. Maurya kings were never against Brāhmaņs, minister of Last king Puśyamitra was himself a Brāhmaņa who killed king and became king himself.

6.Śunga-Vamśa-10 Śunga kings ruled for 300 years (Kaliyuga Rāja Vŗttānta, Matsya, Vāyu purāņa).

(1) Puśyamitra (1218-1158 BC), (2) Agnimitra (1158-1108 BC), (3) Vasumitra (1108-1072 BC), (4) Sujyeşţha (1072-1055 BC), (5) Bhadraka (1055-1025 BC), (6) Pulindaka (1025-992 BC), (7) Ghoşavasu (992-989 BC), (8) Vajramitra (989-960 BC), (9) Bhāgavata (960-928 BC), (10) Devabhūti (928-918 BC).

7. Kaņva-Vamśa-4 Kaņva kings ruled for 85 years ((Vişņu purāņa 4/24/39-42 etc).

(1) Vāsudeva (918-879 BC), (2) Bhūmimitra (879-855 BC), (3) Nārāyaņa (855-843 BC), (4) Suśarmā (843-833 BC).

8.Āndhra-Vamśa-33 Āndhra kings ruled for 506 years. During that rule, saptarşi-cycle of 2700 years started in time of kingYudhişţhira (saptarşi  in Maghā  from 3176 BC)-(Matsya purāņa chapter 270 etc.). Detailed list is in Kaliyuga Rāja Vŗttānta, list in other purāņas miss some names.

(1) Śimukha (Sindhuka or Sumukha)-(833-810 BC), (2) Śrīkŗşņa Śātakarņī (810-792 BC), (3) Śrīmalla Śātakarņī (792-782 BC), (4) Pūrņotsanga (782-764 BC)-In his time Kalinga king Khārāvela became independent from Magadha which was suffering under attack from west Asia. He repaired Prāchī canal in 5th year of his rule (Prāchī  inscription) which was 803 (Tri-vasu-śata ) years after coronation of Nanda (1634 BC), thus his rule started in 1634-(803-4) = 835 BC. (5) Śrī Śātakarņī (764-708 BC), (6) Skandha-stambin (Śrīvasvanī)-(708-690 BC), (7) Lambodara (690-672 BC), (8) Āpilaka (672-660 BC), (9) Megha-Svāti (660-642 BC), (10) Śāta-Svāti (642-624 BC), (11) Skanda-Svāti (624-617 BC), (12) Mŗgendra-Svāti-Karņa (617-614 BC), (13) Kuntala (614-606 BC), (14) Saumya (606-594 BC), (15) Śata-Svāti-Karņa (594-593 BC), (16) Pulomāvi-1 (593-557 BC), (17) Megha (557-519 BC), (18) Arişţa (519-494 BC), (19) Hāla (494-489 BC)-author of Gāthā-sapta-śatī, contemporary of Śankarāchārya. (20) Maņɖalaka (489-484 BC), (21) Purandara-Sena (484-463 BC)- saptarşi-cycle completed in 476 BC in his period.

(22) Sundara- Śātakarņī (463-462 BC), (23) Chakra-Vāsişţhī-Putra and Mahendra (462-461 BC), (24) Śiva-1 (461-433 BC),(25) Gautamī-Putra-Śātakarņī (433-408 BC), (26) Pulomāvi-2 (408-376 BC), (27) Śiva-2 (376-369 BC), (28) Śivakoņɖā  ( 369-362 BC), (29) Yajñaśrī (362-343 BC), (30) Vijayaśrī (343-337 BC), (31) Chandraśrī (337-334 BC), (32) Pulomāvi-3 (334-327 BC)-He was a child son of Chandraśrī whose queen had links with commander Chandragupta who killed the king and kept his infant son as namesake king. His father Ghaţotkacha-Gupta was commander to 2 kings-(30) Vijayaśrī and (31) Chandraśrī.  Finally, Chandragupta killed the son also and became the king himself.

9. Gupta-Vamśa-They have been called Āndhra-bhŗtya also, as they were serving as commander under them (Matsya purāņa 273/17). Their place is called Śrī-Parvata which should be Śrī-śailam of Andhra Pradesh as the kings were from that area, not of Nepal as surmised. At start of this rule, Alexander attacked India in 326 BC. His historians have mentioned last kings of Āndhra and first 2 kings of Gupta clan as well as strength of army of Āndhra kings. Names as mentioned by Megasthenes are-

Ghaţotkacha (Ghaţa = head, Utkacha = remover of hairs) - barber,

Chandraśrī.  (Chandra-Bīja)—Agrammas (Xandrammas)-31st. Āndhra king

Chandragupta-1-Sandrocottus,  Samudragupta-Sandrocryptus,

Chandragupta-2 was famous as conqueror or Amitrocchedas (=wiping out enemies)-Amitrochades.

Gupta kings adopted titles of earlier great kings of Maurya period-

Chandragupta-1-Vijayāditya. Samudragupta-Aśokāditya, Chandragupta-2-Vikramāditya. This was only a title. Famous Paramāra king of Ujjain of this name was later on.

                               Śrīgupta-Ghaţotkacha-Chandragupta-1 (327-320 BC)-Founder

Kacha (320 BC)                            Samudragupta (Aśokāditya (320-269 BC)

Rāmagupta                                  Chandragupta-2 (Vikramāditya) (269-233 BC)

                                                    Kumāragupta-1 (233-191 BC)

Skandagupta (191-175 BC-Issueless)                           Puragupta (guardian of Budhagupta)

Vainyagupta (175-174 BC)           Kumāragupta-2 (174-172 BC)      Budhagupta (172-166 BC)

Narasimhagupta (Bālāditya-1)- (166-126 BC)

Kumāragupta-3 (126-85 BC)                  Vişņugupta (85-82 BC)

Later Guptas at Valabhi-Bhaţārka of Maitraka family of Valabhi in Gujrat was commander of Kumāragupta-3 called Kramāditya.  He became independent in Saurashtra but continued to call himself as Seanāpati and governor of Gujrat. He shifted the capital from Girnar to Valabhi and ruled for 44 years. His son Dharasena-1 also continued allegiance to Guptas. His younger brother Droņasimha came to power in about 147 BC when Narasimhagupta (Bālāditya-1)- was Gupta emperorand attended his coronation. Then Druvasena-1 ruled in Gupta era (starting in 327 BC) 206-226 i.e. 121-101 BC.Then his brother Dharapatta came followed by his son Maharaja Guhasena (92-81 BC) They had some areas of Magadha empire for which they showed Gupta legacy. Their rule continued till 319 AD when it was destroyed by their tyranny when the business community took help of Shakas. Then Valabhi-bhanga or Valabhi-samvat was started (Al-Biruni, Rajaśehara Sūri in Prabandha-Kosha, 1362 AD and some inscriptions). Last Gupta is Mahāsena Gupta, king of Malva whose son Mādhava Gupta was vassal of Harşavardhana (606-648 AD). 

(6) Kings of Kashmir-This is given in Rājatarangiņī. Taranga (chapter)-1, describes Gonanda-vamśa  from 3450 BC. Names of first 5 kings are not known. 6 Gonanda-1 (3238-3188 BC), (7) Dāmodara-1 (3188-3140 BC)-He was killed just before Mahābhārata war, then his queen Yaśomatī ruled. (8) Gonanda-2 (3138-3083 BC)-He was killed by Pāņɖava king Parīkśita

20 Pāņɖava kings-( 9) Parīkśita who became 9th king  and ruled from (3083-3041 BC), (10) Harnadeva was second son of Parīkśita , (11) Rāmadeva, (12) Vyāsadeva, (13) Droņadeva, (14) Simhadeva, (15) Gopāladeva, (16) Vijayānanda, (17) Sukhadeva, (18) Ramaņadeva, (19) Sindhimāna, (20) Mahānadeva, (21) Kamāandeva, (22) Chandradeva, (23) Ānandadeva, (24) Drupadadeva, (25) Haranāmadeva,(26) Sulakhānadeva, (27) Senāditya, (28) Mangalāditya.

Another Kashmir dynasty-(29) Kśemendra, (30) Bhīmasena, (31) Indrasena, (32) Sundarasena, (33) Galagendra, (34) Baladeva, (35) Nalasena, (36) Gokarņa, (37) Prahlāda, (38) Bambru, (39) Pratāpaśīla, (40) Sangrāmachandra, (41) Lorikachandra, (42) Bīramachandra,(43) Babighena, (44) Bhagavantī-with these 16 kings-a total of 36 Pāņɖava kings ruled for 1331 years (3083-1752 BC)

Gonanda-vamśa again-(45) Lava (1752-1713 BC), (46) Kuśa or Kuśeśaya, (47) Khagendra, (48) Surendra (Issueless). One relation (44th in Gonanda line) became king named (44) Godhara in 1596 BC. (45) Suvarņa, (46) Janaka, (47) Śachīnāra  died issueless in 1448 BC.  (48) Aśoka was grandson of Janaka’s brother. He became king in1448 BC. Under influence of Lokadhātu Buddha, he became Bauddha and was named Dharmāśoka. He made many vihāras  and stūpas, many of which are thought to be by Maurya  Aśoka. Bauddhas  of central Asia captured his kingdom. By grace of a śaiva saint, he got back his kingdom and got a son named Jālauka. He ruled up to 1400 BC and established Śrīnagara town. (49) Jālauka (1400-1344BC), (50) Dāmodara-2 (1344-1294 BC),

 Again, Bauddhas of central Asia ruled the state for 60 years,3 kings- Huşka, Juşk,a Kanişka  (1294-1234 BC).

