06

REVOLUTION IN WEAPON PLATFORMS - Chapter 6 - KALKI GAUR 

 

Chapter 6

Revolution in Weapons Platforms

“Global Clash of Races-Diplomacy of Civilizations” © (2006) Kalki Gaur

6(0) Purport

(1) Iran must not have Nuclear Weapons

Precision Guided Munitions allows surgical strikes on Iran to take out Iranian nuclear capability. Iran must learn that Islamic tyrants can acquire WMDs only at their peril. Iranian nuclear weapons threatens the survival of the world civilization, hence the preemptive attacks on Iran by the civilized world is moral right or moral good albeit moral imperative.

 

One. President Bush must undertake preemptive attacks on Iran to dismantle Iran’s nuclear capability and to enforce regime change in Iran. Iran is a barbarian nation and cannot be trusted with nuclear weapons. It is not in the national interests of United States, India, China, Russia, Germany, France and Britain to permit Iran acquire nuclear weapons. Iran has purchased nuclear capable missiles from North Korea in clandestine nuclear markets. Iran has purchased centrifuges and nuclear enrichment technology from Pakistan. Iran has ample uranium natural resources. Iran can develop large numbers of uranium nuclear weapons.

 

Two. Central Asian Muslims used the military technology of cannons to invade and conquer Hindu India. India cannot sit idle and allow Muslim Iran acquire nuclear weapon capability. India cannot accept the risk of Iranian nuclear weapons.

 

(2) PGM Revolutions helps India

The Precision Guided Munition (PGM) Revolution helps India’s rise as super power as India can leverage its leadership in Information technology to develop modern weapons without investing in heavy industries. India can massproduce advance weapons at much lower costs than the West.

 

(3) Vulnerable Aircraft Carriers

The Aircraft Carriers became vulnerable to anti-ship cruise missiles such a Brahmos anti-ship cruise missiles and thus turned the table against maritime powers in favor of land powers.

These are the arguments author makes in this chapter.

 

6(1) Rise & Fall of Weapon Platforms & Military technology

 

6(i) Talk Points

First, after the time of Emperor Constantine and by the time of Emperor Justinian Eastern Roman Empire decided to imitate Persian heavy cavalry, the mail clad horsemen wielding both spears and bows. Persian armies in 610 AD and 626 AD penetrated within the sight of fortress Constantinople and conquered all of Syria, Palestine and Egypt. The longevity of Byzantine Empire rested squarely on sea power.

 

Second, Byzantine policy forbade the establishment of military aristocracy on the land in Persian fashion. Byzantine practice allowed war captains to recruit and maintain personal followings of Cataphracts who lived on the spoils of successful campaigns. The need for booty subjected the generals for the temptations of waging wars. Byzantine Emperor Maurice (r.582-602) put the Roman army in the pay of the Roman Empire, but the numbers of the Cataphracts limited by imperial finance. Byzantine compelled the people near the borders to build and garrison local fortresses.

 

Third, the first model was the Persian Model of Militarized Landowners. The second model was the Justinian model of Private bands of professional plunderers working on government contract. The third was the Augustus Model, of a Frontier Force whose pay came from the imperial government. The Justinian Roman model of hiring private bands of professional plunderers working on governmental contract is relevant today.

 

Fourth, the innovation of Precision-Guided Munitions ranks with the introduction of firearms, the phalanx, and the war chariot as a defining moment in human history. The Phalanx catapulted Greece to glory; the War Chariot created the Persian Empire. Europe conquered the world with the Gun. Each weapon defines not only the manner in which wars are waged, but also the very texture of human history.

 

Fifth, the emergence of precision munitions, laser-guided bombs, seemed to abolish the historical defect of aerial bombardment-inaccuracy. The manned aircraft was finally equipped to become a precise surgical tool. However, hidden in the success of the manned aircraft were the seeds of its own doom. The precision technologies permitted attack aircraft to increase accuracy from one (1) in three hundred (300) bombs, to one (1) in two (2) bombs. However, the precision technologies inevitably will increase the accuracy of the antiaircraft systems.

 

Sixth, the nation that controls space will control the world’s oceans far more completely than it can control the world’s landmass. Hypersonic missiles are always going to be in short supply, compared to the number of possible land targets. It is the relatively small number of vessels at sea. There is a fit between the number of vessels and the probable number of projectiles. At sea, smart-missiles would certainly be able to both saturate the seascape and determine the outcome of war. Whoever controls space, therefore, will control the world’s oceans. Whoever controls the oceans will control the patterns of global commerce. Whoever controls the patterns of global commerce will be the wealthiest power in the world. Whoever is the wealthiest power in the will be able to control the world. We are moving into a time when it will be easier to cut the sea-lanes than to maintain them. Offensive maritime technology is overwhelmingly more potent than maritime defensive capabilities. The prosperity of the global system has become utterly dependent on the unimpeded access of all merchantmen to the sea-lanes.

 

Seventh, the PGMs, GPS technology, cellular telephones, wireless Internet, man-carried missiles lead to the rise of Super-Soldiers. It is the Age of Super-Infantry again. The universities shall provide the super-soldiers of the future.

 

Eight, the recent advances in precision munitions and smart missiles enables the Land powers decisively damage the economic and military domination of the Sea powers. Land powers can sink aircraft carriers by Brahmos anti-ship cruise missiles and Exocet missiles and precision munitions.

 

Ninth, the Depopulation of the Nuclear Aggressor Doctrine (DNA doctrine) states that in case of any preemptive nuclear strikes against India, India will use neutron bomb to depopulate the aggressor nation. India will threaten to depopulate Punjab in Pakistan in retaliation of any Pakistani nuclear strikes. India will also depopulate any Muslim ally of Pakistan that incited Pakistan. In case of a major nuclear attack against India, India will retaliate by neutron bombs to depopulate the Islamic world so that 800 million Indians resettle on the Muslim lands.

 

Tenth, the recent technology of precision munitions and guided missiles allow the land powers to sink aircraft carrier battle groups, merchant shipping, oil-tankers, and fishing-trawlers. As European Sea powers used the ship-cannons to sink the coastal ships and fleets of Islamic, Hindu, and Buddhist civilizations, to monopolize the maritime trade. Similarly, India, China, and Russia should unite to sink more than ninety (90) percent of the world’s merchant ships, cruise-boats, oil tankers, and fishing-trawlers. It shall permanently damage the economy of the Sea Powers and give tremendous boost to the continental size economies of Russia, China and India. It shall also end the Age of Sea Powers. Railways will replace Ships as the medium of cargo transport.

 

Eleventh, India and China will replace United States as the dominant economic and military power of the world, propelled by the very changes brought by American diplomatic successes and technological revolution in war weapons systems.

 

Twelfth, the mobile self-reliant economy of Aryans, Semites, and Mongols was based on the productivity and self-sufficient economy of cows, sheep and horses. Laptop equipped software professionals, also have the mobility and economic self-sufficiency of nomad pastoralists. Mongol nomads created Empire by exploiting the military mobility of nomadic pastoralism, against agricultural societies, tied to their lands. Mongol nomads could move vast distances and remain economically self-sufficient. Similarly, software professionals could move out of their homelands in India, Israel, and Ireland and still earn livelihood and create global software empires, without draining natural resources. Internet gives universal mobility. Wireless linked Laptop allows Information Technology (IT) professionals create self-sufficient economy of mobile Software factories. Wireless Internet connected, laptop equipped Internet experts remain productive even in uninhabited islands.

 

Thirteenth, Indian economy would overtake Chinese economy in the Information age. Information technology age is the turning point in history. Indian IT companies will create global economic empires, as nomadic pastorals Mongols created Mongol empires in the 13th century. English language imposed during British rule helps catapult India into super economic power in the Internet Age. Hindu emphasis on education and yoga guarantees that India remains leaders in decades to come.

 

Fourteenth, the Internet is the greatest threat to the middlemen and trading classes in the society. Internet economy causes the decline of trading classes and reduces the number of shopkeepers. In India, Marwaris and Banias would lose their predominance in India economy due to Internet commerce.

 

Fifteenth, the large nations blessed with educated populations cannot remain poor in the information age, even its heavy industries stink. Knowledge and mind determines history in the Internet age, not the materialist forces. Educated population is asset in Internet age.

 

Sixteenth, the Love Virus is the world's first cyber warfare weapon. Love Virus focused on Microsoft Window/NT operating system and exploited the vulnerability of the Outlook to shut down computer systems round the world, including that of Microsoft and US Army. Global wireless Internet connectivity creates the wired world. The wired world is vulnerable to the Love Virus type computer worms. Filipino programmer Onel A. de Guzman, student of Amable Mendoza Aguiluz Computer College in Manila, inadvertently produced most lethal Cyber Weapon of the world. Love virus exposed the military vulnerability of the computer-based weapon systems. In the Cyber War, enemy would be foolish to waste energy in planting codes in corporate computers, while simply replicating Love Virus type computer worms could sabotage entire western computer networks. Ottoman Turks used canons to blow apart the thick walls of the Byzantine Empire Fort of Constantinople. The software vulnerability of the Microsoft's Window/NT operating system exposed the Achilles Heel of the Western world.

 

Seventeenth, the Biblical David killed giant Leviathan with simple sling and stones. Mongol light-cavalry defeated heavy-armed cavalry of Iran, and Europe to create Mongol Empire. Precision Guided Munitions, smart bombs and smart anti-tank missiles have ended the age of tanks, age of mechanized warfare, the age of aircraft carriers and the age of stealth bombers. Mergers of large defense contractors does not hide the fact that larger military manufacturers would write of their heavy investments in plants that manufactured tanks, aircraft carriers, mechanized weapons platforms and expensive Bombers.

 

Eighteenth, the Internet has transformed the art of War. Internet age has catapulted infantry into the center-stage of the warfare and ended the age of Sea Powers. The GPS technology, wireless Internet connections, pagers and cellular telephones created new breed of Super Soldiers. The GPS guided Precision Guided Munitions and smart missiles made aircraft carriers, tanks, and mechanized warfare platforms vulnerable to anti-ship missiles.

 

Nineteenth, the overpopulation is an asset not a liability in the Internet age. The Internet enhances the role of knowledge, mind and populations. United States and India would be leaders of Internet economy, as they alone have the large educated populations. Russian software engineers would overtake Israel, Britain, Ireland, and Germany, because of larger educated population base of Russia.

 

Twentieth, the United States needs a new military industrial complex. In building its new high-tech arsenal, the United States has also created a new military-industrial complex. The old one hasn't disappeared, of course, though many of its plant assets should be scrapped.

 

Twenty-first, the Precision Guided Munitions, anti-tank PGMs caused the end of the age of tanks and end of the age of mechanized warfare. The transformation of the U.S. military triggered an identity crisis for American infantry. The PGMs and UMVs have replaced the Marines as the first line of attack.

 

Twenty-Second, United States won the war in Iraq because of the MOAB Bomb, which are in reality the Weapons of Mass Destruction, as it killed people by asphyxia by sucking the oxygen out of the stadium size area and from the lungs of the people in the area. The MOAB Bomb should be declared illegal and banned weapon much like the Chemical weapons, Biological weapons and Poisonous gas weapons.

 

What changes in the organizational structure of the Armed forces the continental land powers, like India, China and Russia undertake to make them relevant in the age of global terrorism and Precision Guided Munitions? What advantages continental land powers, India, Russia and China, enjoy due to the military revolution of Precision Guided Munitions equipped 300 KM range anti-ship supersonic cruise missiles. The anti-tank missile has brought about the end of the Age of Tanks. The 300-km range supersonic anti-ship Missile Brahmos, a joint India-Russia can sink Aircraft Carrier Battle Group Fleets. The End of the Age of Aircraft Carriers is inevitable. The anti-tank smart missiles have ended the Age of mechanized Warfare. What structural changes Army should undergo to remain relevant and effective instrument of war in 21st Century?

 

Outcomes of the Wars has historically determined the future of human cultures, societies, nations, races, religions, peoples and civilizations, and continue to do in the post-Cold War new world order. Revolution in military technology determines the outcome of the World War, Clash of Civilization, Clash of Religions, Clash of Races and Wars of Liberation. The development of Precision Guided Munitions and anti-ship cruise missiles has brought about the end of the Age of Aircraft Carriers, and the End of the Age of Tanks and the End of the Age of Mechanized Warfare. The miniaturized, small but lethal explosives and weapons pack considerable fire power and destruction capability and thus heralded the New Age of Smart Infantry. It shall transform the landscape the landscape of warfare and make guarantee that United States (because of its technological lead) as well as India and China (because of their large size of manpower and size of economy) shall be the leading powers of the 21st Century, and France, Germany and Britain would never be able to overtake India and China as military powers. This is the argument author makes in this Chapter.

 

6(ii) Sea Powers Vs Land Powers

Roman Wars on Persians

SEA POWER Vs PERSIAN LAND POWER: First, During the reign of Emperor Justinian (527-65), due to the recurrent conflicts with the Persians, and conflicts with raiders from Danubian steppes compelled East Rome to abandon the ancient infantry tradition of European West. East Romans decided to imitate Persian heavy cavalry. Large-scale conversion to the new cavalry style began only after the time of Constantine (324-327), although this form of armament had been experimented earlier. By Justinian day, mail-clad horsemen wielding both spears and bows had become the backbone of the Roman armies. A series of wars with Persians (572-630) dramatically demonstrated the weakness of the Byzantine State in land warfare. Persian armies twice penetrated within sight of Constantinople itself in 610 and 626 AD and conquered all of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt. Nevertheless, the Byzantine Empire survived long after the Sassanians had succumbed to the Moslem flood. Byzantine longevity rested squarely on sea power, which repeatedly saved the Constantinople, the capital itself and gave the imperial land forces a limited but supremely effective strategic mobility with a purely land power Persia could never equal. The Byzantine were never able adequately to defend their inland frontiers. However, so long as their fleets remained strong enough to succor the Byzantine army, the two imperial forces together always proved able to safeguard the vital centers of the Byzantine State. The advantage of sea power vividly demonstrated by Justinian's campaigns in the western Mediterranean. Justinian dramatically used Byzantine sea power during Heraclius's wars with the Persians (610-30). The Byzantine Emperor left his beleaguered capital Constantinople, sailed along the Black Sea coast to take the Persian besiegers in the rear and in the end compelled them to withdraw.

 

6(iii) Cataphracts

ROMAN CATAPHRACTS: Second, even after Cataphracts had become the Roman fighting arm par excellence, the Byzantine Empire never really solved the related problem of numbers. Byzantine policy forbade the establishment of military aristocracy on the land in Persian fashion. The first model was the Persian Model of Militarized Landowners. The Byzantine practice of allowing war captains to recruit and maintain personal followings of Cataphracts who lived on the spoils of successful campaigns failed to provide forces to guard the exposed landward frontiers of the Byzantine Empire. Even successful captains found it difficult to maintain a sufficient flow of booty. Western Roman Empire perished infected by the disease of over mighty generals. The need for booty subjected the generals to the temptations of waging war in the vitals of Empire, where rich cities and cultivated countryside constituted a tempting booty for their soldiers. When Byzantine Emperor Maurice (r. 582-602) attempted to forestall this danger by putting the army in the pay of the Empire. The exigencies of imperial finance and policy made it impossible to maintain adequate numbers of Cataphracts on guard along the frontiers.

 

LOCAL FORTRESSES: The Byzantine central government was of course aware of the unsatisfactory posture of frontier defenses. Byzantine did attempt to meet the problem by compelling the people near the borders to build and garrison local fortresses. It based on the theory that such strongholds could delay an invader, until the main body of mobile Cataphract troops arrived to drive the marauders away. India should use the principle of local fortress in Kashmir. The local regions should be taxed to finance the garrison.

 

Mercenary Troops on Contract

SYSTEMS OF MILITARY ORGANIZATION: The Byzantine Empire's dilemma was simple, though painful. Every one of the three available organizational alternative systems of military organization was dangerous to the central power. The Byzantine emperors found it necessary to leave their landward frontiers exposed to a steady process of local raiding and barbarian infiltration. The first model was the Persian Model of Militarized Landowners. The second model was the Justinian model of Private bands of professional plunderers working on government contract. The third was the Augustus Model, of a Frontier Force whose pay came from the imperial government, but which in practice obeyed a particular general whose ambitions might not stop short of imperial purple.

 

MERCENARY TROOPS ON CONTRACT: Third, the Justinian Roman model of hiring private bands of professional plunderers working on governmental contract is relevant today. War captains who live on the spoils of successful campaigns provide a suitable solution to the invasion of the barbarians and the invasion of the Islamic fundamentalists. India should hire Vijay Prabhakar led LTTE, and RSS forces to undertake military operations in Afghanistan, Burma, Cambodia, Somalia and Congo. During Colonial era, Robert Clive conquered the Bengal., using the resources of East India Trading Company. Cecil Rhodes owned the company that colonized Rhodesia.

 

New Age of PGMs

RISE & FALL OF CIVILIZATIONS & WEAPON SYSTEMS: Fourth, the innovation of Precision-Guided Munitions ranks with the introduction of firearms, the phalanx, and the war chariot as a defining moment in human history. The phalanx catapulted Greece to glory; the War Chariot created the Persian Empire. Europe conquered the world with the gun. Each weapon defines not only the manner in which wars are waged, but the very texture of human history.

 

AGE OF PRECISION-GUIDED MUNITIONS: Fifth, the Age of Ballistics and the Age of Aircraft Carriers is ending, and world is entering a fundamentally new period, the Age of Precision-Guided Munitions (PGMs). The so-called smart-weapons, smart-projectiles, smart-missiles, and super-soldiers will antiquate the traditional way of making war.

 

End of Expensive Bombers

END OF THE AGE OF EXPENSIVE BOMBERS: Sixth, until the Persian Gulf War, the technological foundation of airpowers doctrine, was the manned, air-breathing aircraft. It is able to carry about seven tons of ordnance, for a distance of a thousand miles without refueling. The emergence of precision munitions, laser-guided bombs, seemed to abolish the historical defect of aerial bombardment-inaccuracy. The manned aircraft was finally equipped to become a precise surgical tool. However, hidden in the success of the manned aircraft were the seeds of its own doom. The precision technologies permitted attack aircraft to increase accuracy from one (1) in three hundred (300) bombs, to one (1) in two (2) bombs. However, the precision technologies inevitably will increase the accuracy of the antiaircraft systems. Serb could shoot down two Stealth Bombers each costing many hundred million dollars. NATO bombing destroyed 40 billion dollar worth civilian industrial infrastructure in Serbia. Yugoslavian Army did not use antiaircraft missiles to protect their radar systems from NATO attacks.

 

End of Aircraft Carriers:

END OF THE CARRIER AGE: Seventh, by 1995, a cruise missile could carry out numerous missions at least as effectively as a aircraft carrier, without placing a carrier at risk. The high cost of the carrier is the result of its vulnerability to anti-ship missiles, and the cost of aircraft. A single carrier battle group lacks sufficient punch to be decisive in a Eurasian crisis. The technology of the cost-effective cruise missile makes the aircraft carriers so expensive, can also sustain the missions of bombing enemy targets that the aircraft carriers currently execute. What we are seeing is not so much a financial crisis as the rotation of weapons cultures. We are seeing the End of the Aircraft Carrier Age and the genuine beginning of the Missile Age. It heralds the rise of PGMs equipped continental-size populous Land powers and the decline of Sea powers. Roman Empire controlled the Mediterranean Sea by controlling the Mediterranean coastlands. Similarly, the coastal land powers shall control the oceans of the world.

 

Star Wars Harm Sea Powers:

SPACE-BASED SYSTEMS HARM SEA POWERS: Eight, the nation that controls space will control the world’s oceans far more completely than it can control the world’s landmass. Hypersonic missiles are always going to be in short supply, compared to the number of possible land targets. It is the relatively small number of vessels at sea. There is a fit between the number of vessels and the probable number of projectiles. At sea, smart-missiles would certainly be able to both saturate the seascape and determine the outcome of war. Whoever controls space, therefore, will control the world’s oceans. Whoever controls the oceans will control the patterns of global commerce. Whoever controls the patterns of global commerce will be the wealthiest power in the world. Whoever is the wealthiest power in the will be able to control the world. We are moving into a time when it will be easier to cut the sea-lanes than to maintain them. Offensive maritime technology is overwhelmingly more potent than maritime defensive capabilities. The prosperity of the global system has become utterly dependent on the unimpeded access of all merchantmen to the sea-lanes.

 

Neutron Wars of Depopulation:

NEUTRON BOMBS & DEPOPULATION WARFARE: Ninth, the development of neutron bomb allows the depopulation of nations without destroying the economic infrastructure. Russia could plan the depopulation of Western Europe or Japan, and move its engineers and workers to occupy and operate the modern industrial plants. The invasion of the barbarian Afghan Mujahideens may necessitate the use of Neutron bombs to erase the curse of barbarian invasions of civilizations. The scientific advances in infertility treatment, artificial insemination, test-tube babies, and human cloning may allow an advance civilization produce peoples to populate the empty lands after the aftermath of the nuclear war.

 

Rise of Light Mobile Super Infantry:

RISE OF MOBILE PGMs ARMED INFANTRY: Tenth, the PGMs, GPS technology, cellular telephones, wireless Internet, man-carried missiles lead to the rise of Super-Soldiers. It is the Age of Super-Infantry again. The universities shall provide the super-soldiers of the future.

 

India as Super Power:

RISE OF INDIA AS SUPER POWER: The revolution in warfare technology allows India to emerge as the Second super power, and very serious challenger to the United States. The political leaders of Hindu India and the Protestant United States should not cause civilization’s war. India and United States could lead the world away from the Wars of Religions and the civilization’s wars, by basing their bilateral relations based on the policies that promote the national interests of both nations. Only India and United States have the moral courage to defeat the evil of Religious wars and civilization’s wars.

 

 

6(iv) Future of Weapon Systems

Decline & Demise of Carriers

END OF AIRCRAFT CARRIER AGE: First, the recent advances in precision munitions and smart missiles enables the Land powers decisively damage the economic and military domination of the Sea powers. Land powers can sink aircraft carriers by Exocet missiles and precision munitions. The NATO bombings of the Serb civilian economic infrastructure has legitimized infrastructure warfare in terms of modern laws of war. The land powers are in a position to sink world’s merchant ships and fishing fleets. The per capita income of the land power states would sky rocket if they sink over ninety (90) percent of world’s shipping and fishing fleets. United States should recognize the security needs of the land powers. India is herbivores Geopolitical Elephant, a land power. United States is carnivores Geopolitical Eagle, an air power, as well as a Geopolitical Crocodile, a sea power. Land power India cannot allow the aircraft carrier battle groups to enter the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea during war times, as its aircraft will threaten Indian coastlands and hinterlands. India will exercise its right of self-defense to sink hostile enemy aircraft carrier that comes within 1500 miles of India’s coastlands.

 

Neutron Bombs are Clean:

MORALITY OF TACTICAL NEUTRON BOMBS: Second, India has the capacity to build a neutron bomb. Indian nuclear scientists can design and make nuclear weapons of any type or size. President Truman committed war crime by launching nuclear attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, according to contemporary laws of war. It has legitimized the use of nuclear weapons against non-nuclear weapon states. The post-Cold War nuclear strategy of the United States supports the use of tactical nuclear weapons and neutron bombs.

 

NEUTRON BOMB WILL DETER AMERICA: The dilemma of Indian nuclear doctrine is how to deter US preemptive nuclear strikes without threatening civilian targets in mainland United States, because the retaliatory strikes against American cities will escalate into general nuclear war. Indian nuclear doctrine states that India will retaliate to any hypothetical preemptive nuclear strikes from United States, Britain and France, by depopulating Australia and New Zealand, by neutron bomb attacks. Since Australia and New Zealand are part of the Western Christendom, so Indian Civilization’s retaliation is justified. It will also limit the nuclear exchanges, since the cities of Western nuclear powers are not threatened. India will give a unilateral guarantee that even in a general nuclear war, India will never target any metropolitan targets in the United States, Britain, and France.

 

NEUTRON BOMB & ETHNIC CLEANSING: Neutron Bomb technology allows the depopulation of the Protestant and Catholic Western Europe, to allow Russia and Serbs occupy the European industrial plants intact to revitalize Russian economy. Neutron Bombs can effectively depopulate Australia and New Zealand, allowing overpopulated Asia to resettle 500 million Asians in Australia and New Zealand.

 

6 (v) Doctrine of Depopulation of Nuclear Aggressor:

DEPOPULATION OF NUCLEAR AGGRESSOR DOCTRINE: Third, Christian world is encouraging Pakistan to launch nuclear missiles against India. India and Pakistan will be allies in the civilization’s war. India should never launch preemptive nuclear strikes against Pakistan. Indian Doctrine of Depopulation of Nuclear Aggressor will be an effective deterrent against Pakistan’s preemptive nuclear strikes. The DNA doctrine states that in case of any preemptive nuclear strikes against India, India will use neutron bomb to depopulate the aggressor nation. India will threaten to depopulate Punjab in Pakistan in retaliation of any Pakistani nuclear strikes. India will also depopulate any Muslim ally of Pakistan that incited Pakistan. In case of a major nuclear attack against India, India will retaliate by neutron bombs to depopulate the Islamic world so that 800 million Indians resettle on the Muslim lands. India will not harm Mohajirs of Karachi and Pathan supporters of Wali Khan for the crimes committed by Punjabis.

 

Civilization’s wars are Total Wars:

TOTAL CIVILIZATION’S WAR: The technology revolution makes the coming civilization’s war, a total war that results in the annihilation of the defeated religion and civilization. The civilization’s wars may be similar to the European invasions of the North America, South America, and Australia. European maritime invaders convinced of their military superiority, use that power to annihilate the indigenous civilization and races. There were more than ninety (90) million Native-American Indians, which represented one-fourth of the world-population, more than the total population of the White races in the West and East Europe.

 

Malthusian Population Warfare:

THREAT OF OVERPOPULATION & CLONING: Geopolitical lion never kills without a reason; he kills the prey to eat and leaves what he cannot eat for others to eat. Americans used the railways to kill many million bison to cause deaths by starvation in the non-agricultural civilization of Red Indian hunters. Similarly, the population explosion in Asia puts tremendous pressure on the white occupation forces in Australia and New Zealand. The technology of cloning and infertility treatment would allow White races to populated the new world, which was not possible till recently. It is possible that White Catholics and Protestants will cause an Indo-Pak nuclear war to depopulate South Asia.

 

Destroy World's Merchant Fleets:

A WORLD WITHOUT SHIPS, TANKERS & TRAWLERS: Fourth, the recent technology of precision munitions and guided missiles allow the land powers to sink aircraft carrier battle groups, merchant shipping, oil-tankers, and fishing-trawlers. As European Sea powers used the ship-cannons to sink the coastal ships and fleets of Islamic, Hindu, and Buddhist civilizations, to monopolize the maritime trade. Similarly, India, China, and Russia should unite to sink more than ninety (90) percent of the world’s merchant ships, cruise-boats, oil tankers, and fishing-trawlers. It shall permanently damage the economy of the Sea Powers and give tremendous boost to the continental size economies of Russia, China and India. It shall also end the Age of Sea Powers. Railways will replace Ships as the medium of cargo transport. It will boost prosperity in India and China and together they shall account for over 50 percent of the manufactured goods of the world. Then Protestant and Catholic civilizations will account for 25% of the manufactured goods of the world. India and China are both overpopulated land-powers, both belong to the common Hindu-Buddhist civilization, and shall be very close allies in the next civilization’s war. Land powers Russia, India and China should not miss this window of opportunity provided by the revolution in military technology to permanently damage the economic superiority of the Sea Powers. World without ships, tankers and trawlers will be a peaceful world. It is worth noting that the Hindu epic Ramayana describes aircraft, but does not even mention boats. Perhaps there will be no boats, ships, trawlers, and tankers in the Age of Aquarius, which begin in the coming century.

 

6(vi) America's Role in Future Religious Wars

UNITED STATES DOMINANT POWER: For the next two decades, per haps before 2012 AD neither India nor China will replace the United States from the pedestal of the dominant power of the world. It is potential for good, and if it should mess up, for bad is going to be immense. That being so, it is going to be extremely important-not only for America itself but for everyone else- that White Anglo-Saxon American Protestants think clearly about American foreign policy. Here are some modest geopolitical suggestions toward that end.

 

Infrastructure Warfare in Serbia:

MILITARY VICTORY OR SUCCESS IN A WAR: First, learn to distinguish between concepts of ‘victory’ and ‘success,’ for they are not necessary the same thing. Military victories can be illusory. Even when they come cheap, they may not serve America’s best interests. To take an obvious example, the British and French emerged victorious from World War I. But that war was not a success. Neither was it a success in terms of its effects on their ally Russia, and their adversary Germany. The compromise peace early on, would have served British and French interests better as World War II proved. Similarly, NATO’s victory over Serbia is not a success. The internal condition of Kosovo has deteriorated, marked by the absence of civil government. United States relations with China and Russia have deteriorated. European move towards developing collective military capacity has weakened Trans-Atlantic NATO solidarity. Orthodox Serbs’ hatred of Papacy would thermonuclear attack on the Vatican. When Chinese can steal every nuclear weapon secrets from US nuclear weapons labs, then Serbs can also steal a Russian device.

 

USA is Big Bully:

AMERICA ON A WAR MODE: This distinction between victory and success is particularly worth emphasizing at a time when the United States possesses the military means to defeat any other country. Besides the marked feature of American foreign policy is the exceptional readiness to resort to the military means. American must not forget the humiliating American defeat in Vietnam War and the defeat of Russia in the Afghanistan War. Americans have won wars against Serbia, Haiti, Panama, Rwanda, and Burundi. It may not be very wise to assume capability to defeat big nations, by beating small weak nations. Just by beating small animals, one cannot claim power to kill lions, dragons and elephants. America should not forget that it has never won a major war, against a major adversary. Vatican may involve United States into a major war, without an exit strategy. United States is likely to meet a major defeat, similar to Vietnam debacle.

 

Demonizing Adversaries

DO NOT CONDEMN ADVERSARIES AS EVIL: Secondly, there is no justification in maintaining that similar behavior by Washington on one side and Moscow, Beijing and Delhi on other side judged differently. It is wrong to say that the intrinsic more character of the two groups is so different. There is no justification for applying one standard to the rest of the world and another to America. Similar standards should apply for, (1) attacks on the territory of sovereign states that have not threatened Aggression, or (2) the extraterritorial application of domestic laws. The United States should either practice what it preaches or expect other states to emulate its practices. American insistence on double standards is hypocritical. It diminishes American credibility and prestige, and clouds the thinking of WASP Americans to think sensibly and coherently about international affairs. This is a fatal drawback for United States, an indispensable Super Power. United States could get a fatal blow and disintegrate, if it over-reaches itself in foreign wars. Remember Vietnam War and Afghanistan War. NATO’s war on Kosovo has opened the Pandora Box of the rights of Native Americans. What is good for Kosovo cannot be bad for Native Americans, Eskimos, Amerindians, Incas, Mayas and Australian Aborigines.

 

Decline of USA Inevitable:

INEVITABLE DECLINE OF AMERICA: India and China will replace United States as the dominant economic and military power of the world, propelled by the very changes brought by American diplomatic successes and technological revolution in war weapons systems. The NATO bombardment of civilian infrastructure in Serbia made West Europe vulnerable to civilian Infrastructure warfare, unleashed by PGMs equipped mobile infantry commandos. Precision-Guided Munitions make American aircraft carriers vulnerable to hypersonic smart anti-ship cruise missiles. Expensive bombers are vulnerable to precision-guided antiaircraft missiles. The military revolution of PGMs causes the End of the Age of Expensive aircraft bombers. The PGMs revolution causes the End of the Age of the American Aircraft Carriers. The space-based reconnaissance systems allow the Land powers to sink world’s entire merchant shipping fleets, fishing fleets, and petroleum tankers, to ground the global economy to a screeching halt. The PGMs will end the Age of Sea Powers. United States military doctrines advocate the use of Neutron bombs and tactical nuclear weapons against non-nuclear weapon powers, even in a non-nuclear war. The Neutron Bomb technology allows the depopulation of continents and depopulation of a civilization in the world war.

 

6(vii) Cyber Geopolitics

Internet Revolution is real turning point in History.

First, Internet is a turning point in human history, not a temporary phase. Information technology allows the production of new economic goods, by using manpower and knowledge only, without using natural resources. Information products and services are new economic goods. Overpopulation and lack of natural resources are not drawbacks in the Internet age. Information industry is a manpower intensive industry. Overpopulated educated nations, with strong base in mathematics and wider usage of English cannot remain poor in the information age, even if they lack natural resources. English speaking India and Philippines would produce more software engineers than Japan and China. Asia overtook Europe in the manufacturing of consumer goods and electronics. With the increased bandwidth and cheaper Internet access in Asia, the digital divide between West and the East disappear. Asia is better blessed with mathematics than the West. Indian economy would overtake China in the Information age, as Communist China cannot allow the free flow of information in the Internet age. Russia can overcome its poverty, if it invests in software and information industry, instead of heavy industry. United States and India are the leaders of the software and Internet economy.