Gonanda-vamśa (52)  Abhimanyu (1234-1182 BC), -52 Gonanda kings for 2268 years (3450-1182 years.

(53) Gonanda-3, (54) Vibhīşaņa, (55) Indrajita, (56) Rāvaņa, (57) Vibhīşaņa-2, (58) Kinnara, or Nara, (59) Siddha, (60) Utpalākśa, (61) Hiraņyakula, (62) Vasukula, (63) Mihirakula (704-634 BC)-These 3 were kashmiri śaivas, not foreigners. (64) Baka, (65) Kśitinandana, (66) Vasunandana, (67) Nara, (68) Akśa, (69) Gopāditya (417-357 BC)-He built Śankarāchārya temple in 367 BC which is now called Takhta-e-Suleman. (70) Gokarņa, (71) Kinakhila, (72) Narendrāditya, (73) Andha-Yudhişţhira-he was short-eyed not blind,-73+5=78 kings (3450-272 BC)

Taranga-2-Relations of Harşa-Vikramāditya-(1) Pratāpāditya, (2) Jalaukasa, (3) Tuşājina, (4) Vijaya, (5) Jayendra, (6) Sandhimati-(272-80 BC)

Gonanda-vamśa-Descendent of Andha-Yudhişţhira (80) Meghavāhana (80-46 BC), (81) Pravarasena, Śreşţhasena or Tuñjina (46-16 BC), (82) Hiraņya-(His younger brother Toramāņa made coins in his own name-died in jail)-He died issueless-(16 BC-14 AD), 83-Mātŗgupta (Sent by king Vikramāditya of Ujjain)-(14-19 AD), (84) Pravarasena-2-Son of Toramāņa (19-79 AD),(85) Yudhişţhira -2 (79-118 AD)-contemporary of king Śālivāhana, grandson of Vikramāditya of Ujjain, (86) Lakśmaņa (Narendrāditya) (118-131), (87) Tuñjina or Rāņāditya, poet (131-173), (88) Vikramāditya (173-215), (89) Bālāditya (215-252)- end of Gonanda-vamśa.

Karkoţaka-vamśa-(1) Durlabhavardhana (son-in-law of Bālāditya the last king of Gonanda-vamśa)-(252-288), (2) Durlabhaka or Pratāpāditya (288-338), (5) Lalitāditya or poet Muktāpīɖa (431-467), (6) Kuvalayāditya (467-468), (7) Vajrāditya, Vāpyāyika or Lalitāpīɖa (468-525), (8) Pŗthivyāpīɖa (525-569), (9) Sangrāmapīɖa (7 days), (10) Jayāpīɖa, scholar and poet (569-620), (11) Lalitāpīɖa (620-672)-Chinese traveler Huensang had come in this period, (12) Sangrāmapīɖa -2 (672-729), (13) Chipyata,or Jayāpīɖa (729-781), (14) Ajitāpīɖa (781-837), (15) Anangpīɖa (837-840) (16) Utpalāpīɖa (840-845), (17) Sukhavarmā (845-852)

Utpala-vamśa-Avantivarman (town Avantipura in his name) and his son ruled in (852-936). Poets Ānandavardhana, and Ratnākara in that period. Grand-daughter of Bhīma-śāhī was Diddā who ruled in name of her son Abhimanyu Gupta for (957-971) and countered attack of Mahmud of Gajani. Then Eka and tyrant Harşa ruled in (1086-1110). Shahmir ruled in name of Shamsuddin in 1318. His family ruled till 1561 when Moghul king Akbar captured Kashmir.

Nepal Kings-This is given because Nepal was always independent and its king list is not distorted. This has important links with other kings of India.

Gopāla-vamśa-(1) Bhuktamānāgata Gupta (4159-4071 BC), (2) Jayagupta (4071-3999 BC), (3) Paramagupta (3999-3919 BC), (4) Harşagupta (3919-3826 BC), (5) Bhīşmagupta (3826-3788), (6) Maņigupta (3788-3751 BC), (7) Vişņugupta (3751-3709 BC), (8) Yakśagupta (3709-3637 BC). He died issueless.

Ahīra-vamśa-Three kings of India ruled for 200 years-(9) Varasimha, (10) Jayamatasimha, (11) Bhuvanasimha.

Kirāta-vamśa-(12) Yalambarā, (13) Pavi, (14) Skandarā, (15) Valamba, (16) Hŗti, (17) Humati-he had accompanied Pāņɖavas in forest. (18) Jitedāstī-He died in Mahābhārata war on Pāņɖava side. This is also described in Kirāta-parva under Vana-parva of Mahābhārata and famous epic Kirātārjunīyam of Daņɖī.  7 kings ruled for 300 years (3437-3138 BC), (19) Gali (3138-3137 BC). Then 22 kings ruled for 782 years till 2319 BC. (20) Pushka, (21) Suyarma, (22) Parbha, (23) Svānanda, (24) , (25) Stuvanka, (26) Giighri, (27) Nane, (28) Lāka, (29) Thora (30) Thoko, (31) Varmā, (32) Guja, (33) Puşkara, (34) Keśu. (35) Sunsa, (36) Sammu, (37) Guņana, (38) Kimbu, (39) Paţuka, (40) Gasti.

Soma-vamśa-(41) Nimişa, (42) Mānākśa, (43) Kākavarman, (44-48)-Unknown, (49) Paśuprekśa Deva-In his period many persons came from India in 1867 BC (period of Buddha and Mahāvīra in Bihar). These 9 kings ruled for 464 years (2319-1875 BC). (50-51)-Unknown, (52) Bhāskaravarman-He conquered India (some adjacent parts) and without any son. He adopted Aramāna of Sūrya vamśa who became king in 1712 BC in name of Bhūmivarman.

Sūrya vamśa-(53) Bhūmivarman (1712-1645 BC), (54) Chandravarman (1645-1584 BC), (55) Jayavarman (1584-1502 BC), (56) Vŗşavarman (1502-1441 BC), (57) Sarvavarman (1441-1363 BC), (58) Pŗthvīvarman (1363-1287 BC), (59) Jyeşţhavarman (1287-1212 BC), (60) Harivarman (1212-1136 BC), (61) Kuberavarman (1136-1048 BC), (62) Siddhivarman (1048-987 BC), (63) Haridattavarman (987-906 BC), (64) Vasudattavarman (906-843 BC), (65) Pativarman (843-790 BC), (66) Śivavŗddhivarman (790-736 BC), (67) Vasantavarman (736-675 BC), (68) Śivavarman (675-613 BC), (69 Rudravarman (613-547 BC), (70) Vŗşadevavarman (547-486 BC)-In his period Śankarāchārya  had come in 486 BC for debate with 12 Bodhisattvas. Due to his blessing the king got a son who was named after the saint. (71) Śankaradeva (486-461 BC), (72) Dharmadeva (461-437 BC), (73) Mānadeva (437-417 BC), (74) Mahideva (417-397 BC), (75) Vasantadeva (397-382 BC), (76) Udayadevavarman (382-377 BC),(77) Mānadevavarman ( 377-347 BC), (78) Guņakāmadevavarman (347-337 BC), (79) Śivadevavarman (337-276 BC), (80) Narendradevavarman (276-234 BC), (81) Bhīmadevavarman (234-198 BC), (82) Vişņudevavarman (198-151 BC), (83) Viśvadevavarman (151-101 BC). After him his son-in-law became king.

Ţhākurī-vamśa-(84) Amśuvarman (101-33 BC)-Paramāra king Vikramāditya of Ujjain came in 57 BC and started his Vikrama-samvat at Paśupatinātha from Chaitra śukla 1st. (85) Kŗtavarman (33 BC-54 AD), (86) Bhīmārjuna (54-147 AD), (87) Nandadeva (147-172 AD), (88-89)-Unknown (172-299), (90) Vīradeva (299-394),(91) Chandraketudeva (394-450), (92) Narendradeva (450-516), (93) Varadeva (516-570)- Avalokiteşvara and one Śankarāchārya (of a Pīţha) came in 522 AD. (94) Naramudi (570-615), (95) Śankaradeva (615-627), (96) Vardhamānadeva (627-640), (97) Balideva (640-653), (98) Jayadeva (653-668), (99) Balārjunadeva (668-685), (100) Vikramadeva (685-697), (101) Guņkāmadeva (696-748), (102) Bhojadeva (748-756), (103) Lakśmīkāmadeva (756-778), (104) Jayakāmadeva (778-798).