 

Cyber Economy neither fad nor mirage.

Internet economy is neither a fad nor a mirage. Internet is the real turning point in human history and there can be no turning back. Internet is omnipresent, but not omnipotent. Once online, one can go anywhere and everywhere in the virtual world. By Internet the movement and manipulation of vast information, produces better products and services. Information technology generates new economic goods, without straining the natural resources of the nation. Knowledge in Internet creates new wealth and new economic goods in the society.

 

Internet is Divine Information Railway.

Internet provides universal access. Internet is 21st Century's divine Information Railway. Companies that build Internet infrastructure companies and manufacture connectivity component have bright future, like companies that laid railway tracks and manufactured hardware for railways in 19th century. Wireless linked Laptop allows Information Technology (IT) professionals create self-sufficient economy. Software engineers create virtual Software factories. Connected by wireless Internet software engineers remain productive even in uninhabited island. Internet is going Evernet, everything with electricity is having chips embedded in it from pagers to cars and connected to Web networks.

 

Mobile Productivity of IT Professionals.

Factory worker ceases to be productive at home and on leave. Information technology workers remain productive wherever they may be. Internet creates self-sufficient, mobile information economy. Knowledge generates new economic goods in the information age, without straining natural resources. Software engineers create Cyber economic empires without draining scarce national natural resources. Knowledge and mind not the materialist forces determines history in the Internet age. Internet revalidates Hegel's dialectic Idealism and dumps Karl Marx's materialist dialectics. Overpopulation and the lack of natural resources are no longer handicaps in the Internet age.

 

Mobile Pastoral Information Economy

Mobile self-reliant economy of Aryans, Semites, and Mongols was based on the productivity and self-sufficient economy of cows, sheeps and horses. Laptop equipped software professionals, also have the mobility and economic self-sufficiency of nomad pastoralists. Mongol nomads created Empire by exploiting the military mobility of nomadic pastoralism, against agricultural societies, tied to their lands. Mongol nomads could move vast distances and remain economically self-sufficient. Similarly, software professionals could move out of their homelands in India, Israel, and Ireland and still earn livelihood and create global software empires, without draining natural resources.

 

Overpopulation is asset in Information Age.

Overpopulation is an asset in the Internet age. The Internet enhances the role of knowledge, mind and populations. United States and India would be leaders of Internet economy, as they alone have the large educated populations. Russian software engineers would overtake Israel, Britain, Ireland, and Germany, because of larger educated population base of Russia.

 

Love virus is Cyber Weapon.

Love Virus is the world's first cyber-weapon as it attacked specific Windows, Outlook operating system to destroy information data on computers.

Cyber-bug is real, as the 'love bug virus' launched by a Filipino student, 23-year old Onel A. de Guzman, his sister Irene showed the vulnerability of the Computer age and established the destructive power of mind over material guns. The new Mercedes 500 has more computing power in it than 747-200 plane. The use of silicon chips growing exponentially. Love Virus and Cyber warfare represents mind-weapons and knowledge-based weapons.

 

Digital divide favors India.

The digital divide is the result of the high cost of Internet access, while the cost of Internet access is negligible or even free in the United States. Information will be free for everyone. Information will be available to those in need. Information shall not no longer be accessible. The Love Virus unintentionally caused $10 billion in lost data and productivity. Cheaper Internet in the Third World will eliminate digital divide. Filipino software engineers would outsmart Japanese software engineers, even when Japan has superior Internet bandwidth. India is on the privileged side of the digital divide.

 

Reality of Wall Street Crash.

The April 2000 crash of the Internet stocks in the new economy was a real crash as it reduced the market capitalization by 5 trillion dollars, making some speculators filthy rich. The low-cost broker dealers on line and day trading epidemic make equity markets NYSE and NASDAQ, similar to the speculative Commodity Future markets, CME and CBOE. Crash makes it imperative that loss-making Internet companies undergo change of CEOs, to end the age of kids blowing IPO cash of cyber companies.

 

Information creates new Economic Goods.

In Information age, new economic goods in the society created not by using natural resources but by the movement and manipulation of information. The software workers telecommute worldwide, without tied to their homes or factories, develop mobile self-sufficient economy, and produce new economic goods. Software engineers are modern age mobile self-sufficient Mongol army on the move.

Farming, Pastoral, Hunting Economies

The triad of nomadic pastoralism, hunting, and farming, represents three separate types of economies. Nomadic pastoralism like farming has been great advance over hunting and gathering way of life. Old brick and mortar economy represents the agricultural economy in the triad. The mining industry represents the hunting and gathering way of life. The information economy represents the nomadic pastoralism. The success of pastoral endeavor depends on ensuring the animals healthy and reproducing. The mobility of the nomadic pastoral way of life lent itself to warfare and resulted in Mongol Empire. Internet economy represents the modern version of nomadic pastorals, as software engineers create mobile self-sufficient economy, as they can move and productive while on the move, far from offices and factories.

 

New Economy Overtaking Old Economy.

Internet economy would soon overwhelm Old economy. The software professionals have defeated the mighty warriors of the Old economy, as light-mobile Mongol horse-riding warriors conquered the civilized agricultural world. In the ancient world, Aryan cow-herders and Semite sheepherders defeated the agricultural societies tied to their lands.

 

The software professionals become economically self-sufficient even when they roam worldwide, to conquer new businesses far beyond their home base. Laptop equipped Internet professionals, are productive industrial workers, wherever they may be. However, the factory workers are productive only in factories, not in their homes and during vacation.

 

Vulnerable Cyber World.

The Internet wired world has truly become vulnerable to the mind-developed weapons, more than tanks and guns. The Love Virus supposedly unleashed by 23-year-old Filipino student caused more harm in the world and United States, than was possible by the entire Filipino Army, Navy and Air force.

 

Menace of Microsoft Monopoly.

Should Microsoft reimburse the loss caused by the vulnerable Outlook Program? The havoc caused by Love Virus exposed the vulnerability of the Microsoft Outlook Program, and justified the breakup of the Microsoft. Microsoft monopoly is the greatest threat to the computer security of the wired world. Without the monopoly of the Microsoft, the Love virus would not have caused so much havoc. Law is not very clear, whether Microsoft is liable for the damage caused by the vulnerability of the Outlook Program. The automatic-e-mail function of the Outlook is unnecessary risky, and makes it just ripe for viruses. The breakup of the Microsoft would expedite the revision of the Outlook Program. The Microsoft culture that makes everything in their software highly programmable, is wrong and needs change, for promoting security against cyber attacks. Would Slobadan Milosevic hire the Filipino boy, the father of Love Virus?

 

Art of War in Internet Age

Internet has transformed the art of War. Internet age has catapulted infantry into the center-stage of the warfare and ended the age of Sea Powers. The GPS technology, wireless Internet connections, pagers and cellular telephones created new breed of Super Soldiers. The GPS guided Precision Guided Munitions and smart missiles made aircraft carriers, tanks, and mechanized warfare platforms vulnerable to anti-ship missiles. Internet heralds the end of the age of aircraft carriers, end of the age of tanks, end of the age of mechanized warfare, and end of the age of stealth bombers. The military industrial companies, the manufacturers of Tanks, and aircraft carriers would lose Pentagon dollars. The wireless connectivity components made by Motorola finding numerous military applications. Internet restructures military-industrial complex. Future weapons platforms and PGMs use information technology.

 

India & USA Leaders in Information Age

United States and India are leaders in Information economy, and Russia would leapfrog over other IT contenders. India is formidable in Information technology, software and challenging USA. Russia would emerge as big players in global Information economy. Russia can solve its economic problems by focusing on information technology, diverting funds from loss-making heavy industries. United States, Russia and India have the highest reservoir of qualified technical manpower in the world, and it guarantees their economic leadership in the information age. Russian Jews can generate lots of foreign exchange for Russia, by competing with Israel, Britain, and Ireland for Internet business in USA. Nations with large populations like USA, India and Russia have intrinsic advantage over European Union, Canada, Australia and Israel. The low level of English penetration rules out China, Japan, and Korea as major Information and Software powers.

 

Power of Indian Software Companies.

Carnegie Mellon noted that of twelve software houses with the highest rating, seven are in India. Millions of Indian Software professionals will create Internet empires. India's Software-led economic Empires in mid-21st Century would rival the Mongol Empire of 13th Century. India and United States are economic leaders in the Information Age. Private ISP's, telecommunications and broadcasting unleashes greatest economic revolution in India.

 

India Would Overtake China.

Riding on Internet revolution, Indian economy will overtake that of China in the first quarter of the 21st Century. Indian Software companies make profits, while Chinese foreign joint ventures losing money. US investors should divest their investments in China and make new investments in Indian companies.

 

Widening Digital Divide

Digital divide promoting greatest economic inequalities in the world. India is on the privileged side of the digital divide. Private Internet Service providers unleash Internet revolution in India. The Internet revolution shall bridge the gap between White and Brown races, Europe and Asia, Occidental and Oriental worlds.

 

Revolution in Internet Education

Internet is the favored medium for the delivery of education in the electronic age. Computer based training, and Internet based education allows mass educational drives of highest quality education at lowest cost. Internet Library stores large number of educational materials, books and research articles on line, which students can download at fraction of the cost of the printed materials. The single CD-ROM can carry full text of more than 200 books, and costs less than $1.00 to replicate. Universal education and elimination of Illiteracy becomes possible via Internet Education.

 

Quality of Leadership in Cyber Companies

Lest-competent CEOs misdirecting IPO-rich Internet companies is the greatest threat to the Internet economy. To protect Cyber corporations during the looming Third Great Web Wipeout, only the best business leaders should head the Internet companies as CEOs. The huge market capitalization of Web corporations makes it imperative that pro-active shareholders should remove failed CEO and hire the best industry leaders. The less qualified person should not become CEO just because for fund-raising capabilities. Loss-making Internet companies should undergo change of CEO to avoid recurrence of market crash.

 

Internet economy has distinct military advantage over Old Economy, but should be led by leader-general who realize the unique strategic advantage Internet enjoys. The quality of generalship plays greater impact on the fate of Internet economy, than in Old economy.

 

Infrastructure in Internet Age:

Internet economy needs Internet infrastructure, and fiber optics laid along the railway tracks and high-tension electric wire grids, using their right of the way. Transcontinental railways provided continent wide mobility during 19th century. Today, the Internet is doing for information delivery what the railways did for transportation of humans and cargo. Internet dramatically increased the ease and speed, to move and manipulate information, to generate new wealth.

 

Now many railroads collect rent from giant telecommunications companies that buried cables besides the rail tracks. Railroads are using the right of way of railroads, to establish themselves in the new economy, for laying fiber optic cables. What makes a railroad franchise a great franchise is what makes it a terrific telecom franchise? It makes Florida East Coast Industries, a better railway stock. The right of way of high-tension power lines would also generate similar incomes from buried cable lines.

 

Revolution in Means of Distribution:

Internet revolutionized the means of distribution in the global economy, by reducing the cost of distribution of economic goods in the society. Internet economy causes the decline of trading classes and reduces the number of shopkeepers. The commodity producers and miners get competitive prices for their goods, by directly selling on line their goods worldwide. The manufacturers directly market their goods on line to the consumers, bypassing the middlemen and shopkeepers.

 

Decline of Marwaris and Traders

The Internet revolution causes the decline and eventual demise of the trading classes by allowing the producers and manufacturers directly sell to the consumers. In India, Bania castes and Marwaris would lose their economic dominance. In India Marwaris represent 1 percent of the population, but own and control more than 60 percent of the total wealth of India. On-line distribution channels would make Banias and Marwaris redundant in India.

 

Internet Revolution in Broadcasting:

Internet produces new economic goods in digital publications, printing, broadcasting, and telecommunications. Internet software reduces man-hours and produces better quality finished products and services. Internet TV, Internet Radio, Internet Publications creates new economic goods. Internet newspapers make print newspaper redundant. Internet radio giving big challenge to brick and mortar Radio stations. Internet is the divine successor to the telephony, television, radio, and newspapers.

 

Easy Dot Coms Easy Dot Go:

The recent market crash was a real crash. The financial earthquake has shaken the confidence of the Internet investors. Have Easy Dot Com become Easy Dot Go? The First Great Web Wipeout of 1996 lasted slightly more than one year, resulted when investors began to notice risks involved in buying shares of loss-making, limited revenue generating cyber companies with soaring stock prices.

 

Second Great Web Wipeout:

The 'Second Great Web Wipeout' of April 2000 resulted when investors noticed the growing cash burn rate against cash on hand, especially when the new market was no longer receptive to Internet IPOs. Investors noticed that less competent Cyber-CEOs having access to huge public capital, blowing it unproductively. The market underwent correction and proactive shareholders may attempt removing failed Internet CEOs. Internet is the most remarkable development since the advent of the industrial age. Internet continues to be the greatest wealth-generating machine in the history of the world, only when competent CEOs lead Internet companies. In war, bad generalship causes more defeats than smaller army does.

 

The greatest threat to the Internet revolution is the lack of practical business experience of the Internet CEOs. Vastly more companies have failed over the course of the Internet's six-year life span than have succeeded. To diffuse the Dot-Com Bomb and to avoid the Great Web Wipeout, the proactive shareholders should elect business savvy leaders as Internet CEOs. Shareholders should instruct Internet CEOs to invest high market evaluation and IPO cash-reserves, for either creating Internet infrastructure, or for doing real web business.

 

Rise of Russia as IT Power:

Russia is the IT star of the future. The Belgium and Portugal maritime empires fell before French and British maritime powers. Populous nations of United States, India and Russia, blessed with technically qualified educated populations would be economic super powers of the Information Economy. Indian business leaders will become wealthy in the Information Age. Russia will overcome its poverty by investing in the IT sector.

 

India as IT Super Economic Power:

Internet technology will fuel Indian economic growth to one-sixth of the world trade, GNP and GDP by 2015 AD. Professor Samuel P. Huntington, in Clash of Civilizations, quoted Paul Bairoch, that in 1750 AD, out of the world's total manufacturing output India accounted for 24.5%, China 32.8%, Western Europe 18.2%, Orthodox Russia 5.0% and Japan 3.8% of the output. (Paul Bairoch, International Industrialization Levels from 1750 to 1980, Journal of European Economic History, Fall 1982, 269-334) In Information Age India could again contribute 16 percent of world's GDP before the middle of 21st Century. Internet age is real and kicking and India would make the best use of it. The 21st Century is the Century of India, not that of China.

 

Great Mongol-IT Empires

The weakened Russian Bear would again become economic giant in the Information age. Nations blessed with large populations, and educated technicians cannot remain poor and underdeveloped in the Internet Age. The quality of mind, intellect, and education creates new wealth and new economic goods in the information age, even when their nations lack natural resources. Like the great Mongol Empire, the nomadic, pastoral, telecommuting service providers create self-sufficient economy, by dint of their Software expertise, to generate new wealth, far away from their homelands. Software engineers and mobile, nomad IT professionals would create global economic empires in 21st Century, to rival the Mongol Empires of 13th Century, created by nomad pastoralists.

 

Internet Revolution is Real:

Internet revolution is real and will survive the Bubble trouble of the stock markets. Dot-Com Bomb would bankrupt College-dropout led Cyber-companies in the Second Great Web Wipeout. Darwin's law of the survival of the fittest demands that cyber companies led only by best business leaders, who do real business via Internet. Internet age revolutionizes the means of distribution, causing the demise of the family owned shops and trading castes. Millions of shops would close down, and shopkeepers should learn IT services.

 

USA, India, Russia IT Super Powers:

United States and India are undisputed leaders in the Information age. China, Japan, and Korea would never become major players in the Internet economy. Russia would overtake Israel, Britain, and Ireland in Internet economy. Only countries with large educated populations can be economic leaders in the Internet Age. Overpopulation is an asset in Internet age.

 

Destiny of India and Internet linked:

India overtakes China in the Information age. Information technology age is the turning point in history. Indian software companies creating global economic empires, as nomadic pastorals Mongols created Mongol empires in the 13th century. The English language imposed during British rule catapulting India into super economic power in the Internet Age. Lack of natural resources not a drawback in the Information technology. Hindu tradition of Yoga and Brahmin emphasis on education shall eliminate India's poverty, making very rich nation in the world in 21st century. Destiny of India linked to the destiny of Internet, or its future evolution. United States and India are leaders in the information age.

 

6 (viii) Software Economy Creates Real economic Goods in Society.

Internet is the real turning point in human history. Knowledge in Internet creates new wealth and new economic goods in the society. Internet gives universal mobility. Wireless linked Laptop allows Information Technology (IT) professionals create self-sufficient economy of mobile Software factories. Wireless Internet connected, laptop equipped Internet experts remain productive even in uninhabited islands.

 

Internet Overwhelms Old Economy:

Internet provides mobility, mobile economic self-sufficiency and omnipresence by telecommuting. Internet Knowledge generates new economic goods. Knowledge and mind determines history more than the material forces in the Internet age. Educated overpopulation is great asset in the Internet age. The Internet enhances the role of knowledge, mind and populations. United States and India are leaders of Internet economy, as they alone have the large educated populations. United States and India are blessed with English and Mathematics-savvy large educated population. Rise of India as Information age super power not handicapped by lack of natural resources. The information economy represents the nomadic pastoralism. Internet economy represents the modern version of nomadic pastorals, as Software professionals produce knowledge-based products.

 

Market Cap of Cyber Stocks:

High market valuation of Internet companies is justified. Internet economy shall overwhelm the old economy. Information age has modified the art of War that forcing restructuring of US military-industrial complex. Millions of Indian Software professionals will create Internet empires. India and United States are economic leaders in the Information Age. Riding on Internet revolution, Indian economy will overtake that of China before 2015 AD. Only by investing in information economy, could Russia become prosperous again.

 

Remove Incompetent Business Leaders:

The success of knowledge-based Internet economy depends upon the quality of business leadership. The recent market crash that reduced US market capitalization by $ 5 trillion, jolts the shareholders to demand that the less-competent CEOs, accused of misdirecting IPO-rich Internet companies, be replaced. Loss-making Internet companies should undergo change of CEO to avoid recurrence of market crash. Internet economy has distinct military advantage over Old Economy. Cyber leader-general should realize the unique strategic advantage Internet enjoys. The quality of leadership plays greater impact on the fate of Internet economy, than in Old economy, because the knowledge is key to information economy.

 

Need for Higher Bandwidth:

Internet economy needs Internet infrastructure. Fiber optics laid along the railway tracks and high-tension electric wire grids, using their right of the way, creates Internet revenues for carriers of goods and electricity.

 

End of the Age of Shopkeepers:

The Internet is the greatest threat to the middlemen and trading classes in the society. Internet economy causes the decline of trading classes and reduces the number of shopkeepers. In India, Marwaris and Banias would lose their predominance in India economy due to Internet commerce.

 

Creating new goods without Resources

In information economy, real-economic activity takes place. Internet produces new economic goods in digital publications, printing, broadcasting, and telecommunications. Internet TV, Internet Radio, Internet Publications creates new economic goods. Internet newspapers make print newspapers increasingly redundant. Knowledge-goods and knowledge-services create new wealth without straining natural resources in the information age.

 

Recurrent Market Corrections:

The market underwent correction during recent market crash. Proactive shareholders may attempt removing failed Internet CEOs. Internet shall continue to be the greatest wealth-generating machine in the history of the world, only when competent CEOs lead Internet companies. The greatest threat to the Internet revolution is the lack of practical business experience of the Internet CEOs. Shareholders should instruct Internet CEOs not to squander high market evaluation and to invest cash-reserves, for creating Internet infrastructure and for doing real business transactions on the Web. Profitability not the web-hits should influence the market evaluation.

 

Internet Revolutionizing India:

The Internet explosion revolutionizes India. United States and India are blessed with technically qualified, educated population. Information industry is highly manpower industry. It makes India and United States economic super powers of the Information Economy. Indian Software companies have become wealthy in the Information Age. Internet age is real and kicking and India would make the best use of it.

 

Japan, Korea, China not IT Powers:

United States and India are undisputed leaders in the Information age, as they are blessed with English language and solid background in mathematics. China, Japan, and Korea cannot become major players in the Internet economy. Russia could overtake Israel, Britain and Ireland in Internet economy. Only countries with large educated population can become economic leaders in the Internet Age. Educated overpopulation is great asset in Information age.

 

Rising Indian Economic Giant:

Indian economy would overtake Chinese economy in the Information age. Information technology age is the turning point in history. Indian IT companies will create global economic empires, as nomadic pastorals Mongols created Mongol empires in the 13th century. English language imposed during British rule helps catapult India into super economic power in the Internet Age. Hindu emphasis on education and yoga guarantees that India remains leaders in decades to come. United States and India shall lead the information age.

 

6 (ix) Overpopulation & lack of natural resources no liability in Information Economy

Knowledge and mind determines history not the materialist forces. Information technology is labor intensive. Educated overpopulation is great asset in the Internet age. United States and India are leaders of Internet economy, as they have large English-speaking educated population, with solid background in Mathematics.

 

Russia blessed with the second largest pool of the skilled manpower in the world. Russia should invest in Software and Information technology, then Russian Software engineers could leapfrog over Israel, Germany, Britain, and Ireland. Russia then could join India and United States as leading information powers of the world. Software engineers create virtual information factories, which are not affected by nation's deteriorating Old economy.

 

Mobile Information Factories:

Internet gives universal mobility. Internet is divine Railway of the Information. Wireless linked Laptop allows Information Technology (IT) professionals create self-sufficient mobile Software factories. Wireless Internet and laptop equipped Software programmers remain productive even on uninhabited islands. Internet provides mobility, mobile economic self-sufficiency by telecommuting. Internet Knowledge generates new economic goods. Overpopulated nations, can create virtual software factories to produce information products, even when they lack luxury goods. Internet economy increasingly overwhelms the Old economy. Information economy is highly labor intensive.

 

Formidable India in Information Age:

India is formidable in Information technology, software and challenging USA. Millions of Indian Software professionals will create Internet empires. India and United States are economic leaders in the Information Age. Riding on Internet revolution, Indian economy will overtake that of China before 2015 AD.

 

Internet economy has distinct advantages over Old Economy, when led by leaders who realize the unique strategic advantage Internet enjoys. The knowledge and skills of Internet CEOs is crucial in success of Knowledge-based information economy.

Internet continues to be the greatest wealth-generating machine in the history of the world, only when competent CEOs lead Internet companies. The greatest threat to the Internet revolution is the lack of practical business experience of the Internet CEOs. Shareholders should instruct Internet CEOs to invest high market evaluation and IPO cash-reserves, for either creating Internet infrastructure, or for doing real web business.

 

New Economic goods in Information Age:

Internet produces new economic goods, and better services and products in digital broadcasting, publications, printing, and telecommunications. Internet TV, Internet Radio, Internet Publications creates new economic goods, and threatens the viability of newspapers, radio stations and cable networks. Internet age is real and kicking and India would make the best use of it. United States and India are undisputed leaders in the Information age. The Internet explosion revolutionizes India. Populous nations of United States, India and Russia, blessed with technically qualified educated populations would be economic super powers of the Information Economy. Indian business leaders will become wealthy in the Information Age. China, Japan, and Korea would never become major players in the Internet economy. Russia would overtake Israel, Britain, and Ireland in Internet economy. Only countries with large educated populations can be economic leaders in the Internet Age. Overpopulation is an asset in Internet age.

 

Indian economy would overtake Chinese economy in the Information age. Information technology age is turning point in history. Indian software companies would create global economic empires. The English language imposed during British rule helped catapult India into super economic power in the Internet Age. United States, India are super powers of the information age, and perhaps Russia would join them as the third member of the triad.

 

6 (x) Software not Hardware can revive Russian Economy

Large nations blessed with educated populations cannot remain poor in the information age, even its heavy industries stink. Knowledge and mind determines history in the Internet age, not the materialist forces. Educated population is asset in Internet age. United States and India are leaders of Internet economy, as they have the large educated populations. Russia also has the advantage large educated population. Russia boasts of second largest pool of skilled manpower, which once retrained in Information technology, would allow Russia overtake Israel, Germany, Japan, Korea, Ireland and Canada, in software development, because of its larger pool of skilled population. Software knowledge pool in Russia would resurrect Russian economy in Information age. President Putin should use scarce capital in developing Information technology and software development, rather than wasting it on loss making heavy industries. Russia could become prosperous only by aggressively following the Software, information technology route. Russians may not be efficient capitalist manufacturers, but face no handicaps in information economy.

 

Russian Software Prowess:

Russia should focus on Information technology and retrain Russians in software technology. Russia should realize that while it’s manufacturing sector is inefficient, its software engineers are competent and can help revive Russian economy. Internet gives universal mobility. Wireless linked Laptop allows Information Technology professionals create self-sufficient economy of mobile and virtual Software factories even in desolate Siberia. Internet provides mobility, mobile economic self-sufficiency, and omnipresence by telecommuting. Russian Internet economy would soon overwhelm heavy industry based Russian economy. India and United States are economic leaders in the Information Age. India is formidable in Information technology, software and challenging USA. Russia would emerge as big players in global Information economy. Millions of Software professionals will create Internet empires. Riding on Internet revolution, Russia will become prosperous again.

 

Support Software not Heavy Industries:

Russia should give free reign to Russian Software companies. Internet economy has distinct military advantage over Old Economy, but should be led by leader-general who realizes the unique strategic advantage Internet enjoys. Internet produces new economic goods in digital publications, printing, broadcasting, and telecommunication. Internet TV, Internet Radio, Internet Publications creates new economic goods. Internet newspapers make print newspapers increasingly redundant. Russia cannot become efficient producer of digital content in broadcasting and publications because of its authoritarian history.

 

Largest Pool of Technical Manpower:

Populous nations like, United States, India and Russia, blessed with technically qualified educated populations alone can be economic super powers of the Information Economy. Internet age is real and kicking and Russia should make the best use of Internet economy to expedite the dismantling of the inefficient heavy industry. Japan, China and Korea cannot become major Software powers, due to their lack of English language. Russia would overtake Israel, Britain, and Ireland in Internet economy. Only countries with large educated populations can be economic leaders in the Internet Age. Overpopulation is an asset in Internet age. Educated overpopulation allows the scalability of producing large number of software engineers to meet the increased demand. United States and India are leaders in the information age and Russia will join as third member of the software triad.

 

6(xi) Cyber Virus Weapons

Virus Vulnerability of wired-wireless Internet world

Love Virus is the world's first cyber warfare weapon. Love Virus focused on Microsoft Window/NT operating system and exploited the vulnerability of the Outlook to shut down computer systems round the world, including that of Microsoft and US Army. Global wireless Internet connectivity creates the wired world. The wired world is vulnerable to the Love Virus type computer worms. The Microsoft monopoly over installed operating system in computers created the domino effect and exaggerated the fatal flaw of the Outlook Program. The breakup of the Microsoft would enhance computer security worldwide.

 

Old Weapons are Dinosaurs:

Wireless Internet leapfrogging towards omnipresence. Very soon not only people will be able to surf the web everywhere, and Web will be able to surf the people all the time. Everything with electricity is having chips embedded in it - from telephones, beepers, pagers, toasters, refrigerators, washing machines, and cars- and connected to the networks. The GPS technology allows one to know, where they are with pinpoint accuracy. It also allows others to track their movements on real time basis. The new Mercedes has more computing power than the 747-200 plane and MIRV nuclear missiles.

 

VBS Script Worm:

No wonder that the 'Love Bug Virus' of VBScript worm category, launched by couple of computer students in Philippines caused more harm to the world and United States than was possible for the entire Filipino Army, Navy and Air force. Love Bug is the tip of the ice-burg. New knowledge-based mind weapons are underdevelopment by Cyber Warfare experts, to destabilize the wired-world during times of war.

 

Cyber Warfare Command Center:

US Cyber Warfare Command Center has been set up to protect United States against Cyber Warfare. General Henry H. Shelton publicly acknowledged that the United States played hacker itself earlier in '99 waging a keyboard war against Serbia computer networks. Pentagon has created a new military center to harness the nation's disparate cyber-warfare forces under the Air force Space Command at Peterson Air force base in Colorado Springs. The new command's first mission will be to coordinate the defense of the military's computer networks against foreign threats and cyber-terrorists. Soon after the mission will expand to include offense. Joint Task Force Computer Network attack, in Pentagon jargon, designed to conduct wartime military operations against computer networks in enemy countries. The addition of an information-war fighting capability to the Pentagon's quiver takes activities that have largely been confined to covert military and intelligence operations and makes them a part of the nation's military chain of command. The new center is a public acknowledgement that as the world's most technically advanced nation, the United States is the most vulnerable to foreign cyber-threats.

 

MS Windows Threatens National Security:

The Love Virus was not the work of someone real mature programmer. Love Virus has joined Melissa in the ranks of famous web maladies. Love Virus bug showed the structural weakness of the Microsoft Window monopoly. What government could not do a Filipino boy did? The computer software should be redesigned making them bug-proof, protecting them from cyber attacks of students. How would computers fare when generals of cyber warfare unleash premeditated attacks on the eve of the world war three. The Microsoft monopoly over Window O/S threatens the security of nations; thereby the dismantling Microsoft would be good for the society in general and improve computer security round the world.

 

Revolution of Free Internet Access:

Internet access shall become free. The Filipino student inadvertently launched the Love Virus aiming to steal pass worlds for Internet access, since one-hour Internet access costs one-day's wage in Philippines. Public markets cannot fund the large public offerings for companies like Freei Networks Inc. as it does not make economic sense. Prohibit large telephone companies from using public domain Internet backbone to route their telephone traffic, as it misuses the public domain Internet bandwidth for corporate profiteering. Free Internet access, universal 24-hour wireless Internet access would define the 21st century, allowing people to surf the Web everywhere, as well as allowing the Web to surf everyone everywhere.

 

6(xii) Love Virus Cyber Weapon exposes Achilles Heel of West

The graduation thesis of De Guzman and Buen created the world's first Cyber Weapon, as it attacked and incapacitated specific Microsoft Outlook program to destroy $10 billion worth data throughout the world. Love Virus is the first Mind Weapon deployed in the peacetime, and it exposed the Achilles Heel of the Western world. The dominance of the Microsoft could become the greatest security threat to the United States, as majority of US government computers use Microsoft O/S and Software. In the looming World War, the enemy might develop Microsoft-specific Super Cyber Weapon, to shut down Western corporate computers. Vulnerability of the Window O/S could be the vulnerable Achilles Heel of the West, with disastrous consequence in future World Wars. Knowledge-based weapons might make explosives-based weapons dinosaur of the 21st Century.

 

Cyber Achilles Heel of the West:

Filipino programmer Onel A. de Guzman, student of Amable Mendoza Aguiluz Computer College in Manila, inadvertently produced most lethal Cyber Weapon of the world. Love Virus specifically attacks Microsoft O/S and Outlook. Love Virus is a cyber weapon of VBScript worm category, designed by a distraught 23-year Filipino student, exposed the Achilles Heel of the Microsoft Empire and the Achilles Heel of the Western civilization. David Jerrell, who heads the U.S. government's FEDCIRC emergency team, acknowledged that the Love Virus was not the work of some one real mature. However, Love Virus caused more than $10 billion in damages and shut down many major computer networks. What if had happened on the eve of the third World War?

 

Monopoly of Windows O/S:

United States government should not exclusively use Microsoft Windows and at least more than 50 percent computer systems should use different operating systems. The monopoly of the Microsoft in the O/S threatens the national security of the United States. The automatic-e-mail function in the Microsoft Outlook is foolishly risky and threatens national security. A childish prank could bring down the monopolistic Microsoft's O/S, then what would happen if some enemy hires the best brains of the world to sabotage the Western computer networks on the eve of the Third World War. Microsoft monopoly is the Achilles Heel of the Western Civilization. Inherent weakness of the Microsoft Software could bring down the Western civilization in the Third World War. Filipino student's Love Virus exposed the feet of clay of the Wired Western World. Love Virus is no joke. Love Virus is the greatest threat to the western civilization. Cyber Weapons incapacitates the computer operating systems, rather than stealing information by Cyber espionage. One steals information in Espionage, and destroys information data and networks in information warfare. Love virus is the first Cyber Weapon of the 21st Century. Military industrial complex of the information would invest in manufacturing Cyber weapons, and save Pentagon wastage on weapon hardware.