(7) Mālavā kings-United India which continued from Nanda in 1634 BC to Maurya, Śunga, and Kaņva periods till 833 BC disintegrated and attacks started after rise of Assyrian empire in west Asia. They attacked directly or the tribes chased by them attacked. They attacked up to Magadha capital at Patna, due to which it had to be shifted. Khāravel of Kalinga tried to chase Hūņas from Patna till Sindhu river and even attempted Rājasūya yajña, but it was short lived. Finally, Vişņu incarnation Buddha born in Brāhmaņa family of Magadha performed a yajña at Ābū mountain to unite leading kings, called Agni-kula. 4 kings formed federation under King Śūdraka of Mālavā in 756 BC when Śūdraka-śaka was started. The 4 kings were-(1) Pramara, or Paramāra, (2) Śukla or Chālukya, (3) Pratihāra,(4) Chāhamāna or Chauhāna. They checked the attacks and finally king Chāhamāna of Delhi completely destroyed Asura capital at Nineve in 612 BC when a new era was started (indicated by Varāhamihira in Bŗhat-Samhitā 13/3). Nineve in Jewish Encyclopedia and Medes in Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897 (bible.tmtm.com/wiki/) have given many references to Bible. Chāhamāna was devotee of Śākambharī, so the year may be called Śākambharī-śaka. His descendants ruled at Ajmer and Delhi called Chauhāna kings.

   Gardabhilla king Darpaņa of Ujjain had kidnapped Sarasvatī, sister of Jain muni Kālakāchārya (599-527 BC), who went for help to 96 chiefs of Hinduga (Hindukush). Those chiefs had to save themselves from Darius of Persia (550 BC) and with help of Balamitra, king of Saurāşţra, captured Ujjain. Śaka king Nahpāna or Nahasena was made ruler of Ujjain and accepted Jain path. For this work, Kālakāchārya was called Vīra and after his death in 527 BC, Vīra-samvat started. Nahpāna ruled for 40 years (550-510 BC). Then his son-in-law Uśavadatta’s son Dinika, Mitra etc. ruled. In 457 BC, Śrī-Harşa-Vikramáditya defeated them and became king of Ujjain. He was son of Govinda-Śarmā, who was teacher of Śankarāchārya as Govinda-Pāda. Bhartŗhari (yogī and author of Nīti-śataka etc) was elder brother of Śrī-Harşa (author of Naişadha-Charita). Again in 437-420 BC, Chaşţana, commander of Śaka king Yaśomati ruled Ujjain. There after Jayadamana (420-390 BC), Rudra-damana-1 (390-360 BC), Damajadsri, Jivadamana, his brother Rudrasimha-1 (360-317 BC),  Rudrasimha-2 (317-293 BC) ruled in some parts of north-west India till 57 BC.

After Harşa-Vikrama, Paramāra kings captured Ujjan. Pramara was Sāmavedī Brāhmaņa, after being Agni-kula, he was called Brahma-kśatra. Their list as per Bhavişya purāņa, pratisarga (4/1) is-(1) Pramara (197-191 BC), (2) Mahāmara (191-188 BC), (3) Devāpi (188-185 BC), (4) Devadūta (185-182 BC), (5) Gandharvasena (182-132 BC), (6) Śankha (132-102 BC), (7) Gandharvasena (102-82  BC)-after sudden death of his son Śankha. (8) Vikramāditya (82 BC-19 AD)-He started Vikrama samvat in 57 BC at  Paśupatinātha in Nepal from Chaitra and at Somanātha from Kārttika month. He ruled up to Arab in west and he has been praised by Arab poets. He had 9 jewels like Varāhamihira, Betāla-Bhaţţa, Ghaţakharpara, Śanku, Kśapaņaka, Kālidāsa, Vararuchi etc. Poet Kālidāsa with him was second who wrote Raghuvamśa, Meghadūta, Kumāra-sambhava and then Jyotirvidābharaņa. First Kālidāsa was dramatist under Agnimitra Śunga (1158-1108 BC) as stated in his drama Mālavikāgnimitram. Under Betāla-Bhaţţa, Purāņas were revised in 3 Viśālā towns. (9) Devabhakta (19-29 AD), (10) Śālivāhana (29-89 AD)-After death of Vikramāditya, India was divided into 18 parts and was attacked from all directions by Tatars, Shakas, Hunas, Chinese etc who looted, raped and kidnapped in mass scale. Sanskrit  had been official language till Vikramāditya, but after 18 parts, each had its own language (Sarasvatī-Kaņţhābharaņa).Finally, he defeated all invaders and started Śālivāhana-śaka in 78 AD. After resurrection Jesus Christ came to Shrinagar in Kashmir (called heaven on earth )and met Śālivāhana. (11) Śālihotra (80-139), (12) Śālivardhana (13) Śakahantā (189-239), (14) Suhotra (239-289), (15) Havihotra (289-339), (16) Indrapāla (Indrāvatī)  (339-389), (17) Mālyavān (Mālyavatī) (389-439), (18) Śambhudatta (439-489), (19) Bhaumarāja (489-539), (20) Vatsarāja (539-589), (21) Bhojarāja (589-639)-He had gone to Balkha with his army, and was contacted by Mohammad, who sought his help in establishing Islam. This is indicated in Islamic history also. Kālidāsa-3 advised him against helping Mohammad, but many of his men supported Mohammad in his war. This third Kālidāsa was a tāntrika and expert in quick wit and poetry. His contemporary was Jaina Muni Mānatunga. Here, lists are correct, but all kings after Śālivāhana have been assigned average of 50 years.

Famous Bhoja was 10 generations and 500 years after this king. Mālavā kings were feudatory to Rāşţrakūţas. Śrīyaka Harşa (949-973 AD) was first great king in later era. His son Muñja (73-995 AD) was a great scholar and patron of poets Padmagupta and Dhanañjaya. He annexed regions up to Jodhpur in north-west, Vetravatī in north east, Tāpī in south. East to west, it was from Sābaramatī to Kalachuri. Finally he was caught in a war by Chālukya king Tailapa and was executed. His nephew was Bhoja (1018-1060 AD). He expanded his empire and was supreme in India then. He set up a university at Dhara called Sarasvatī-mahālaya. His famous works are- Sarasvatī-Kaņţhābharaņa  (grammar and alankāra-both), Samarāngaņa-Sūtradhāra, Yukti-Kalpataru, Vyavahāra-Samucchaya, Rāja-Mŗgānka, Śabdānuśāsana, Āyurveda-sarvasva etc.

After Bhoja’s death, his son Jayasimha was killed in battle in 1064 AD followed by weak kings. Finally, t was annexed by Muslim sultans of Delhi.

Chāhmāna kings-From Amiţa-Kāla-Rekhā, by Sri Parameshvarnath Mishra, Kolkata, and Souvenir of Akhil Bharatiya Pitah Parishad, Patna, 2001. It has also given list of Śankarāchāryas of 4 Pīţhas.

(1)Chāhmāna, (2) Sāmantadeva, (3) Mahādeva, (4) Kubera, (5) Bindusāra, (6) Sudhanvā - He set up 4 Pīţhas  of Śankarāchāryas for which an order was issued on copper plate dated 2663 Yudhişţhira śaka (485 BC) on Āśvina śukla 15. (7) Vīradhanvā, (8) Jayadhanvā, (9) Vīrasimha, (10) Varasimha, (11) Vīradaņɖa, (12) Arimantra, (13) Māņikyarāja, (14) Puşkara, (15) Asamañjasa, (16) Premapura, (17) Bhānurāja, (18) Mānasimha, (20) Hanumān, (21) Śambhu, (22) Mahāsena, (23) Suratha, (24) Rudradatta, (25) Hemaratha, (26) Chitrāngada, (27) Chandrasena, (28) Vatsarāja, (29) Dhŗşţadyumna, (30) Uttama, (31) Sunīka, (32) Subāhu, (33) Suratha, (34) Bharata, (35) Sātyaki, (36) Śatrujita, (37) Vikrama, (38) Sahadeva, (39) Vīradeva, (4) Vasudeva, (41) Vāsudeva (king in 551 AD)-his 2 branches started kingdoms. One branch ended with last king of Delhi-Pŗthvīrāja-3 killed in 1192 AD. The other branch had Vīra Gogādeva who fought with Mahmud Gazanavi in desert.