 

Cyber Keyboard Warfare Center:

CYBER KEYBOARD WARFARE COMMAND CENTER: It is not known whether Love Virus had infected the computers at the US Cyber warfare Command Center at Colorado Springs. United States played hacker itself earlier in '99 waging a keyboard war against Serbia computer networks. Pentagon has created a new military center to harness the nation's disparate cyber-warfare forces under the Air force Space Command at Peterson Air force base in Colorado Springs.

 

The new command's first mission will be to coordinate the defense of the military's computer networks against foreign threats and cyber-terrorists. Soon after the mission will expand to include offense. Joint Task Force Computer Network attack, in Pentagon jargon, is designed to conduct wartime military operations against computer networks in enemy countries. The addition of an information-war fighting capability to the Pentagon's quiver takes activities that have largely been confined to covert military and intelligence operations and makes them a part of the nation's military chain of command. The new center is a public acknowledgement that as the world's most technically advanced nation, the United States is the most vulnerable to foreign cyber-threats.

 

NON-COMBATANTS ARE TARGETS.

Love virus made unsuspecting non-combatants primary targets. The big challenge keyboard warfare poses for the democratic societies are that it further blurs the line between military and nonmilitary targets. Cyber-warfare deliberately targets noncombatants. Frequently you are not going after a Government or military strategic target; you are going after utilities.

 

Economic Pearl Harbor:

ELECTRONIC PEARL HARBOR: Love Virus has shown that the market dominance of the windows made future electronic Pearl Harbor possible. Cyber War is the simultaneous computer network attacks against banking, transportation, commerce and military targets, as well as against the military. Cyber War specter conjures up the fear of an electronic Pearl Harbor in which the nation is paralyzed without a single bullet ever being fired. The military threat is going to be death by thousand cuts, rather than a giant cyber attack.

 

INFORMATION WARFARE POLICY: The challenge is to change a military culture that has fought wars with bombs and tanks into one that fights with bits and bytes. This ghost-in-the-machine threat is military's worst nightmare. The closed and secretive military organization would find it difficult to combat cyber-warfare. Preparing for cyber warfare will force the nation to rethink the way it fights wars.

 

ELECTRONIC MAGINOT LINES: Cyber weapons could sabotage the nuclear weapons. Military has been trained to fight nuclear wars where static defenses are fatal. However, in the information warfare we have to rethink everything. Building impenetrable electronic walls may be more effective tactics in cyber-warfare. The military concept of Electronic Maginot Lines would resurrect the military concept of static defense.

 

FACELESS ENEMY: Cyber enemy is a faceless enemy. Military commander should expect an attack that blocks access to his computer networks. He should assume that somebody who has approved access to military networks is working for the other side and still the commander should be ready to fight a war.

 

NATIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION: In Cyber Warfare involves the smuggling of codes designed to threaten United States’ economy and security. Malicious Code Changes modifications that could in future allow hackers future access to America’s computer systems. These codes have begun to surface in some U.S. work done by the foreign contractors. Perhaps the codes were introduced with an eye on future access to computer systems in order to threaten the United States' economic and security networks.

 

TRIBUTE TO FILIPINO CYBER WARFARE CAPABILITY: The Love Virus is a tribute to Filipino competence in Cyber Warfare. Cyber Warfare could determine the outcome of the Third World War. Third World should acquire the proven capability to crash and shut down Western computer system in event of the Third World War. Land powers can defeat Sea powers only when they have the upper hand in the Cyber warfare, and they would develop advance capability in Cyber Warfare. If the Third World can crash Western Computer systems in future war then Third World's victory in war becomes easy. Third World should set up a Cyber Warfare division and perfect Cyber Weapons of Mass Communications Destruction.

 

PLANTING MOLES IN COMPUTERS: Love Virus proved that planting mole in corporate computers as waste of time. It is quite easy for software programmer to code in ways of gaining future access or causing something to ‘detonate’ down the road. This could expose a company to future ‘denial of service attacks,’ open it to economic espionage or leave it vulnerable to malicious altering of data. Long-term consequences of outside software development could include more espionage and reduced information security. Hackers and cyber spies could review and make changes to the source code that runs information systems. These contractors could, undetected, do any of the following, to compromise the computer systems. Hackers and cyber spies could install trap doors, allowing intruders to later gain accesses to a system through an opening that they have created and then exploit or attack the computer systems. Hackers could steal passwords of the system administrator, allowing them to steal or alter information or engage in denial of service attack on the computer systems. Hackers could implant malicious codes, place logic bomb or time-delayed virus in a system that will later disrupt it. A malicious actor could also implant a program to compromise passwords or other aspects of system security. Computer hackers by mapping systems can gain valuable information to sell to economic competitors or even foreign intelligence agencies. Computer Systems compromised for any number of purposes including, foreign intelligence activities, information warfare purposes, industrial espionage, terrorism or organized crime. Hackers and cyber spies could gain access, steal from, or disrupt sensitive national and proprietary information systems.

 

CONCLUSION: In the Cyber War, enemy would be foolish to waste energy in planting codes in corporate computers, while simply simply replicating Love Virus type computer worms could sabotage entire western computer networks. Ottoman Turks used canons to blow apart the thick walls of the Byzantine Empire Fort of Constantinople. The software vulnerability of the Microsoft's Window/NT operating system exposed the Achilles Heel of the Western world. The wired network computer world, the western economic prosperity depends upon the breakup of the Microsoft, so that new companies may develop diverse O/S and reduce the dependence on Microsoft.

 

Product Recall of Windows O/S:

Would Bill Gates reimburse the loss caused by the vulnerable and faulty Outlook Program that he aggressively marketed? Philip Morris pays damages for the smoke cause injuries. Why should Bill Gate escape paying for the cost of damage incurred by his vulnerable Outlook Program, which maintains the automatic-e-mail function? Microsoft has become the greatest security threat to the Western Civilization, as it has imposed faulty software all over the world. Would Bill Gate replace the faulty Outlook program from all computers, just as General Motors and Ford recall faulty components and replace them at no cost to customers? Why should the recall of a PC component be different than recall of faulty car component?

 

Cyber Virus Plague May Destroy West:

West European invaders destroyed the peaceful civilization of Red Indians, Mayas, Aztecs and Incas, by spreading European diseases, Plague Virus. The indigenous population of North and South America in 1500 AD was one-fourth of the current world population, and they succumbed to the Western diseases. Perhaps the Love Virus type computer worm exposes the Achilles Heel of the West. The market dominance of the Microsoft allows the enemy launch the Window/NT-specific Computer virus to shut down western computer networks on the eve of Third World War. The West could lose the WW III, due to the market dominance of Microsoft. Computer Virus could prove to be the Computer Plague for the Western Civilization in the 21st Century. Would sworn enemy of the West avoid using the Computer Virus to sabotage Western computer networks on the eve of the War, out of moral considerations? If Computer Virus could be the Achilles Heel of the Western World, then enemy would definitely deploy cyber virus weapons during World Wars.

 

6(xiii) Filipino David Defeats Microsoft Goliath by Love Virus

Menace of Amateur:

Love virus not unleashed by enemy cyber warfare experts. However, Love virus exposed the military vulnerability of the computer-based weapon systems. The mighty Microsoft Window fortress breached through the backdoor of Outlook e-mail software. As Justice department noticed, Microsoft has a habit of its programs (and thus any attached viruses) access to the guts of its Window operating system- equivalent of leaving the key to the front door under the mat. Pentagon built US Cyber warfare Command Center at Colorado Springs to defend against cyber attacks and to launch cyber attacks on enemies. United States computer networks almost exclusively depend on Window/NT O/S. Love Bug virus exposed that computer experts built secure upper floors, and made it so that anyone could get in through the basement. The Filipino student Irene de Guzman and her friends at AMA Computer College in Manila shot down the college-dropout Bill Gate's Microsoft Outlook, in the proverbial victory of David versus Goliath battle of Biblical fame. Microsoft monopoly stilted innovation, produced vulnerable O/S and Windows vulnerability threatens the security of the wired computer networks worldwide. Should Microsoft order the worldwide recall of Outlook? American Civilizations of Incas, Mayas and Aztecs perished due to the Plague virus. The vulnerability of the Windows the predominant O/S in the Western world could turn out to be the Achilles Heel of the West in the future Cyber Wars in the wired world. Would future barbarian enemies exploit the vulnerability of the Windows/NT to defeat the West in the Cyber World Wars of the future?

 

Microsoft Failed to Stop Virus:

Even tech-savvy Microsoft could not fight off the love-bug. In the company's headquarters in Redmond, Wash., fliers warned that worm virus was rapidly spreading through Microsoft's internal e-mail system. Microsoft temporarily closed off its system to incoming e-mails. Since Microsoft has the hegemony on all operating systems, it has a responsibility to make its products more secure, otherwise consumers may file general class action legal claim against the company.

 

Vulnerable Microsoft Outlook:

Love Virus gives 'Microsoft Outlook' a bad name. The Love Virus was spread primarily through corporate e-mail systems, arriving as a message that included an attached file named "LOVE-LETTER-FOR YOU. TXT. vbs." The Love virus is in a category called a VBScript worm. The worm activated if the user opens the attachment. The Love worm copies itself to several Windows housekeeping files, called directories and the registry, MP3 digital music files, and artwork files ending with the letters "jpg" or "vbs." Then the Love worm tries to download a program named WIN_BUGFIX.exe, from a Web site, to copy passwords that are stored on the PC and e-mail them to Web addresses. The Love worm then uses Outlook to mass-mail everyone listed in the user's address book. It also spread by Internet Relay Chat. E-mail programs, other than Outlook also allow messages sent out automatically, without the user specifying the addressee. All e-mail programs are vulnerable.

 

Within 24 hours of the earliest infections, a new variation of the virus began spreading. It was identical to the first except that it sent e-mail with the word "joke" in the subject line and included an attached file named "VERY FUNNY." The Love worm searched the victim's hard drive for password files and sent them to an Internet account in the Philippines managed by Access Net Inc. The stolen password raises the possibility of future security breaches, if they landed at numerous Web addresses, either by design of by fault. The Love virus caused US Army and Navy, many governments, thousands of businesses Microsoft Corp., Ford Motor shut down their e-mail systems.

 

Microsoft Corporation, the Leviathan established by the college-dropout Bill Gates, finally met his match in other young student Guzman who failed to get his degree. Filipino David's software virus has defeated the American Goliath's dominant Windows and Outlook. It exposed the vulnerability of the wired western world. Computer vulnerability is the Achilles Heel of the Western world, as it could destroy the dominance of the Western civilization, as Plague virus destroyed the Incas, Mayas and Aztecs. Since Microsoft has the hegemony on all operating systems in the Western world, the vulnerable Windows/NT/ Outlook means vulnerable wired Western world, in the looming Cyber world wars.

 

Vulnerable Star War Weapons:

What is the use of Star War weapons and national missile defense? Why should enemy launch nuclear missiles at United States when launching computer virus could cause more damages to the Western world? The mutual vulnerability of the network computers, give birth to the doctrine of Virus deterrent based on Computer vulnerability and Virus Holocaust, similar to the Nuclear deterrent based on nuclear holocaust. Software economy overtaking hardware economy, similarly Cyber Virus weapons could become more lethal than missiles and tanks. Knowledge based weapons increasingly becoming more lethal than explosives based weapons. Internet allows global reach to mind-weapons or knowledge based weapons. Cyber warfare is a form of mind-warfare. Mind weapons may give a big push to evolution of the Homo Sapiens humans.

 

Virus as Weapon of Mass Destruction:

Love Virus computer worm warns Pentagon to avoid wasting money on expensive weapons procurement programs, as world is heading towards a new type of warfare. Many of the tanks, aircraft carriers and heavy weapon-platforms are dinosaurs of the 21st century. Semite David shot stones by sling, to defeat expensive heavy-armor protected giant Leviathan. United States lost Vietnam War, 25 years ago. Soviet Union lost Afghan War. Pentagon should study military implication of Love virus and Melissa virus. Pentagon should evaluate whether billions spent on outdated expensive weapon platforms and star wars make any sense. Slobadan Milosevic can grievously harm United States, if he hires the father of Love virus. United States played hacker itself earlier in '99 waging a keyboard war against Serbia computer networks.

 

Instead of prosecution, the Fathers of Virus deserves praise and handsome rewards for exposing the basic flaw of the Microsoft hegemony in operating systems. United States should employ, the creators of the Love Virus, at six-figure salary, as they have Cyber warfare virus-technology, more dangerous than nuclear weapon technology.

 

Flaw in the Information Platform:

Those who expose the flaw in the weapon-platforms deserve rewards and praise, not prosecution and jails. On the contrary, governments should prosecute the software and hardware manufacturers for introducing the vulnerable product, as the operating system. Would recall of the Windows 98, Windows 2000 and Windows NT save the world from computer vulnerability? Devastation caused by the Love Virus is the wakeup call to the Pentagon, to avoid wasting money on phantom weapons and Star War weapons, while the amateur Web virus exposed the Achilles Heel of the wired world. Greater Pentagon budget does not translate into greater security of the United States.

 

6(xiv) Age of Covert Operations

WESTERN EMPIRES & COVERT OPERATIONS: The Western Colonial Empires built by the covert operations of the private companies and daring individuals. Robert Clive built empire in Bengal by the covert operation in the Battle of Plassey, where he used the funds provided by the Millionaire Hindu trader to bribe the Vizier of the ruler, who stepped aside when the war began. Cortez took over the Maya and Aztez Empires in Mexico and Central America. Pizzarro conquered the Incas by deception. Cecil Rhodes created colonies in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and Zambia. British Empire built on the stratagem of Divide & Rule and the diplomacy of deception, newspeak and ruse. Prime Minister Blair declared the intention of Britain to recreate empires in the 21st Century, by adopting policy of deception and ruse and bribery.

 

CIA MORE EFFECTIVE THAN PENTAGON: Henry Kissinger argues in Diplomacy that during Cold War United States frequently encouraged military coups to overthrow the democratically elected government, and Washington considered covert operations more legitimate than military intervention. (p. 524) In the age of covert military operations and covert military coups, the America’s CIA became more effective foreign policy enforcer than the Pentagon. During Cold War the United States failed to secure any major military victory in war fronts, and it met inglorious defeat in the Vietnam War. The Nato air war on Yugoslavia, during Clinton Administration inflicted $30 billion in economic damages, but failed to dislodge Slobadan Milosevic. However, the $35 million CIA-led covert operations during Yugoslavian elections resulted in the defeat of the Slobadan Milosevic’s Party. The covert operations allowed the masses to destroy the vote counts and claim victory for its nominee. The CIA could easily bring down the government of Prime Minister Nawaj Sharief and install pro-USA regime of General Pervez Musharraf. The CIA is more effective in overthrowing the entrenched regimes than Pentagon. Every major power would require acquiring covert operations capability, to be able to encourage military coups, or public demonstrations to bring down the hostile governments. Such countries as lack the capability of covert operations and capability to stage coups and public uprising to bring down the hostile governments would be at great disadvantage over those that have this capability.

 

WILSONIANISM & COVERT OPERATIONS: The Soviet Union used brute force to impose Communist regimes over Hungary, Czechoslovakia and other surrogate powers in the name of Communist Solidarity and Brezhnev’s Doctrine. Wilsonian foreign policy of the United States accomplished the same goal by the covert operations and the CIA encouraged military coups. “The White House considered covert operations more legitimate than military operations.” United States accomplished by covert operations, what the Soviet Union accomplished by brute military intervention. Primary tool during the cold War for the covert operations was the CIA encouraged military coups and the CIA supported public rebellion to bring down the independent regimes and democratically elected governments. United States brought down the democratically elected governments of Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba of Congo, President Salvadore Allende of Chile, Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto of Pakistan, Prime Minister Nawaj Sharief of Pakistan, Prime Minister Mujibur Rahman of Bangladesh, Emperor Shah of Iran, Prime Minister Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia, and many more. New world powers should also develop the covert operations capability to bring down the foreign regimes by military coups, election campaign donations and violent public demonstrations. The covert military operations have become the legitimate diplomatic instrument to promote national interests worldwide. The covert military operations do not constitute acts of war, thereby escape condemnation by the world community. India should develop cover operations capability.