Delhi-Ajmer branch- (42) Sāmanta, (43) Naradeva or Nŗpa, (44) Vigraharāja-1, (45) Chandrarāja-1, (46) Gopendra-rāja or Gopendraka, (47) Durlabha-rāja, (48) Govinda-rāja or Guvaka-1-in time of Pratihāra king Nāgabhaţţa-2. (49) Chandra-rāja-2 (843-868 AD), (50) Govinda-rāja or Guvaka-2 (868-893 AD), (51) Chandana- Govinda-rāja (893-918 AD), (52) Vākpati-rāja-1 (Vappayarai) (918-943 AD), (53 A) Vindhya-rāja-very short period followed by his brother. (53 B) Simha- rāja. He had 4 sons-Vigraha-rāja-2, Durlabha-rāja-2, Chandra-rāja, Govinda-rāja. (54A) Vigraha-rāja-2 (from 973 AD)-He had defeated Mūlarāja of Gujrat and made Āśāpurā temple in Bhŗgu-kacchha. He had sent army in 997 AD to help Lahore king against Subuktagin. (54B) Durlabha-rāja-2 (998 AD), (55) Govinda-rāja-3 (999 AD), (56A) Vākpati-rāja-2 (999-1018 AD), (56B) Vīrya-rāja (1018-1038), (56C) Chāmuņɖa-rāja (1038-1063 AD)-these 2 were brothers of 56A. (57A) Simhala-eldest son of 56C. (57B) Durlabha-rāja-3 (1063-1079 AD)-son of 56C. (57C) Vigraharāja-3 (1079-1098 AD)-brother of 57B. (58) Pŗthvīrāja-1 (1098-1105 AD), (59) Ajaya- rāja (Ajayadeva or Salhana)-(1105-1132 AD)-built Ajmer. (6) Arņorāja (Analdeva, Anna, Anaka)-(1132-1151 AD), (61A) Jagadeva (1151 AD)- He had killed his father Arņorāja for which he was killed by his brother Vigraharāja-4 (61B) Vigraharāja-4 (Viśāladeva)-(1151-1167 AD)-he had defeated Chālukyas. (61C) Someśvaradeva (1169-1177 AD)-Brother of 61B, as Pŗthvīrāja-2-son of 61A had no son. (62A) Apara-Gāngeya or Amara-Gāngeya-son of 61B. (62B) Pŗthvīrāja-2-son of 61A. He defeated 61A and died issueless in 1169 AD. (62C) Pŗthvīrāja-3 (1177-1192 AD)-last Hindu king of Delhi. He defeated Mohammad Ghori in 1191, but was defeated in 1192 AD due to Jayachanda of Kannauj.

(8) Sādhya-yuga- (before 29,100 BC)-Chronology from 61,902 BC has been indicaed in Purāņas which was start of the first day of Brahmā.  It was after Ice age in 69,200 BC. Civilization was primitive in Satya-yuga and the institution of yajña  developed in Tretā (57102 BC) as per mahābhārata after glacial floods in 58,100 BC. Pt. Dinanath Shastri Chulet in his Veda-kala-Nirnaya (Indore, 1925) has indicated that many sūktas of veda and Śatapatha Brāhmaņa  etc. are of that period on basis of calculation of nutation (chyuti) of earth axis. He has used the linear scale of Hansen formula which calculates the inclination of earth axis in current era which is declining for about 6000 years. But it has been wrongly assumed that it was always declining. It was never more than 260, but its values upto 540 has been taken.  Summary is also given in his introduction to Śatapatha Brāhmaņa  (5 vols, Nag Publishers, Delhi) and Report of Calender Committee, Indore, 1931.

Gradual development in satya-yuga is in dark, but we get many names and references in Veda and Purāņas. Last verse of Puruşa-sūkta (yajurveda 31/16) tells that in era before devas, Sādhyas existed who worshipped yajña through yajña itself. Here, the verb-yaj-has been translated as worship. But, in Gītā (3/10,15), yajña has defined as production of desired objects in cycles and we are to take only the residue so that yajña continues for ever. Thus, it means that there are chains of production cycles-one yajña is foundation of next yajña. That means that product of one process is raw material of another. The civilization has been called Maņijā-as it had started excavation of minerals (maņi) and using them for industrial chain of production. Brahmāņɖa purāņa (1/2/6) etc indicate that devas in that era were using Vimānas. Thus, Pt. Madhusudan Ojha has concluded in Jagadguru Vaibhavam (Rajasthani Granthagar, Jodhpur) that it had developed up to the current level of technology. The Devas were called Yāma (Vāyu purāņa (chapter 31 etc). Leading men were Sādhyas like Brāhmaņas  of Vedic era. Siddhi- means accomplishment of any process or technology. Now, only limited meaning of siddhi as yogic technique is taken. A person having siddhi is Siddha and there tribe is Sādhya who researched into methods and technologies of various sciences.

The ruling classes were called Mahārājika (like Kśatriyas) of 120 types-for prorecting against Barbaras-later on called Asuras. Persons in trade were Ābhāsvara (like Vaiśyas) of 64 types. Persons expert in technology (śilpa) were Tuşita (like śūdras) of 36 types.

This civiilization prospered due to yajña which maintains the population from local resourses and man remains in harmony with surroundings and natural cycles of time. This is the quality of India told by all Greek writers like Megasthenes, Solin, Arian, Plutarch etc. that India is self sufficient in everything, so it is the only country whose people never had to migrate, nor any race came from outside. Same applies to other 2 lokas of Devas (Yāma then)-China (people were called Mahāna = Han) and Ŗşīka (Russia)-called Aparājitā-dik (un-conquered). Zenda-Avesta also tells that in ancient times there were 15 zones on earth, of which India was the best and self-sufficient.

The Barbaras, did not try to manage their needs locally and always attacked. Mostly the Maņijā could protect themselves. But as in modern era, disputes arose due to alternative theories of world and there were internal and external wars. 10 types of theories of that era are mentioned in Nāsadīya-sūkta of Ŗgveda (10/129/1-7). These have been explained in Daśavāda Rahasya and separate books on each vāda by Pt. Madhusudan Ojha. He has added 2 more theories to complete the science of that period indicated in Vedas-Vijñāna Itivŗtta Vāda (Successive development) and Siddhānta-vāda (conclusion). It may be noted that Jaina āgamas also are divided into 12 angas, and they also include Siddhas in 5 daily Namokars. These 12vādas are named as-

(1)Sat-Asat Vāda-Sat  means anything which can be seen or perceived. Asat are beyond perception due to very small size, large distance, formless or without light. There are 3 types of theories-world is from Sat, from asat, or both sat-asat. Their combination is in 7 vimarśa (consideration) at several places in Vedas. Thus, there are 7x 3 =21 types of theories. This is the first verse of Vedas (Atharva-veda-which was unique Veda-later on divided into 3 more) which means-The world is pervaded by 3 sevens. Verbal logic of Jainas also starts with asti (yes), nāsti (no), syāt (may be) and makes their combinations, called sapta-bhangī nyāya (=7 fold logic). A praise of Kŗşņa in Bhāgavata purāņa (10/2/26) indicates 3-satyas and 7 other satyas-

Satyavratam satya-param tri-satyam, sayasya-yonim nihitam-cha satye,

Satyasya-satyam ŗta-satya netram, satyātmakam tvām śaraņam prapadye.

(2) Rajo-Vāda-Raja means dust particles. motion, riches, lokas. All lokas (cosmic strucrures) like galaxies, stars, planets are moving in space like dust particles. Explaination of their creation, decay and motion is rajo-vāda.

(3) Vyoma-vāda-Source of all visible creation is vacant space which is called Vyoma (Vi+om), i.e. it was even without any sound (Om). The creation is by 3 guņas of Prakŗti.

(4) Apara-vāda-Para = Ātmā (conscious being). It is called Chetanā as it causes chiti =arrangement. Apara (or Aparā) = Prakŗti. It is base of creation like Mātŗ (mother), so all objects are called matter. Thus creation is by inanimate matter and conscious being-called Para-Apara-vāda or Apara-vāda in short.

(5) Āvaraņa-Vāda-Each created object is in a boundary called āvaraņa. Its creation is called Vayun. Combination of particles and objects is vayana (weaving) and their link is vayo-nādha (weaving). The creation is study of these relations.

(6) Ambho-vāda- Root form of universe is homogenous matter called ‘rasa’ (Taittirīya Upanişad 2/7/2) or ‘Ap’. When there is vibration in it, it becomes ‘Ambha’, with waves it is ‘Salila’. Blocks of body are ‘Drapsah’ (drops). As it emerges from source ‘rasa’, it is called ‘Skanda’ (separated, fallen). Expanse of Ap is samudra (ocean) whose forms in universe, galaxy and solar system are Nabhasvān, Sarasvān, and Arņava. Parent form of these structures (Āditya = which starts, ādi = initial) are Aryamā, Varuņa, and Mitra. The 3 zones (Dhāma) are upper-Svayambhū = universe, middle is Parameşţhī = Galaxy, and lower is Saura (Solar sytem). Combined sourse of Rasa Is Parama- Dhāma.

(7)Amŗta-Mŗtyu-Vāda-Source form rasa is Amŗta (permanent) and the creation from that is transient. It is released from ocean of rasa, so it is called Muchyu which has become Mŗtyu indirectly (Gopatha Brāhmaņa, pūrva 1/7). All the created forms are Kśara or Mŗtyu and root source is Amŗta-both are embedded within each other. Some aspects of all bodies is changing, some aspect is constant.

(8) Ahorātra-Vāda-Creation of forms from the formless is called day (ahar) of Brahmā and the reverse process is called night (rātri). Two opposite processes are always running-creation and decay. These are called sambhūti and asambhūti, or sañchara and prati-sañchara. Each cycle has two opposite parts-expansion-contraction, udgrābha-nigrābha, avasarpiņī-utsarpiņī etc.

(9) Daiva-vāda-Devas are levels of Prāņa localized at each place. Their spread is Asura which is dark and formless. Centre of energy or is sun, 33 levels of energy in 33 zones (dhāma) are 33 devatā. There are 3 asuras in each zone-Bala (interaction among parts), Vŗtra (curling force), namuchi (boundary surface). Creation is only from devas, not from Asuras which are 3 times more. Thus created universe is only one fourth.

(10) Samśaya-Vāda- Actual situation of creation is always uncertain, as even devas did not exist then. Thus, there are many alternate theories. None is perfect as logic has a limit beyond which it is not valid. Thus, there is always siome doubt as to what theory will apply to what extent. 

(11) Vijñāna-Itivŗtta-vāda-Sequence of change (Itivŗtta) is not arbitrary, it is decided by rules of science (Vijñāna). Man also can create by following rules of science. Science of change is explained in Purāņas (=purā+navati), i.e. how old becomes new. Itihāsa (history) is merely sequence of change-not the reason.

(12) Siddhānta-Vāda-This is combination and unification of all models, which has been described in Brahma-siddhānta by Pt. Madhusudan Ojha. This is the purpose of Vedas to see unity is diversity. Finally that was codified in Brahma-sūtra of Veda-Vyāsa, who showed that many diverse theories in different names are actually descriptions of the same Brahma.

(9) Brahma-yuga-(a) 2 parts-This was from Svāyambhuva Manu (29100 BC) to Kaśyapa (17,500 BC). This was in two parts-one started after glacial floods which has been called Dāha-kāla, i.e. period of intense heat from sun. After gradual revival, there was unification of theories that had developed in earlier era. This continued up to the glacial ice age in 20,000 BC. After Svāyambhuva, 5 more Manus came who led the mankind. After ice age, Kaśyapa  revived the institute of Brahmā and was head of Deva, Asura and Mānava-all. Like Manus of earlier age, there were Sāvarņi (similar) Manus  in his period. Brahmā was also called Parameşţhī, which is name of Jaina-tīrthankaras of this period. In each halves-there were 24 tīrthankaras. Bhāgavata purāņa, part 5 indicates that the 7 dvīpa and intervening oceans in earth of solar system (planetary system up to Uranus) was measured by Priyavrata, elder son of Svāyambhuva. Then Dhruva (son of younger brother of Priyavrata) was the great king after whose death Dhruva-samvatsara started. These and some ŗşis might have been tīrthankaras. Jain tradition counts only kings among ŗşis as tīrthankaras  who could guide the society.

(b) Asura era-After Kaśyapa, Asuras were supreme for 3600 years or 10 yugas as stated in many purāņas (e.g. Brahmāņɖa 2/3/72/69-93, Vāyu 98/51-91). Their supremacy was cahallenged by incarmations of Vişņu who were prime strength of Devas. He had developed Chakra weapon which was superior to asura weapons. Hiraņākśa was killed by Varāha and his brother Hiraņyakaśipu by Nara-simha incarnations.  But Asura supremacy continued. It is stated that Asuras followed the same Vedas learnt from Kaśyapa, but interpreted different meanings of same word-da. Thus Asura tradition also regarded king as form of Vişņu and Hiraņyakaśipu wanted to be worshipped as such. Deva kings always regarded themselves as servant to Vişņu. Finally, Vāmana incarnation took the kingdom of 3 lokas fom Bali, grandson of Hiraņyakaśipu  for Indra. Bali had promised 3 steps of land as part of his yajña, which was as per Vedas. Vāmana interpreted it as 3 steps of sun on earth-where 1 step is motion of sun from equator to 240 north (Tropic of Cancer). Thus, land up to 720 north latitude (in polar circle) was taken over by Indra. That was in Indian hemisphere only-with India, China and Russia as 3 lokas. It was not merely promise of king Bali. Devas were sufficiently powerful to challenge Asuras, who feared blood-bath and agreed to leave Deva part of the world. Some Asuras thought that they could have won in war and continued wars.

(c) Joint mining- Kūrma incarnation explained that the fight is for property only and if it is not produced, then there is nothing to fight for. Asuras  agreed for co-operationg inproduction of mineral wealth, which had been widely surveyed during time of king Pŗthu. Asuras were experts in mining, so they agreed to excavate in prime mineral area of Chhotanagpur plateau. It  has a rod shaped hill in north-south direction called Mandāra at whose north tip lies Vāsuki-nātha. Vasuki nāga was the prime man to co-ordinate the work. Nāga were engaged in sea trade and sea lanes are called Nāga-vīthi. The asuras  who came from Africa have titles related to minerals-Muņɖā = iron ore (Mura= iron ore, murrum), Khalko = Chalcopyrite (copper ore), Xalko = copper, Hembram = mercury (Hg symbol), Oram = gold (Aurum in Greek), Hansada = location of minerals, Kerketta = locating on map (karkaţa = compass), Kiskū = blast furnace, This is unit  of heat in Vaimānika rahasya. The excavation was called samudra-manthana. Expanse of earth’s crust is ocean and excavation is its churning. It is stated that Asuras worked in hotter part of Vāsuki Nāga near his mouth, i.e. hotter pit or mouth of mine.

  Devas were experts in refining minute quantity of metal from ores of gold and silver. So they worked at Zimbabwe, whose gold is famous as Jāmbūnada svarņa. That was south of Ketumāla, i.e. mountain chain of north Africa. That Jambū river has been stated to flow from Meru mountain, so Sri Vinaya Jha has taken Mount Kilimanjaro as Meru in his model for rain forcast. Silver was refined in Mexico, due to which it was called mākśika in Sanskrit.

(d) Deva supremacy- Finally, Kārttikeya militarily defeated Asuras. It is stated that he destroyed Krauñcha mountain or continent (north America in shape of Heron bird) by śakti (missile) and then captured it. Actual capture needs naval power in Pacific ocean. Army of Kārttikeya was called Mayūra (pea-cock), so men of his navy are still called Maori and surprisingly, their language remains the same from Hawai to Newzealand and Philippine to Pagos islands-separated by 15000 kms of ocean. There is no other explanation. Pt. Venugopal Sharma of Māņɖyā (Karnataka) has explained all inscriptions of Mexico and Peru as per Kannada script, a branch of Brāhmī which was followed by Kārttikeya, but Pacific region retained short script for military use. Kārttikeya had 6 centers of army in India called his 6 mothers in Taittirīya Samhitā (4/4/5/10) and Taittirīya Brāhmaņa (3/1/4/4)-Dulā (Orissa, Bengal), Abhrayantī (Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra), Nitatni (Tamilnadu, Karmataka), Meghayantī  (Rajsthan, Gujrat, where Meghani, Meghawal titles exist), Chupuņīkā (Chopra) in Punjab, Varşayantī (Asam) where rains start. Kārttikeya was called Bāhuleya, i.e son of mother Bahulā who is called sister of Jagannātha’s mother. Vāmana was named Vişņu, and Kārttikeya was also in time of king Bali. He had started a new calendar in 15,800 BC in which year started with sun in Dhanişţhā  from rains. For military purposes, Kārttikeya formed a shorthand of Brāhmī  as Tamil, where first 4 letters in each consonant group are merged. Discrete objects are Brahma, merging is Subrahma. So Tamil is Subrahma and Kārttikeya is Subrahmaņya. For writing ancient texts, a separate grantha-script is used in Tamil. From his time, India was free of foreign attack or for 15000 years as noted by Megasthenes and others. It has been omitted with protest by editors but re-stressed by Louis Jacolliot (1837-1890 AD) in his book- Nine Unknown Men-

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nine_Unknown_Men

(d) Some Jainas-Vena was father of Pŗthu and has been called a jaina. Sūktas of both are in Ŗgveda. Śukra was named Venus on name of Vena. He might have been a Tīrthankara. Jainas continue the Deva practice for eating in day time only called Go-charī by Munis. Chara  means to move or to eat. In both senses Asuras were Niśācharas-who ate and moved in night. Muslims in that tradition eat only at night in Roza, exactly opposite to Jain practice.