 

RAG TAG ARMY OF TERRORISTS GUERRILLAS: In the age of covert operations, rag-tag army of irregulars, private militia and privateers can effectively overthrow the governments. The covert operations of 30,000 rag-tag Christian Tutsi soldiers could take over Congo (Zaire) and install Kabila as the president by overthrowing the regime. The revolution in military technology, allows the private militia, to undertake covert military operations, without the need to undergo regular long-term military training. European colonial powers conquered the traditional armies in India, because the well-trained British troops backed by artillery proved more effective than the armies of the local rulers, which were not well trained. However, in the 21st century, the light weapons allow the privateers or draftees to become an accomplished soldier in very short time. The mobilization period is greatly reduced in modern non-mechanized infantry warfare. The draftees and privateers can easily learn the art of warfare and effectively use anti-tank weapons, mines against regular armies, in guerrilla warfare or terrorism warfare. Every major power should develop private Militia and the rag tag army of privateers to undertake global covert operations to promote national interests.

 

TERRORIST BUILT ISLAMIC EMPIRE: Islamic Empire in Syria, Egypt, Libya, Persia and India was built by terrorism. Bedouin terrorists stealthily attacked the isolated townships of the Egyptian and Syrian Christian Civilizations and conquered and looted them one by one. Bedouin settled down as immigrant nomads in the vicinity of the city they would conquer in future and then stealthily attacked them and looted them. Before the Islamic invasions of Zoroastrian Persia there had been great influx of the Muslims in Persia who settled in Persia seeking employment, much like the Arab terrorists that became residents in the West. Mohammad Bin Kassim cam and attacked India in very small band of troops and. Mohammad Gaznavi came though the uninhabited parts of Gujarat and attacked Somnath Temple and looted it. Mohammed Ghouri attacked India seventeen times and he was always defeated, but released by Prithviraj Chauhan, and when he won the battle he blinded and murdered Prithvi Raj Chauhan. The covert operations and guerrilla operations over the period of time succeed in overthrowing the civilizations. The Civilizations should never underestimate the military threat of the terrorist and guerrilla attacks as repeated attacks saps the morale of the Army.

 

DRUG TRADE FINANCES COVERT OPERATIONS

Global Drug trade finances the covert operations. President General Zia Ul Haq had allowed Pakistan’s Secret Services ISI to use the profits from drug trade to finance the covert operations of Pakistan’s Secret Services. Wahhabi terrorists finance global terrorist operations by heroin drug trade, and the incomes of the Sunni drug trade laundered through the financial institutions based in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf. The Wahhabi fundamentalism provides the legitimacy to the Wahhabi drug traffickers, who become respectable leaders in their communities. Global Cocaine & Heroin Drug trade generated for the organized crime more than $700 billion in 1997, half of which generated in the United States. The vast income of the drug cartel fuels the economic engine of the West and finances the covert operations of the western powers.

 

MINI WEAPONS OF TERROR WARFARE: The modern shoulder carried weapons are light but lethal and it makes terrorists formidable opponents of the regular troops. Modern army units must not underestimate the destructive potential of the weapons carried by the terrorists. The modern weapons do not require long term training and amateurs can easily learn to handle modern weapons. The terrorists may not be good enough to fight the regular wars with the regular troops but can inflict heavy casualties when they attack stealthily. Every major power must develop rapid deployment force of private Militia to undertake anti-terrorism and anti-guerrilla warfare operations in hostile environment, worldwide.

 

VIET KONG & AFGHAN GUERRILLA WARFARE: United States learnt the prowess of the guerrilla warfare in the Vietnam War. Soviet Union faced the wrath of guerrilla war in Afghanistan. The guerrillas in the Vietnam War motivated by the Communist ideology, and the guerrillas or Mujahideens in Afghanistan war motivated by the Wahhabi militant Islam. The ideological motivation of Communism and Islam transformed the individual guerrillas into well-knit fighting force, without the need of regular pays. The Heroin/Opium drug trade financed the Mujahideen militant Islamic operations. The moral of the story is that regular Army units are handicapped in fighting the guerrillas and terrorists, because morality doesn’t permit their use of excessive force against privately dressed guerrillas and terrorists. The terrorists are destroyed by creating a large anti-terrorism private Militia, authorized to use excessive force against terrorists, without bound the rules of War, which protects non-Combatants certain rights. In the War on terrorism the anti-terrorist Militia would respond by the rules of the terrorists to defeat the global nexus of terrorism, drug trade, and religious fundamentalism.

 

NEW AGE OF PRIVATE MILITIA: Great powers should legislate compulsory 5-year or 3-year Draft to develop a vast reservoir of well-trained Private Militia to undertake anti-terrorism military operations worldwide, to destroy the home base of the guerrillas and terrorists. The Private Militia should finance its salary by the principle of loot of the property of the supporters of the guerrillas and terrorists. The Private Militia wouldn’t be handicapped by the Rules of the War.

 

CIA & VATICAN COVERT OPERATIONS: During Reagan Administration President Ronald Reagan and Catholic Bishop of Poland entered into a pact to unite the resources of the Polish Catholic Church and the CIA to bring down the communist government of Poland, and it succeeded in doing so. During the Pontificate of Pope John Paul II the resources of the Vatican and the CIA joined to bring down the Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc. The CIA-Vatican Alliance was successfully repeated throughout Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union and it played a significant role in the downfall of the Communist Bloc and the end of the Cold War. The White House also permitted the CIA-Mecca Alliance to finance and train Islamic terrorists to wage wars on the Soviet Union. The CIA entered into alliance with fundamentalist anti-women Papacy as well as with fundamentalist anti-women Wahhabi Sect, which enhanced the political and diplomatic power of the Vatican and Saudi Arabia. Before the Wahhabi terrorist attacks of 9/11 United States turned the blind eye to the terrorist attacks undertaken by the Wahhabi terrorists worldwide. The Protestant United States diplomatically equally respected Wahhabi fundamentalists and Papal fundamentalists, before the 9/11 terrorist attacks.

 

INDIA’S OPTIONS IN COVERT OPERATIONS: Islamic militants on Sunday night, 11/24/2002, attacked the famous Raghunath Hindu Temple Complex in Jammu killing at least 10 Hindu worshippers and wounding more than 40. At least 35,000 people, by official estimates have died in the 13-year Islamic militant terrorist attacks in Kashmir. What are the covert operations options for India? What type of covert operations India should undertake worldwide to destroy the global network of Islamic terrorist which finances and fuels terrorist attacks in India? Should India hire 100,000 Northern Alliance Afghan warriors to take the war of Islamic terrorism deep in the Islamic world, to destabilize and overthrow such Islamic nations as finance and support terrorism? Should India develop anti-terrorism covert operations capability to destabilize the Islamic sponsors of Islamic terrorism in Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria to strike at the very home base and the source of terrorism? Should India develop anti-terrorism and anti-fundamentalism covert military operations capability to support modern Islamic regimes threatened by Islamic militancy, namely, Algeria, Egypt, Lebanon, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines? Should India train one million strong anti-terrorism Private Militia to undertake worldwide military operations against Islamic terrorists, from Central Asia, Russia’s Chechnya, North Africa, Southeast Asia and Sub-Sahara Africa? Should India authorize anti-terrorism Private Militia to encourage military coups to replace fundamentalist regimes by secular military dictatorships and to replace Shariah laws with Turkish secular laws? India should not limit its responses to Islamic terrorism only to Pakistan, but retaliate Islamic fundamentalist regimes worldwide in Arabian Peninsula and North Africa and Southeast Asia. Islamic terrorism is a global operation and requires global retaliation against all sponsors of Islamic terrorism. Let the sponsors of Islamic terrorism taste the pain their agents inflicted on other nations.

 

6(xv) Infrastructure Air Warfare

British Bomber Command during Second World War made economic and civilian infrastructure legitimate bombing targets, even when they were illegitimate according to laws of war. In the later years of the Second World War the inability of bombers to hit small strategic targets forced the adoption of tactics of mass destruction. There were 1,000-bomber raids on a single city, first directed at Cologne, fire raids of the sort unleashed on Hamburg and Berlin with incendiary bombing specially designed to cause uncontrollable fires and the 1945 carpet bombing of Dresden. This indiscriminate destruction of German cities involved Britain and the United States in a method of civilian-industrial infrastructure war making that had been condemned when adopted by Germany in 1940. The NATO air war on Yugoslavia focused on destruction of civilian industrial infrastructure. In 21st century the air war on civilian industrial infrastructure has become legitimate.

 

By the end of the Second World War, there was an uncomfortable feeling that strategic bombing of the civilian German targets was a campaign of which the Allies should not feel especially proud. The Dam Busters movie helped to divert the criticism. The film Dam Busters for a generation of boys was the film that defined what it meant to be an Englishmen. Its stars, Richard Todd and Michael Redgrave, had precisely that quality of square-jawed, understated heroism that had seen the British people through their darkest hours. Eric Coates’s Dam Busters March became a patriotic hit that is still a national favorite of Britain. For years it was the regular staple of British television. The Dam Busters is a social document about the 1950s Britain, when it was made, when Britain was desperate for heroes, as about the role of Englishmen in the war years. The story of Operation Chastise as told in Dam Busters has become part of the British folklore. Though the bombing raid of Operation Chastise on May 17, 1943 at dam in Germany, flooded thousands of homes and factories, it had little effect on the Nazi war effort. Electronic media has legitimized destruction of civilian industrial economic targets. American media domination allowed United States to justify the 68-day air war on Yugoslavia. Wahhabi terrorist hijackers took the clue and used fuel-laden passenger airline airplanes as manually guided cruise missiles to destroy the twin-towers the seat of American capitalism and cause more than $ 5 trillion economic damages to the US economy. Just as British boys feel proud of the civilian destruction shown in The Dam Busters, the entire Islamic world felt proud of the destruction caused by the 17 Arab Wahhabi airline hijackers from Saudi Arabia and UAE. To every Muslim in the Arab world, especially Saudi Arabia, UAE the sol called allies of the United States, the Wahhabi terrorists are honored as most honored Jihadis and their act became the foundation of the nationhood and patriotism in the Wahhabi Arab world. Just as Englishmen and Americans felt proud of air war on German Dams and cities during the Second World War and air war on Yugoslavia, the Wahhabi Arab fundamentalists felt pride in the destruction caused by 17 Arab Wahhabi hijackers on the economy of the enemy of Islam, the Untied States. So long the attacks on economic targets are a fair and legitimate in warfare, the terrorists attacks on the civilian targets becomes legitimate according to the laws of war. At the outbreak of the Third World War the civilized world must guard itself for series of 9/11 type attacks on civilian and economic targets. To the mindset of the Wahhabi Arab Islamic terrorist the attacks on any civilian, economic, industrial and transportation target became the legitimate act on the undeclared war underway between Sunni Islamic and Protestant Christian world in particular and the war between Barbarians and civilizations in general.

 

6(xvi) Pentagon’s Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA)

Weapons in New Age of Digital Warfare

To arm for digital-age war, the Pentagon has turned to a new generation of defense contractors. The hardware is impressive. It's also deadly. Mechanized warfare is dead in the 21st Century, because of the revolutionary technology of Precision Guided Munitions. The military contractors that made equipment for mechanized warfare are the dinosaurs of the military industrial complex. The recent M&A activity in the defense contractors, managed to hide the fact that lots of their plant assets should be scrapped. The RMA doctrine uses cutting-edge military technology for waging faster, lighter, smarter warfare combat. The Pentagon’s new doctrine RMA, for "revolution in military affairs," made possible not just by fresh thinking in the Pentagon but also by a subtle shift in the ranks of Pentagon’s defense contractors. American armed forces go to war the nature of the battle will be unlike anything the world has ever known. Afghanistan War provided only a glimpse of the latest generation of high-tech weaponry. A major assault by combined American forces will provide a full demonstration of the military's new doctrine of faster, lighter, smarter warfare combat in which cutting-edge technology becomes U.S. troops' deadliest weapon.

 

Digital Military Industrial Complex

United States needs a new military industrial complex. In building its new high-tech arsenal, the United States has also created a new military-industrial complex. The old one hasn't disappeared, of course, though many of its plant assets should be scrapped. Following a round of consolidation during the 1990s, traditional contractors like General Dynamics (GD), Lockheed Martin (LMT), Northrop Grumman (NOC), and Raytheon (RTN) still command large chunks of the funds budgeted for new weapons, which amount to $69 billion in 2003 alone. Technological revolution changes the very nature of warfare. Weapons become obsolete and weapon platforms become obsolete at fast pace. But the innovation that underpins high-tech warfare comes increasingly from companies that aren't widely known for defense work or even widely known at all. One was originally founded to build nuclear power plants. Another is best known for having once made Mason jars. Brand-name technology companies like IBM (IBM) and Hewlett-Packard (HPQ) have ramped up their defense businesses to provide electronics for some of the military's most sophisticated systems. In a dangerous world, the newcomers' weapons serve a grim, if necessary, purpose. But they also offer further proof of technology's power to change even the most hidebound institutions.

 

New Infantry in Land Warfare

The Precision Guided Munitions, anti-tank PGMs caused the end of the age of tanks and end of the age of mechanized warfare. The transformation of the U.S. military triggered an identity crisis for American infantry. The PGMs and UMVs have replaced the Marines as the first line of attack. Though still the first to hit the beaches, the heavily armored forces fielded by the Army and the Marines were largely left on the sidelines during several recent conflicts, as strategists placed greater emphasis on precision-guided munitions and unmanned planes. As speed and stealth take precedence over size and weight, U.S. land forces are modifying their arsenal accordingly.

 

Tactical High-Energy Laser (THEL).

Tactical High-Energy Laser (THEL) One of the biggest duds of the Gulf War was the Patriot antimissile system, which failed to destroy many of the Scuds that Saddam Hussein lobbed at Israel and at U.S. troops. The Pentagon has since teamed up with Israel to try a different approach to disabling missiles: Frying them with high-energy lasers. (THEL) locks onto missiles with a swiveling laser projector that looks like a giant spotlight; the heat-generating laser beam causes incoming missiles to self-destruct. In tests, the THEL has brought down more than 25 missiles and even halted an artillery shell. Subcontractor Ball Aerospace & Technologies, a $491 million division of container manufacturer and former canning-jar maker Ball Corp., built the system that keeps the laser locked on targets closing in at 1,000 mph. Ball Aerospace & Technologies (BLL) made the targeting system for the $250 million Tactical High-Energy Laser system, that would shoot down incoming Patriot missiles by frying the electronics of the incoming missiles in the atmosphere. Total cost of the system is around $250 million per installation. Ball corp, the former Jar maker made its target acquisition system.

 

SoldierVision.

Sci-fi's X-ray vision now has a real military world equivalent. The handheld SoldierVision device emits low-power radio pulses that penetrate walls up to 30 feet away, emitting unique patterns as they bounce off concrete, wood, and human skin. SoldierVision analyzes the patterns to create a color-coded "picture" of a room's contents unarmed civilians or an ambush, for instance. Built by Time Domain, a Huntsville, Ala., firm that holds patents on several ultra-wideband technologies, the first SoldierVision units were delivered to the Army in October 2002. It costs less than $30,000 per handheld, and Time Domain makes this handheld surveillance device, using several of their ultra-wideband technologies. It costs  $29,500 per handheld, made by Time Domain and it is a Handheld surveillance device for scanning the contents of the rooms through walls up to 30 feet away, much like the super Man’s X-Ray vision.

 

Stryker Interim Armored Vehicle

The Army's M1 Abrams main battle tank weighs almost 70 tons. But to meet its goal of being able to move a brigade of 3,500 soldiers and their armor anywhere in the world within 96 hours, the Army needs a leaner machine. The Stryker interim armored vehicle will get the job done for now, at least. At 19 tons, it fits in a standard transport plane. Stryker comes in two main variants: a mobile gun system with a 105mm cannon, and a troop carrier that can move 11 soldiers at 60 mph for 300 miles. Contractors General Motors and General Dynamics turned to Kongsberg Protech, a small Norwegian defense-technology firm, for the vehicle's weapons station. Kongsberg's system allows troops to fire the Stryker's machine guns and grenade launchers and repair common breakdowns without ever leaving the armored interior. Stryker Interim Armored Vehicle costs $1.5 million per vehicle, and its weapons control system built by company Kongsberg Protech.

 

Air Warfare Digital Weapons.

The joystick warrior has come of age. The videogame-style air campaigns that dazzled CNN viewers during the 1991 Gulf War were a prelude to the dramatic innovations in precision-guided munitions, stealth technology, and unmanned drones that have come since. The ability to drop smart weapons on enemy forces from the air has now become a signature element of U.S. strategy. For the foreseeable future, it's also likely to provide American forces with a decisive military advantage.

 

F/A-22 Raptor.