(e) Current traditions-Ratha-yātrā had started as victory celebration which was at beginning of year in rains. Till today, it is observed at start of Āşāɖha month from which rains started at start of Vikrama era. In earlier calendar, year started with Māgha month, so ratha-yātrā at Māgha śukla saptamī also is done. Vāmana had taken hold of 3 lokas  on Bhādra śukla 12, so periods of kings are still countedfrom that day only in Orissa, called Anka system. There is alternate counting in which numbers with 0, 6 at unit place are dropped. Thus, there are 3 types of ruling period of kings-normal years, anka of two types. Sahasra is used in 2 meanings-aproximate. When it means 1000, the years are actually days.

(f) Asura Veda-Asuras also read the same Veda and did yajña by Vedic methods as by king Bali. Even in austerity like a Muni, they were ahaead of Devas. Hiraņyakaśipu and his brother Hiraņyākśa did more tapa than Devas, so they were victorious. Still, there were 2 main branches of Vedic views discussed in detail by Pt. Madhusudan Ojha in Indra-Vijaya. Supporters of Indra considered the zone lighted by Sun as svarga and radiation as start of creation. There are different zones of Indra-svarga-zones from earth to Uranus orbit are svargas  of 17-25 ahargana. North pole of ecliptic is Nāka svarga  around which axis of earth rotates in 26,000 years. As the great axis (Kuņţha=pole), it is Vaikuņţha. The entire region of solar system for 33 dhāmas is location of Devas as prāņa (average energy of each zone). Bright and dark regions of Saturn are zones of Dharma and Yama. 3 main rings of Saturn are Vaitaraņī river with shepherd satellites as dogs mentioned in Atharva-veda (entire18 kāņɖa, especially 18/2/48). 3 zones of rings are 3 levels of svarga called Udanvatī, Pīlumati, and Pradyau.  All 33 dhāmas or outer part is Śivaloka.

Asuras take the inert matter spread in galaxy as the source. That space is mostly filled with molecules of Ethyl alcohol (Ŗgveda 1/154/4-5) found by modern astronomy also (Life Itself - F H C Crick - Simon & Schuster, Newyork,1982 etc). That spread of dispersed matter is ocean of Varuņa, so its matter is Vāruņī (alcohol). On earth, nearer zone of sun is Mitra (friend) and farther is Varuņa (Arab). Galaxy has been called Janah-loka in purāņas, and Jannat in Koran. Vişņu purāņa (2/7/12,20) tells that souls remain there till kalpa (qayamat in Koran). Both these are alternate models, starting from different points.

(g) Super human Veda-Vedic mantras are seen by human (puruşa) ŗşis only, but they are considered Apauruşeya (super human in the following senses-(1) Ŗşis were beyond individuality and had consciousness of world, or God. (2) Mantra is seeing unity of 3 world systems-ādhidaivika, ādhibhautika, ādhyātmika, and not individual theory of any man or system. (3) It is average of all individual thoughts and thus free from bias. Ŗşis means link or rassi (rope) in Hindi. Is link between world (God) realization and ordinary humans. That person is called Rasul in Koran. It is also link between 3 world system or 5 types of dynamics or yajña. As primordial form, it is string of 10-35 meter called asat -prāņa (invisible force) in śatapatha brāhmaņa (6/1/1/1). 40 types of theories about creation of vedas have been discussed in Upanişad Vijñāna Bhāşya Bhūmikā, vol.1 by Pt. Motilal Sharma.

(h) Jaina texts- In each age there were texts to explain current knowledge for explaining different branches of sciences at different levels of study. Veda is universal al time knowledge which is same for 3 worlds. Jaina text is separate for each time, subject, context, language and teaching level. To know real meaning, its science needs to be understood. Then any expression in language needs verbal logic, which is essence of Bauddha philosophy. But it is limited to only 2 options -yes and no. It does not have statistical view of Anekānta Vāda. But it does not mean that Jaina theory had different measures of length, time, mass etc. No country or society can run if different people have different units-nobody will understand each other.

(10) Vaivasvata yuga-It started in 13,902 BC after supremacy of Devas was well established. There were 14 main Indras who ruled for about 100 years each and were called Śatakratu =100 yajñas, each year is a yajña, because main yajña agriculture and related yajña are in cycle of a year. Overall, they ruled for 10 yugas or 3600 years, till glacial floods in time of Vaivasvata Yama.  Vivasvān (sun) started his calendar starting with Chaitra month when sun enters meşa sign and of yuga system of 12,000 divya years. In historic sense, divya year is solar year. For astronomy, it means 360 solar years.  Parallel Vedānga jyotişa also remained. His son was the last Manu called Vaivasvata Manu whose descendants were called. In astronomy, it is 7 th out of 14 manvantaras.

After glacial floods in about 10000 BC, Matsya was in 9533 BC, when Prabhava samvatsara was in both systems of 60 years Jovian cycle. It was same after 5100 years when Rāma was born (Vişņu dharmottar purāņa 82/7,8). The seeds preserved by Matsya were used by Ŗşabhadeva Jī (about 9,500 BC). As he started the Vedic civilization of Svāyambhuva Manu, he is called his descendant-though there is gap of 20,000 years between them. Like, Vişņu, he managed the people, like Śiva, he gave the lost knowledge, and like Brahmā, he created grains by revamping agriculture-so he has been called incarnation of all the three- Vişņu, Śiva, Brahmā, He had re-started Brāhmī-script in new form in name of his daughter. So, Jain texts say that he started Asi-masi-kŗşi (i.e. sword, ink, cultivation). As starter of cultivation or carrying burden of people, he has been called Vŗşabha (or, Ŗşabha)-meaning bull. Images of Śiva in human form depict him only. Though, Kūrma purāņa, chapter 10 and other tells about 28 human Śivas. Defintely, the Śivas who killed Jalandhara Daitya or destroyed yajña of Dakśa-were in human forms and different on each occasion. After him, his son Bharata continue to feed the world, so he was called Bharata and the country itself was named Bhārata. Earlier, it was called Aja-nābha-varşa. None of the sons of Bharata ruled after him, he chose another successor.

About 1000 years after Ikśvāku, in line of Vaivasvata Manu became king on Meşa-sankrānti day on 1-11-8576 BC. He was about 5326 years after and could have been descendant only-but called son. From him, Sūrya-vamśa (solar clan) rule started. After that, almost all kings of this are described till Rāma (4433-4262 BC) and most of them were world emperors. Only in 6777 BC, king Bāhu was killed in attack by Dionysus. Important names till start of Kali (3102 BC) are available.

 There was important incarnation of Paraśurāma (about 6330-6176 BC) who destroyed kings 21 times, i.e. there were 21 republics whose period of 120 years is indicated by Greeks. He was in 19th Tretā and after his death Kalamba samvat  (Kollam) started in 6176 BC which is still used in Kerala. There were many important kings who had become sanyāsī  later on. Many among them could be Jaina Tīrthankaras, but their sanyāsa name only is known. After sūktas of Ŗşabhadeva Jī, there are almost no sūktas of any other ŗşi. Thus, Veda was almost in final shape after revival by Ŗşabhadeva Jī, who is called11th Veda-Vyāsa.  There were many centres of Vedas set up by kings, called Veda-parişads.

(11) Kaliyuga-The civilization started by Ŗşabhadeva Jī, was destroyed in Mahābhārata war. After that King Yudhişţhira  became king on 17-12-3139 BC, from which his Yudhişţhira śaka started. After 5 days on 22-12-3139 BC, Bhīşma expired on start of north motion of sun, after lying on bed of arrows for 58 days. Some time after that, King Parīkśita was born which is an important landmark date in history.  After 36 years of rule, Kņşņa expired at age of 125 years on 17-2-3102 BC. Then Dwārakā was drowned in sea and its people brought to Mathura where Vajranābha was made king. Parīkśita was made king of Hastināpura. Vijaya samvatsara running since kali start ended and at start of Jaya samvatsara, Pāņɖavas went to Himālaya for abhyudaya. So that is called Jayābhyudaya-śaka. After death of Yudhişţhira in Kali year 25, (3076 BC), Laukika era started. After that, saptarşi cycle of 2700 years ended at end of Andhra rule. There was mass disorder after death of 165 lakhs persons in mahābhārata war. One standard of guiding the society was needed, for which Neminātha Jī, became 22nd Tīrthankara. He has not been mentioned by this name in Vedic texts, but it is assumed that the name Arişţanemi indicates him. He has been called cousine of Kņşņa in Jain texts. We are not sure about his pre-sanyāsa name. His records in India have been lost, but in list of Nepal kings, it is indicated that had gone there and Kirāta king of Nepal-probably Pushka who became king in 3137 BC became his disciple. After that, the kings were called Gopāla vamśa who were kings before Kirātas. Neminātha Jī himself was from gopāla family. As the country was blessed by him (called Nemuni = Nemi-muni), it was named Nepal. Earlier name was Guhyaka deśa. In India most records are destroyed but his name may be linked with these-(1) Nemāļa (Nemāɖa) district of Madhya Pradesh-now divided into east and west parts. It has famous jyotirlinga of Onkāreśvara-Māndhātā. Nearby in Ujjaina, his brother Kņşņa and may be he also was taught by Sāndīpani. (2) There is a Nemāļa in Orissa also near Cuttack which has been old pīţha since time of Kņşņa where Achyutānanda did sādhanā about 500 years ago.(3) Just after Kali start, Nimbārka explained Vedānta and lastly, Chaitanya was called Nimāī. Nimāī  is derived from Nemi-nātha or Nimba tree. (4) As repentance of mass murders in Nāga-yajña, on Dīpāvalī day of Jayābhyudaya-śaka 89, King Janamejaya gave grant of land to Muni-Vŗndāraka-Kśetra on Tungabhadrā river bank near Śŗngerī in west Karnataka. Muni word indicates Jaina tradition.

     6 generations after Parīkśita, (about 2700 BC, 400 kali years), Hastināpura was submerged in Gangā in time of King Nichakśu and the capital was shifted to Kauśāmbī, where Pāņɖava rule remained in name only. That was probably linked with great climatic upheaval which also dried up Sarasvatī  river which ruined west India. In this situation, only king of Vārāņasī  was most powerful to manage the country. The king was probably named Yudhişţhira, as the Jaina texts take start of Yudhişţhira śaka from 2634 BC which should be the date of his sanyāsa as Pārśvanātha, 23rd Jaina Tīrthankara, or date of his nirvāņa (death). Like Rāma in earlier era, he thought sanyāsa as more effective way to revive the society. 4 Bārhadratha kings of Magadha look like his disciples-(12) Aņuvrata (2648-2584 BC), (13), Dharmanetra (2584-2549 BC), (14) Nirvŗtti (2549-2491 BC), (15) Suvrata (2491-2453 BC),

    After mahābhārata war, India was thought as weak and King Parīkśita was killed by Nāga king Takśaka. In retaliation, his son Janamejaya completely decimated their empire and stopped only when he was asked to stop genocide by ŗşis led by Āstīka. Two places in that area are still famous as places of dead persons-Moin-jo-daro = place of dead, and Harappa = place of bones. But one good effect was that no west Asian invader tried to look at India for at least 2200 years. Thus, people in India followed diverse paths of  Dharma without any worry or fear. Time of Siddhārtha Buddha is known accurately-31-3-1886 BC to 27-3-1807 BC. He had gone to learn yoga from Mahāvīra and found it too difficult, so he adopted middle path. Thus must have been at least 15 years elder to him. Jain tradition tells that he was at the end of Avasarpiņī which was till 1902 BC. A horoscope of Mahāvīra given at end of astrology book by Kochhar, indicates his birth time as 11-2-1905 BC. He expired 15 years after Buddha, i.e. in 1792 BC, Age of 113 years for a yogī like Bhagwān Mahāvīra is not unusual. Philosophy of Anekānta re-started traditions of democracy in regions near Mahāvīra and Buddha.-in north Bihar and west U.P.

It is written with pride by Bauddha  texts that 4 branches of thought were uprooted by Siddhārtha Buddha. The names suggest that these are related to 4 main streams of mathematics mentioned by Bhāskara-1 in his commentary on Āryabhaţīya. These are-Makkhali Gośāla (Maskari), Pūrana Kassap (Pūraņa), Modgalāyana (Mudgala), Pūtana (not indicated by Buddha-probably already extinct). Bauddha texts also claim stopping of surgery and sacrifice of animals for non-violence. But surprisingly, meat was not prohibited even for Bhikkhus in Bauddha maţhas. Buddha expelled his bother Devadatta from sangha only because he had demanded that at least Bhikkhus should abstain from meat. Buddha had been operated By Jīvaka vaidya in stomach due to excess meat eating. He was prohibited by surgeon not to take meat again, but on offer by a disciple at Sarnath, he again took and expired.

(12) Revival-In 800 BC, Asura  empire rose in Assyria and Babylone. Due to their pressure, Śakas and other tribes pushed into India. Within India itself, democracies developed indecision and corruption. King Ajātaśatru of Magadha took advantage of internal disputes and annexed them. Then, Mahā-Padma-Nanda annexed most kingdoms in India which marked the end of rules by Sūrya and Chandra vamśa. Revival of India began with Vişņu incarnarion of Buddha, born to Ajita Brāhmaņa in Kīkaţa (Magadha) who united 4 kings of India-Paramāra, Pratihāra, Chālukya, Chāhamāna-under King Śūdraka of Mālavā in 756 BC at Mount Abu. Finally with blessing of Śākambhariī, Chāhamāna wiped out Asura capital Nineve in 612 BC. 

      Revival of knowledge started with Jain Muni Kālakāchārya (599-527 BC) of Ujjain who re-created many lost scriptures of Jaina āgamas. His disciple Kumārila Bhaţţa (557-493 BC) revived Vedas with a commentary on Mīmānsā darśana. After death of his revered Guru, he was charged with treachery with jaina Guru by supporting Vedas also, as if 2 branches of knowledge are aopposed to each other. Kumārila like his guru did not believe that jaina āgama is opposed to Vedas, but to show his devotion to Guru, he burnt himself in slow fire of straw in 493 BC at Prayāga, where Śankarāchārya had his last meating. Finally, Śankarāchārya took help of Kumārila’s  disciple Maņɖana Miśra on west bank of Son river in sal forest area. (Between Bikramaganja and Ara in Bhojpur district of Bihar).

   Politically, it resulted in Śrī-Harşa expelling śakas in 456 BC. He was son of Govinda Śarmā,who was guru of Śankarāchārya as Govinda-pāda. Kutub-minar a model of Meru was set up (likely in 456 BC). It has been called Vişņu-dhvaja in iron pillar inscription of Chandragupta-2. Later on, Megasthenese has called the town Palibothri as set up by Hercules (Vişņu, sun). This is indicated as pillar of Hercules. This time is alsoindicated by Moroccon traveler Ibn-Batuta in 13th century. Alexander had seen this India revived in period of Śankarāchārya and powerful Gupta empire in Magadha. After decay of Guptas in 82 BC, Paramāra king Vikramāditya of Ujjain expanded his empire till Arab where he has been praised by poets. His astrologers gave certificate that Jesus was a great man. His era in 57 BC was followed even in Roman empire under Julius Caesar when his calendar in 46 BC had to start 7 days late to tally with Pauşa month of Vikrama era. Vikramāditya ordered re-editing of purāņas under Betāla Bhaţţa at 3 Viśālā towns (Ujjain, Vaishali and Badri-Vishal). After death of Vikramāditya in 17 AD, India had disintegrated into 18 parts and was ravaged by invasions from all directions. In 29 AD, his grand-son Śālivāhana, recaptured all parts and expelled Śakas west of Indus river in 78 AD. In his time Jesus Christ had come to Śrīnagar and his 2 disciples Francis and Thomas took shelter in Goa and Tamilnadu. This shows that India was then the safest and best place of shelter and progress.  It was not always ravaged by foreign attacks as shown.

Bhojarāja in 10th generation of had gone with army to Balkha (Persia) when he was requested by Mohammad to help him in starting a new religion. Kālidāsa-3 with him opposed, but many in his army and Mohyali Brāhmaņas helped Mohammad. Brahma-spuţa-siddhānta by Brahmagupta in his rule was followed in starting Hizri era in 622 AD which followed Vikrama era for 11 years. After 632 AD, on death of Prophet Mohammad, there was no body to enforce extra months and the practice stopped.  This astronomy text has been written under patronage of king of Vyāghrapada gotra of Mālavā. This was the gotra of Pāņɖavas and their branch Paramāras. Due to close academic link, the book was translated as Al-Zabar Ul-Miquabala within 15 years in time of Calif Al-mansur. This is origin of word Algebra.