The Raptor is an entirely different bird of prey. Designed by Boeing, General Dynamics, and Lockheed Martin, the Raptor's composite-and-titanium construction provides agility and stealth. Twin 35,000-pound-thrust engines can cruise beyond the speed of sound without fuel-guzzling afterburners. The Raptor packs six Amraam air-to-air missiles, mounted internally to avoid disrupting the ultrasmooth profile that hides the plane from radar. The missiles launched by hydraulic arms that hurl them away from the jet so quickly that the weapons-bay doors pop open for less than a second. The first Raptor squadron won't officially reach combat readiness until 2005, but the planes are likely to make a cameo appearance in any earlier conflicts including Iraq, if needed for critical under-fire testing. The Raptor's missile-launching mechanism is made by EDO, which specializes in communications gear and composite structures; the contract could be worth as much as $1 billion over the Raptor's planned 40-year service life. Raptor’s missile launching system costs $100 million per plane, which is built by EDO (EDO), which built the Vertical ejector for air-to-air missiles.

 

JLENS Airborne Anti-Cruise-Missile Radar.

Ground-based radar has difficulty seeing cruise missiles that hug the terrain. Airborne radar is better, but there are rarely enough planes in the sky to provide comprehensive coverage. A high-tech blimp can fill the gap. Properly speaking, the Joint Land Attack Cruise Missile Defense Elevated Netted Sensor is really an aerostat an unpowered blimp. Some 230 feet long and filled with nonflammable helium, each radar-equipped JLENS floats as high as 15,000 feet. Built by TCom, a Maryland-based firm whose entire business is unmanned airships, some JLENS variants can keep a 3,500-pound payload aloft for 30 days and survive 100 mph winds. Others fit in a truck and require a crew of only two. The JLENS, the High-tech blimp anti-Cruise Missile Radar, costs $130 million per installation, and built by the company Tcom, which makes these Military blimps.

 

MQ-9B Predator B Hunter-Killer.

Since its debut over Bosnia in 1995, the Predator unmanned aerial vehicle. (UAV) has been the centerpiece of the U.S. effort to develop robotic weaponry. Predators originally used only as spy planes, but fitted with a Hellfire laser-guided missile, they've gone on to destroy al Qaeda targets in Afghanistan and Yemen. Coming soon: the Predator B, which can carry 14 Hellfires or six 500-pound smart bombs. The Predator also can launch swarms of mini UAVs that look like engorged metallic dragonflies. Predators are built by San Diego-based General Atomics, a former nuclear-energy division of General Dynamics that was spun off in 1955. It costs  $7.8 million per drone, and built by company General Atomics, which makes these unmanned planes.

 

Sea Warfare Digital Weapons

The days of opposing warships slugging it out on the high seas are probably gone for good. The U.S. fleet is now tailored for coastal, or "littoral," operations, in which ships attack targets on land or in the air. But ships are also taking on an entirely new mission: serving as vital nodes in the Pentagon's information network. Instead of supporting national interests through gunboat diplomacy, Navy vessels increasingly act as floating platforms for the collection and distribution of real-time intelligence.

 

Phalanx MK-15 Fire control System

Upgraded Phalanx MK-15 Close-In Weapons System. The Phalanx is a last-ditch defense to protect Navy surface ships from fast-moving cruise missiles, aircraft, or attack boats. Introduced 25 years ago, the Phalanx is a robotic Gatling gun that sprays a wall of 20mm cannon shells at incoming threats. To contend with smarter cruise missiles and radar-evading aircraft, Brashear, a Pittsburgh-based optics specialist, created a new infrared fire-control system for the Phalanx, giving it the ability to lock onto a missile skimming over the water at nearly the speed of sound. Brashear lost $100 million in 10 years when it was owned by Swiss defense firm Contraves, but former Nextel (NXTL) chairman William E. Conway Jr. bought the company in 1997 and turned it around. Brashear earned $2 million in 2001 on sales of $30 million. The new infrared fire-control system for Phalanx costs $5 million per installation, and built by company Brashear, which made this Fire-control system

 

T-AKR Strategic Sealift Ships.

One of the best tools in the military's quest for quickness is a floating parking garage. The Navy's new Bob Hope- and Watson-class ships can each carry about 50 tanks and 900 heavy vehicles. Inside, the ships feature seven cargo levels connected by ramps and elevators that greatly speed unloading. Though huge, the ships require a crew of just 26 and sail at 24 knots. Units of General Dynamics and Northrop Grumman built the boats, but the Navy outsources their operation to Maersk Line and Patriot Contract Services. Maersk's five-year contract to run the Bob Hopes could top $400 million. The ship’s automatic ramps and elevators costs $200 million per ship and built by company Maersk Line, Patriot Contract Services, and this component called the Ship management and operations, similar to floating parking garage.

 

Arleigh Burke-Class, Flight IIA Destroyer.

At 509 feet long, the Navy's new Arleigh Burke-class destroyers are small compared with the hulking battleships of World War II. But they pack far more wallop. Called Flight IIA, the new ships carry Tomahawk missiles and minesweeping helicopters, yet their most sophisticated system is the latest version of the Aegis radar, which coordinates simultaneous attacks against ships, submarines, aircraft, and missiles. Most impressive, the Aegis was built largely from commercial technology: 129 IBM and HP computers running off-the-shelf operating systems like HP-UX and PowerMax. The US Navy has saved millions of dollars, by buying HPQ-IBM Joint venture the radar electronics. Northrop Grumman plans to deliver the first destroyer equipped with the new Aegis radar, the USS Pinckney, in April 2004. The radar electronics would cost $900 million per ship, and built by Hewlett-Packard (HPQ), IBM (IBM), which would supply next-generation radar electronics, for the Arleigh Burke Class destroyers.

 

Space Warfare Digital Weapons

The weapons here on earth fire the bullets, but the hardware in space steers the battle. Satellite networks allow allied forces to communicate, spy on enemies, and locate friends and foes to accuracies of within a few yards. Without them, many of the U.S. military's most formidable weapons would be useless.

 

Bandwidth Satellites

The new military devours bandwidth. A single Global Hawk unmanned spy plane needs 500 megabits per second to transmit high-resolution video footage. (That's enough bandwidth to transmit the collected works of Shakespeare in a fraction of a second.) The Pentagon operates two constellations of communications satellites, both of which were built by Lockheed Martin. The government's birds have been overwhelmed by the demand for connectivity, however, so the Defense Department has tapped the commercial satellite industry, leasing capacity from companies that normally beam Disney (DIS) and BBC programming to remote corners of the world. Most of the Pentagon's business goes to Intelsat, a privately held firm that was originally formed in 1964 as an intergovernmental venture involving nearly 150 countries. That has generated some controversy: Among Intelsat's shareholders are potential U.S. foes such as Iraq and Iran. High bandwidth Satellites costs $200 million per satellite, and built by company Intelsat, and is a type of Commercial satellite operations

 

SBR Surveillance Satellite.

Conventional spy satellites use high-resolution cameras that distinguish a Ford Explorer from a Toyota Camry while flying 400 miles above the earth. But the cameras can't tell whether a target is moving, and easily blinded by clouds or darkness. The space-based radar (SBR) program addresses those shortcomings with a constellation of 24 high-flying satellites that use radar pulses to track moving objects anywhere in the world, in any weather, and to beam data directly to commanders. Though a full fleet of SBR satellites won't be operational for at least six years, Spectrum Astro of Gilbert, Ariz., has been awarded a contract to design an early prototype. Spectrum specializes in building a satellite's "bus" its payload-carrying body. Owned by its 430 employees, Spectrum has grown its revenues from $18 million in 1996 to $154 million in 2002. The SBR Satellite costs $750 million per satellite, and built by company Spectrum Astro, which makes the Satellite chassis, the bus to carry the payload of the satellites.

 

GPS IIR Satellites

Operated by the Air Force, the Navstar constellation of global positioning system (GPS) satellites is the military's best-known space system. Initiated in 1978, Navstar consists of 27 satellites that provide military and civilian users with extremely precise time and velocity information to pinpoint positions within a few meters. Lockheed Martin's new GPS IIR satellites give Navstar a second civil signal and two super-precise military signals, while also improving overall signal strength. Behind many of the enhanced capabilities is a new waveform generator from ITT Industries, of White Plains, N.Y. The generator boosts the satellites' signals; in conjunction with software that allows the satellite to reconfigure signals while in orbit, the added power makes it more difficult for enemies to jam the GPS network. The GPS component per satellite system costs $40 million per satellite, and supplied by company ITT Industries (ITT), which makes the High-powered amplifier Network component for the Navstar GPS satellite.

 

New Digital Information Network

The central component of the Pentagon's new war-fighting doctrine isn't a weapon at all, but an information network. The military wants to tie together every scrap of incoming intelligence to create a comprehensive picture of the battlefield that can be shared by different military branches or combat units in real time. Achieving that will take years, but the basic theory behind network-centric warfare is simple: When every soldier becomes a part of the network, the network itself becomes more lethal than the sum of its parts.

 

Pocket-Sized Forward Entry Device (PFED)

The PFED is a handheld computer created specifically for use by forward observers -- the stealthy scouts who take up positions near enemy lines to coordinate air strikes. The devices are equipped with special software that completes the complex calculations needed to determine the exact position of a target. The PFED stems from a partnership between General Dynamics and Florida-based Talla-Tech, which makes the heavy-duty electronics. Built using many off-the-shelf components to reduce costs and ensure ready availability, the PFED incorporates the motherboard, display, and other electronic parts of an HP iPaq h3900-series PDA.The PFED costs $2,300 per handheld, and built by company Talla-Tech, and is a Military handheld computer.

 

Combined Arms Tactical Trainer (CATT)

It takes practice to master coordinated air, sea, and land attacks, but "combined arms" exercises are hugely expensive and can sprawl over thousands of square miles. CATT provides a reasonable substitute, allowing hundreds of soldiers to hone teamwork skills in a network of combat simulators. Occupying a building the size of two football fields, a version of CATT is already operational in Britain, with real-time data links to a similar facility in Germany. CATT can be intensely realistic tank crews see detailed 3-D terrain through periscopes, and foot soldiers step out of their simulated armored vehicles to fight using a "dismounted infantry" simulator. Sound like a huge videogame? No surprise. Hard-core gamers are already familiar with Quantum3D's high-powered PC graphics cards, but many of the company's most powerful systems end up in CATT. The Computer Image generator CATT costs $544 million and built by Quantum3D.

 

RC-135 Rivet Joint Upgrade

Think of the Rivet Joint as an airborne National Security Agency listening post. Rivet Joint aircraft carry signals-interception technologies that allow the crew of as many as 31 analysts, technicians, linguists, and code-breakers to eavesdrop on the enemy. The Air Force's 17 Rivet Joints are built around Boeing 707 airframes first flown 40 years ago, but the planes have received new electronic systems developed by L-3 Communications. The L-3 upgrades integrate data from the aircraft's avionics, global positioning receivers, Doppler radar, and antenna arrays that reportedly can pick up faint radio signals from 300 miles away; they then channel that information to a series of crew workstations equipped with interchangeable flat-panel displays. The entire RC-135 fleet should be upgraded by 2005. The airborne listening posts, the Rivet Joint upgrade costs $31.5 million per aircraft and built by company L-3 Communications, and is the Electronics upgrades and integration, which can pick up faint signals 300 miles away.

 

6 (xvii) New Warfare Cyber Age

Defeat of Fundamentalism in Internet Age

Biblical David killed giant Leviathan with simple sling and stones. Mongol light-cavalry defeated heavy-armed cavalry of Iran, and Europe to create Mongol Empire. Precision Guided Munitions, smart bombs and smart anti-tank missiles have ended the age of tanks, age of mechanized warfare, the age of aircraft carriers and the age of stealth bombers. Mergers of large defense contractors does not hide the fact that larger military manufacturers would write of their heavy investments in plants that manufactured tanks, aircraft carriers, mechanized weapons platforms and expensive Bombers. Pentagon cannot afford to purchase expensive weapons programs just to keep the military contractors in business. Catholic nations would lose the War of Religions against Hindus, and Buddhists in the Information Age. Current economic predominance of the Western world fails to produce military victories on the battlefield in the information age.

 

Impending Bankruptcies in Arms Industry:

The revolution in information technology and precision-guided munitions would bankrupt many large military contractors worldwide. Many components made by information telecommunication companies, like Motorola would find greater military usage. The military contractors of future shall be smart, lean and experts in information technology. Expensive weapons would become obsolete in the Internet age.

 

Rise of Smart Weapons:

Information technology and Internet revolutionizes the designs of weapons. Large, bulky and expensive weapons would become militarily ineffective very soon. Many large military arms manufacturers would write off substantial investments. Many arms manufacturing plants shall become obsolete. Military Industrial complex will undergo drastic change in the wired world. The companies manufacturing tanks, mechanized warfare platforms and aircraft carriers will find fewer Pentagon orders. Future weapons will be smart weapons and incorporate information technology.

 

Students Become Soldiers:

Future army would recruit technicians and engineers to wield high-tech Precision Guided Munitions. Universities will become integral part of the defense. University classrooms would be set up on the battlefronts and student draftees would form the core of Super Soldiers. PGMs herald the end of the Age of tanks, mechanized warfare, aircraft carriers and stealth bombers.

 

Rise of Cyber Weapons:

Cyber-Warfare will become prominent instrument of warfare in the 21st Century. The Internet wired world has truly become vulnerable to the mind-developed weapons, more than tanks and guns. The Love Virus supposedly unleashed by 23-year-old Filipino student caused more harm in the world and United States, than possible by entire Filipino army, navy and air force. US Cyber Warfare Command Center has been set up to protect United States against determined Cyber Warfare. Cyber menace is real and grave. Computer virus and Internet worms are legitimate weapons of warfare.

 

Rise of Precision Guided Munitions:

Internet has transformed the art of War. Internet age has catapulted infantry into the center-stage of the warfare and ended the age of Sea Powers. The GPS technology, wireless Internet connections, pagers and cellular telephones created new breed of Super Soldiers. The GPS guided Precision Guided Munitions and smart missiles made aircraft carriers, tanks, and mechanized warfare platforms vulnerable to anti-ship missiles.

 

End of the Age of Tanks & Carriers:

Internet heralds the end of the age of aircraft carriers, end of the age of tanks, end of the age of mechanized warfare, and end of the age of stealth bombers. The military industrial companies, the manufacturers of Tanks, and aircraft carriers would lose Pentagon dollars. The wireless connectivity components made by Motorola finding numerous military applications. Internet restructures military-industrial complex. Future weapons platforms and PGMs use information technology.

 

In the information age, high-tech PGM weapons require educated soldiers. University draftees could continue their higher education even from the battlefields. The Laptop equipped software professionals, have the mobility and economic self-sufficiency of the nomad pastoralists. Mongols created Empire by exploiting the military mobility of nomadic pastoralism, against agricultural societies tied to their lands. Similarly, software professionals moving out of India create global software-companies. Student armies would combine educational and military roles from the battlefields. It would give birth to shoulder carried, light, lethal precision-guided munitions. Student warriors would become the Super Soldiers of the future. University classes would move to the battlefront. Internet technology equipped weapons better handled by students than less-qualified regular soldiers did.

 

Overpopulation is an asset in the Internet age. The Internet enhances the role of knowledge, mind and populations. United States and India would be leaders of Internet economy, as they alone have the large educated populations. Russian software engineers would overtake Israel, Britain, Ireland, and Germany, because of larger educated population base of Russia.

 

WIRELESS GADGETS OF WAR: When soldiers tap the Net while they are on the move-whether via Web-enabled cell-phones or Palm-style devices- location matters. In concert with the wireless networks, the wireless gadgets have the potential to figure out where the soldier is and put that information to military use. It allows smaller military expeditionary units to penetrate deep into the enemy territory, deserts, jungles, mountains, and islands without getting lost, and the military command can track their movements on real time basis. The command can make suitable supply drops and guide advance troops towards the supply drops. It would enhance the role of infantry soldiers and transforms PGM equipped elite soldiers into mobile weapons platforms and mobile smart bombs. The military Web centers can plan and map the moves of the Super Soldiers equipped with wireless Web-enabled cell-phones and Palm style devices.