 

A short note on the date of buddha nirvana using planetarium software (BN Narahari Achar, april 2009)   

by NP Ramadurai

Ancient Hindu cosmology -- Carl Sagan

Time and space: sciences validate ancient Hindu texts, traditions

-- Vedanga jyotisha
-- Purana
-- Life-sciences (genetics)
-- Astronomy
-- Geodynamics
-- Itihasa
    -- Rama Setu
    -- Vedic River Sarasvati

Development of Panchanga from Vedic times upto present -- SD Sharma (1998)

Units of time s'aka, samvatsara in Hindu kaalaganana -- AK Upadhyaya

Time and works of Narasimha -- AK Upadhyaya

Ramadurai on reconciling yuga and chronology [Source (received through Dr. N. Mahalingam): Diagram: Precession of the Equinox]

Kane on kalpa, manvantara, yuga, mahayuga. [Source: History of Dharmashastra by PV Kane, Pune, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, 1993-1994]


"From the earlier work of Fleet, Dikshit, Kane, and a host of others have written on it, including Prof Srinivasa Raghavan. The discussion has been mainly whether it is simply the figment of imagination of puranic authors and astronomers, and is an artificial time scale. Not surprisingly, Prof Raghavan and other Indian scholars feel that it is not a figment of the imagination and that it is intimately tied to the Mahabharata war. My own views are slightly different. I make the distinction between a cosmic scale and a mundane scale used bty astronomers for calculation of planetary orbits to computr 'panchanga's. This is more akin to the 'age of the Universe' via "Big Bang theory'as opposed to the Julian days used for calculating the planetary orbits in modern astronomy, only Indians had done it thousands of years earlier." -- Narahari Achar, 3 Nov. 2008

Sarasvati river and chronology: simulations using Planetarium Software: B.N. Narahari Achar (2008)

    On the identification of Vedic Nakshatras -- B.N. Narahari Achar (2004)

    On the meaning of Rigveda X.136: Comets? -- B.N. Narahari Achar (2005)

    Chronology of Bhaarata: Reckoning time -- B.N. Narahari Achar (2008)

    On the Caitraadi scheme -- B.N. Narahari Achar (2008)

    On astronomical references in Vyaasa-Dhrtaraashtra samvaada in the Bhishmaparvan of Mahabharata -- B.N. Narahari Achar (Annals BORI, 2003)


Note: see R.N. Iyengar's alternative date for Mahabharata war; this has to be reconciled with Narahari Achar's findings. Archaeoastronomical dating of Mahabhrata by RN Iyengar (2003)

“In my studies I find that the Panchanga Kaliyuga is only a calendar artifice developed by Siddhantic astronomers for ahargaNa similar to Julian day counting. The PuraNic yugas, manvantara etc are of course great ideas, similar to the geological time scale of modern science…Until and unless the relative chronology of RV within itself (some 500 yrs or more?) and of the later literature spanning some 1000 years is not recognized there can be no scientific/logical ancient Indian chronology, that one will be able to present to dispassionate international audience…SELF CONSISTENCY and COMPATIBILITY of different texts can be the only way to interpret scientifically the ancient texts. As far as sky observations are concerned we have to first appreciate the ancient way of looking at the world. To argue that all of that was exactly like what a present day astronomer would percieve would be misleading. Once the length of the yugas stated by different writers do not agree, it is clear there is no point in arguing 'my conclusion is correct and not of XYZ'. “ – RN Iyengar 5 November 2008

"About MB I appreciate your interest and focus to arrive at a widely acceptable solution. My opinion is astronomy can be only a part of this effort. Whatever result is obtained from archaeoastronomy, it has to be compatible with other physical and literary evidences. Excavations by BB Lal at MB sites has, to the best of my knowledge, did not produce any artefacts going to 3000 BC. The oldest pottery  are dated to about 1400 BC only.The distance between Parikshit and Maurya kings mentioned in Bhagavata and VIshnupurana can not be overlooked either. Brushing under the rug these texts gives temporary relief to claim Kaliyuga started with Krishna's NiryaNa, leading to circular arguments. IMHO ignoring Prabhasa kanda of SkandapuraNa would be self defeating for Hindus as far as historical information about Krishna is concerned. Without proper fixing of Krishna as a historical person, MBh dating is all moonshine! The two are intertwined as the K of MB and the K of Purana are one and the same. Arguing for 3000 BC for K placed in the heart of Harappan Civilizational area is no doubt very romantic and even attractive.  But this would logically lead one to the pitfall of agreeing with Hopkins that Hindus have mixed up two different Vaasudeva Krishna." -- RN Iyengar 9 November 2008

Some papers which discuss yuga are:

The yuga system aqhd the computations of mean and true planetary longitudes by D. Arka Somayaji (Source: History of Astronomy in India, Chapter 6)

Aryabhata’s Kaliyuga visited. An optimization problem by YV Jeppu, IJHS,  36.3-4 (2001, pp. 117-125 

Aryabhatiya of Aryabhata mentions a conjunction of all planets, moon and node at the start of Kaliyuga…The Kaliyuga epoch is well defined as 17/18 February 3102 BCE when all the bodies were in super conjunction.

The contribution of the cult of sacrifice to the development of Indian astronomy by G. Sundaramoorthy, Madurai Univ., IJHS, Vol. 9, No. 1

Concept of the structure of space-time (a comparative estimate between the western and the vedic view) by GN Chakravarthy, St. Philomena’s College, Mysore, IJHS, Vol. 5, No. 2

The school of Aryabhata and the peculiarities thereof, by TS Kuppanna Shastri, IJHS, Vol.4, Nos. 1 &2.

Kaliyuga, Saptarshi, Yudhishthira and Laukika eras by KD Abhyankar and GM Ballabh, IJHS, Vol. 31(1), 1996

Manvantara theory of evolution of solar system and Aryabhata by SL Dhani, Chandigarh, IJHS, 1977

Yuga

Ta. nukam yoke, burden, power, strength, protecting bar of a door. Ma. nukam yoke, harness which joins the necks of two oxen. Ko. nn a yoke (? < *nukan). Ka. noga, naga yoke. Koḍ. nogaid. Tu. nuga, noga id. Te. noga pole or poles which connect the carriage with the yoke. / ? < Skt. yuga- (DEDR 3694).kaliyuga n. ‘the present or Iron Age’ Mn. [káli—1, yugá—] Pa.kaliyuga— n., Pk. kalijuga— n.; S. kalaū m. ‘the present age’ (CDIAL 2938).  yugá— n. ‘yoke’ RV., ‘couple’ Gr̥Śr. [√yuj] Pa. yuga— n. ‘plough—yoke, pair’, Pk. jua— n.; Pr. yū̃üyū́ ‘plough’, Kal.rumb. ǰū, Bshk. yū̃, Tor. , Sh.gil. yū̃ m., pales. īū̃; K. yi—püṭü f. ‘plough—yoke’ (+ paṭ- ṭikā—), WPah.bhal. j̈ū̃ f.; Ku. jūwā ‘yoke’, gng. j̈uw, N. juwā, B. , Or. Bi. juā, H. jūājūh m. (whence junā ‘to yoke together’), M. jũv, jū̃ n.; Si. yu ‘space of two months’, viya ‘yoke’ (< *yuva EGS 164). — Gaw. žugāṭa ‘yoke’ (CDIAL 10482).

Yuga, cosmology and evolutionary natural history

We are in:

51st year of Brahma year, 
First brahma day called Varaha kalpa
Seventh manvantara of Varaha kalpa
28th mahayuga of seventh manvantara
Kaliyuga of mahayuga (Kaliyuga began in 3012 BCE)

Note: Each kalpa has 14 Manus. Each manvantara has 71 mahayugas.

Trinshatsu Trisahasreshu Bhaaratdahavaditaha | Saptabda Shatayukteshu Gateshwabdeshu Panchasu | Panchashatasu Kalaukale Shatasu Panchashatsu cha | Samatsu Samatitasu Shakaanamapi Bhoobhujaam ||

Inscription in the Jain Temple at Aihole of Chalukya King Pulakeshi (634 CE)

The temple was constructed in the year 30+ 3000 + 700 +5 = 3735 after Bharata war.
This is 50 + 6 + 500 = 556 of Saka (era).

3735 minus 634 gives 3010 BCE as the date of Bharata war (the start date of Kali yuga -- kalau kaale).

In Hindu cosmology, yuga is a cosmic cycle -- also represented by mahaakaala, the taandava nrityam of the cosmic dancer, Nataraja. In human time reckoning, it is a marker of the state of dharma, just as muhurtha is a unit of time measure to denote the auspicious or inauspicious nature of that particular time segment. Is it possible to relate yuga events mentioned in the Puranas to events in geological time related to the formation of continental plates and geodynamics of the earth? What is the metaphor of the Varaha lifting up the earth? Is it a memory of upliftment of the earth in some places due to tectonic or plate-tectonic events?

"Regarding the Kaliyuga in Hindu tradition, a vast literature exists. From the earlier work of Fleet, Dikshit, Kane, and a host of others have written on it, including Prof Srinivasa Raghavan. The discussion has been mainly whether it is simply the figment of imagination of puranic authors and astronomers, and is an artificial time scale. Not surprisingly, Prof Raghavan and other Indian scholars feel that it is not a figment of the imagination and that it is intimately tied to the Mahabharata war. My own views are slightly different. I make the distinction between a cosmic scale and a mundane scale used bty astronomers for calculation of planetary orbits to compute 'panchanga's. This is more akin to the 'age of the Universe' via "Big Bang theory'as opposed to the Julian days used for calculating the planetary orbits in modern astronomy, only Indians had done it thousands of years earlier." -- Narahari Achar (2 Nov. 2008)

Ambedkar's comment on Yuga in Hindu tradition
We are in the seventh manvantara attributed to the seventh Manu, Satyavrata or Vaivasvata Manu. He was King of Dravidadesha according to our Puranas (Bhagavata Purana). One hypothesis is that the matsyavatara related to Vaivasvata Manu episode is related to supereruption of volcano Mt. Toba about 74,000 years ago. This eruption spread volcanic ash all over Dravidadesha. The King of Dravidadesha may have been rescued through Gangasagar into the Ganga valley. 
Hindu Astronomy
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