 

6(xviii) Decline of US Sea Power

The recent advances in military technology, developed by American military-industrial complex would end the Age of Sea Powers and herald the new Age of land Powers. The nuclear weapons and the Missile Age undermined geographical advantage of maritime seaports. The Precision Guided Munitions, and intelligent -missiles allows land powers to sink expensive aircraft carriers. Aircraft carriers would no long dominate the Seas. United States Navy would fail to defeat Chinese invasions of Australia, New Zealand and Indonesia. Chinese anti-Ship missiles, supplied by Russia, equipped by latest United States miniaturized nuclear warhead designs, stolen by Chinese Spies allows China to occupy Australia and resettle 500 million Hans in Australia, New Zealand and Indonesia. United States cannot defend Australia without resorting to nuclear weapons. The territorial gains, which the white West European Sea Powers made after 1500 AD, would be reversed. Western Sea Powers would be vulnerable to the precision-guided-munitions of the populous Asian Land Powers. India, China and Russia equipped by nuclear weapons, Precision Guided Munitions, intelligent missiles, and armed light mobile super Infantry, would challenge the dominance of the Western Sea Powers. This is the argument the author makes in this section.

Sinking US Aircraft Carriers

NEW TECHNOLOGY HELPS RISE OF HINDUS: The recent advance in Precision-Guided Munitions helps the rise of Hindu India, which is a land power. Hindu civilization is a land power. The PGM’s allow India to sink US aircraft carriers. India can transform Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea, and Persian Gulf into Indian Lakes by threatening to sink any hostile battle carrier groups, naval fleets, frigates, in Indian Ocean region.

Cannon-Armed Sea Powers

CIVILIZATION’S WAR TECHNOLOGY: Development of new weapon technology results in the rise and fall of civilizations. The development of cannons resulted in the Muslim conquest of Byzantine Empire and Hindu India. The development of cannon-armed ships allowed European powers to enter the coastal waters of foreign powers, could engage and either destroy or drive off enemy vessels. Cannon-armed ship was able to project fire ashore. The cannon permitted the Europeans to go where they wanted and do what they wanted. The cannon completely tilted the balance of force at sea. Cannon-armed ships and guns built the European colonial Empires. The guns allowed Europeans to conquer natives armed with spears and swords.

End of the Age of Ballistics

THE FUTURE OF WAR: George & Meredith Friedman argued in the Future of War that the Age of Ballistics is ending. World is entering a fundamentally new period, the Age of precision-Guided Munitions (PGMs). The smart weapons will antiquate the traditional way of making war. The new projectiles are precise and lethally efficient, where guns and artillery are inherently inaccurate. While ballistic weapons platforms need to come within range of the battlefield, PGMs can devastate from any distance.

Precision Guided Munitions

PRECISION GUIDED MUNITIONS REVOLUTION: Precision Guided Munitions differ from other munitions, in one fundamental respect. Traditional munitions once fired were under the control of the laws of gravity and ballistics. In contrast, precision-guided munitions can correct their course after it is fired. Whether guided by their own sensors and computers or by human control, precision-guided munitions transformed the statistical foundations of war and with it the calculus of both military and political power. Where previously it would have been necessary to fire thousands of rounds to destroy a target, now it only takes a handful.

PGMs: History's Turning Point

PGMs A TURNING POINT IN HISTORY: Precision-Guided Munitions ranks with the introduction of firearms, the phalanx, and the chariot as a defining moment in human history. The phalanx catapulted Greece to glory. The war chariot gave us the Persian Empire. Europe conquered the world with the gun. Each weapon defined not only the manner in which wars were waged but also the very texture of human history. (Future of War, p. x) The Precision-Guided Munitions and smart projectiles will end the age of Sea Powers and shift the balance of power in favor of continental Land powers of Eurasian landmass. PGMs will result in the rise of India as a global land power and decline of United States as a Global Sea Power.

Ending US Oceanic Domination

THREATS TO AMERICAN DOMINATION OF SEA: The revolution in warfare has strengthened the United States on land and in the air. Paradoxically, the same revolution in warfare that has increased the American power on land and air threatens to decrease American power at sea. On land and in the air, the United States is the strategic aggressor. At sea, on the other hand, the United States is a defensive power. Unfortunately for the US Navy, the revolution initiated by American air and land forces is inevitably sweeping out to sea. The world’s navies deploy weapons systems that permitted precision air strikes against Iraqi as well as Serb forces and permitted outstanding antitank weaponry on the ground. However, instead of strengthening the strategic position of the United States Navy, the Precision Guided Munitions threaten the US Navy.

End of Pax Americana

The Pax Americana, in place at sea since 1945, might well be threatened or undermined as American Naval weapons platforms become vulnerable by PGMs. The force multipliers that benefited the United States in Eurasia seemed to turn against it at sea. There are increasing signs that the carrier battle groups are heading towards senility. The aircraft carriers are heading to the point where the cost of merely keeping them alive is undermining the general capacity of the United States to carry out its strategic mission. The revolution in smart weapons is rapidly moving the US naval fleets in that direction. The revolution in precision weapons allows the United States to engage and defeat much larger air and land forces. However, this ability is meaningless unless United States can also project its forces across the oceans and supply and sustain them there. The United States, like Britain is at root a naval power. The revolution in smart weapon PGMs allows the Land powers to undermine the domination of the sea by the Sea powers.

End of Aircraft Carriers

END OF THE ERA OF AIRCRAFT CARRIERS: The United States was the master of the maritime airpowers because of its aircraft carriers, a weapon the soviets tried, but failed to emulate. The operational role of the aircraft carriers had less to do with the sea-lane control than with transporting airpowers to Eurasian shores. The threat facing the aircraft carriers is the long-range, hypersonic missile. These missiles will penetrate the carrier’s defenses and sink them. The missiles will do the carrier’s job of bombing enemy installations more efficiently and more cheaply. Missiles can deny the merchant ships the freedom of using sea-lanes. It is cheaper to disrupt the flow of maritime commerce in the sea-lanes than to keep it open. The defense planners will no longer permit the aircraft carriers to be exposed in waters where enemy Anti-ship missiles are likely to be in place.

Disrupting Maritime Trade

THREAT TO GLOBAL MARITIME TRADE: World is moving into a time when it will be much easier to cut the sea-lanes than to maintain them. It is simply because offensive maritime technology is overwhelmingly more potent than maritime defensive technology. With the advent of hypersonic, long-range cruise missiles, Land powers can cut sea-lanes and sink merchant ships, tankers, and fishing trawlers. Land powers can threaten the prosperity of the global economy, which has become utterly dependent on the unimpeded access of all merchantmen to the sea-lanes. NATO bombardment of the civilian, industrial infrastructure during Kosovo War has rewritten the Laws of War allowing the use of military power against civilian economic targets. Land powers can effectively bankrupt maritime powers by sinking the merchant-ships, trawlers and tankers to disrupt global maritime trade. Global disruption of maritime trade will result in unprecedented prosperity of such land powers as are not dependent on maritime transportation. Railways can replace ships as means of inter-continental transportation of goods and materials.

Sinking Merchant Shipping

GLOBAL ANTI-SHIP LAND-POWER ALLIANCE: India, China, and Russia are primarily land powers with limited maritime capability. The three land powers should sign a Land Power Alliance (LPA), agreeing to sink around 95 percent of Western civilian merchantmen, maritime shipping, trawlers, tankers, and private yachts at the outbreak of any future war. Total destruction of civilian maritime commercial infrastructure will result in massive transfer of wealth to India, China, and Russia. The development of inter-continental railway network to transport oil, raw materials throughout Europe, Asia, and Africa will quadruple the per capita incomes of India, Russia and China. The great land powers should not allow the sibling rivalry to miss this historic opportunity to destroy the economic domination of the maritime powers. European maritime powers used the ship-cannons to sink the entire coastal fleets of India to monopolize the coastal maritime trade of the Indian Ocean. The Asian land powers can take the revenge by sinking 95 percent of world’s shipping and fishing fleets, and oil tankers. Total destruction of world’s civilian merchantmen is consistent with the post Kosovo Laws of War. The power to interfere with ocean commerce has been growing faster than the ability to keep it open.

Vulnerable Sea Lanes

VULNERABLE SEA-LANES DURING WWII: Ever since the introduction of the attack submarine and the attack aircraft, it has been easier to close the sea-lanes than to keep it open. The Anglo-Americans fought a desperate battle to hold open the supply lines in the North Atlantic, and at some points from 1941 to 1943 they seemed to be losing the battle. If the Germans had possessed air bases in the Atlantic, in the Azores or Iceland, or if they had had aircraft carriers, they most likely could have shut down the Atlantic. In the pacific, in the islands between Hawaii and the Philippines, Japanese land-based aircraft made Allied supply in early 1942 virtually impossible. During the island-hopping campaigns of 1943-44, the United States particularly using carrier airpowers, managed to seal off the Gilberts, Marshall’s, and Marianas so completely that the Japanese found it impossible to supply or withdraw.

Loosing Sea Lanes Control

INTELLIGENT MISSILES & SEA-LANE CONTROL: The advent of the long-range, high-speed, intelligent missile divides the problem of sea-lane control as it has never been divided before. On the one side, it becomes much easier to control, or close down, sea-lanes. On the other side, keeping the sea-lanes open becomes a tremendous problem. The problem can be simply posed: How could goods moved across ocean without exposing the vessel to missiles that could be fired by virtually any country in the world? Nevertheless, it is the point on which the future of Sea power and the future of naval warfare will turn.

Space Stations' Weapon Systems

SPACE-BASED SYSTEMS: The future of sea, air and land power depends on the centrality of space. The space-based platforms linked to missiles on the ground. A power that has and retains the global reconnaissance capability will be able to choke off the sea-lanes. In future the Sea-lane control will, depend less on oceangoing naval vessels than on space-based vessels. It is not due to any changes in the geography of global trade. It is due to the change in the means of delivery of explosives to their target, that the future Sea Lane control will depend on space based weapons. The explosive power of the ship'’ guns and of carrier aircraft will be delivered to those same points by long-range smart projectiles, targeted and triggered from space. The center of gravity of naval warfare will no longer rest with the carrier battle group. It will shift to the command and control system that can deliver projectiles globally.

Space Power Control Oceans

SPACE POWER WILL CONTROL OCEANS: The nation that controls space will control the world’s oceans far more completely than it can control world’s landmass. Hypersonic missiles are always going to be in short supply, compared to the possible land targets. There relatively smaller number of vessels at sea, that allow the power controlling the space-based reconnaissance platforms controlling the hypersonic weaponry to destroy the sea going ships, vessels, tankers, and trawlers. There is a fit between the number of vessels and the probable number of projectiles. At sea, hypersonic projectiles would certainly be able to saturate the seascapes and determine the outcome of war. The missiles could never saturate the landscape. Space power cannot destroy Land powers. Space power will be able to destroy Sea powers. The age of the Sea power is coming to end. The rise of land power is imminent even in the Space age.

New Age of Space Powers

AGE OF SPACE POWER: Whoever controls space, therefore will control the world’s oceans. Whoever controls the oceans will control the patterns of global commerce. Whoever controls the patterns of global commerce will be the wealthiest power in the world. Whoever is the wealthiest power in the world will be able to control space. (George & M Fiedman, The Future of War, p.411). United States might use the multi-national spaceport under construction for advance warning of the National Missile Defense System, in violation of the 1972 Anti Ballistic Missile Treaty. Soviet Union should not abandon its Mir Space Station, even after the new Space station becomes operational. Space stations would play significant role in the future Star Wars.

Vulnerable West Europe

DISBAND NATO: President Clinton rightly observed that NATO alliance has no meaning in the 21st Century, if NATO fights wars only in defense against ‘an armed attack against one or more’ of its members. The wise men that founded NATO intended otherwise. United States will be foolish to risk the very existence of Western Christendom, and the United States at risk to perpetuate the archaic organism of NATO alive. The WARSAW Pact is dead, so NATO Pact should also die. NATO air war on Yugoslavia in the spring 1999 did not prove the military superiority of West European nations. The military weakness of member states of NATO and European Union, exposed during NATO's failure to conduct land invasions, suggests that West Europe's ex-colonial powers are now themselves good candidates for colonization and occupation by new land powers of Asia, namely India, China or perhaps even Pakistan. On a level playing ground, under Marshall Tito, even United Yugoslavia would have conquered Italy, and destroyed Rome, to replicate the Ottoman Conquest of Constantinople. Without the direct support of the nuclear United States, Asian land powers would easily conquer and colonize ex-colonial powers. The Second Christian Millennium ended after exposing the military weaknesses of ex-colonial powers.

China Willing to Nuke USA

China is ready and willing to push its nuclear button and fire at America if there is a showdown over Taiwan. The German magazine Der Spiegel, quoting from a secret "Document No. 65," said Beijing would have no problem turning to its nuclear arsenal over certain issues. The Chinese document, written late 1999, allegedly came from a military subcommittee of the Chinese Communist Party's Central Committee. However, the secret document also concedes that China hardly expects the United States to provoke such a response. China declares: "We are ready to defend every square centimeter of our country." The document also talks a lot about conventional warfare, noting: "We would have to make a military intervention as early as possible, because the American troops are fully operational." The most likely trigger for a nuclear showdown would be a declaration of independence by Taiwan. China has stolen every advance nuclear warhead design, nuclear technology, and missile technologies from American nuclear weapons labs. Chinese nuclear weapons technology and missile technology matches most modern nuclear weapons designed and deployed by United States. China by nuclear nukes and anti-ship smart missiles can sink Seventh Fleet and other aircraft carriers. United States Navy cannot defend Indonesia and Australia against determined Chinese invasions of Malaysia, Indonesia, Australia and New Zealand. Western Powers dominated over India, China and Japan due to the maritime superiority. The development of the anti-ship missiles and nuclear weapons has turned the tables on Sea Powers.

 

6(xx) Geopolitics of World Wars

Rising Land Powers vs. Declining Sea Powers

The technological revolution in Precision Guided Munitions results in the decline of Sea Powers and the consequent rise of Land Powers. India and China can sink US Aircraft Carrier Battle Groups. It signaled the end of the Age of Aircraft Carriers. The Kosovo War has signaled the end of the Age of Expensive Bombers and Stealth Bombers. The precision-guided munitions allow the commandos to disrupt the vehicular transportation in the mountainous regions. The information technology revolution, global position satellite technology, cellular telephones, shoulder-held missiles giving rise to Super Soldiers. Vasco da Gama used ship-cannons to sink the coastal vessels to blockade coastal maritime trade in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal, to secure monopoly of sea-borne trade in Asia. Similarly, the Precision Guided Munitions and anti-ship missile allow Land-Powers sink 95% of world's merchant marine, ships, fishing trawlers, and oil tankers.

Railway Cargo based Global Economy

Total destruction of civilian merchant ships, tankers, and trawlers would give fatal blow to the global oceanic trade. Disruption of the global oceanic trade would destroy Western economic prosperity. NATO's civilian industrial infrastructure warfare on Serbia justifies the maritime infrastructure warfare. The loss of merchant marine tonnage would be fatal for sea-trade and alternative land-trade by transcontinental railways will efficiently move cargo in Euro-Asian continent, Europe, Asia and Africa. The continental land powers of India and China would experience unprecedented economic growth and prosperity in the aftermath of the destruction of global oceanic trade. The recent technological revolutions in weapons platform, neutron bombs, Precision Guided Munitions, and anti-ship cruise missiles would determine the changing balance of power between European Sea Powers and Asian Land Powers. World without ships would give great economic boost to continental land powers, who shall build intercontinental railway networks for the transport of cargo and humans. It is in the national interest of Russia, China and India to sink 95% of global merchant marine tonnage at the outbreak of the World War III, by using Precision Guided Munitions, anti-ship cruise and French Exocet anti-ship missiles.

AIDS Could Devastate Much of Africa

White Catholics and White Protestants have used Plague Virus to depopulate North America, South America, Australia, New Zealand and Pacific Islands. Recent researches implicate the Government of Belgium in propagation of AIDS Virus in Belgium Congo, during colonial era through Polio Vaccine. It could be Belgium plot to depopulate Belgium Congo, hoping that if Blacks in Congo are depopulated and become minority like Australian Aborigines and North American Indians, then they would not demand independence. Western Pharmaceutical giants have paid for the AIDS by financing the brothel visits of fully blown AIDS patients. White Christians could use AIDS virus to depopulate animist, tribal Africa to proselytize Africa. What do you call a killer that devastates entire regions, picks off the best and brightest, comes close to destabilizing several African nations and destroys the future of half of African Continent? That killer is AIDS. AIDS epidemic in Africa is a security crisis as it threatens the population base of Africa. It is similar to the depopulation of North Africa and South Africa, when White Christians distributed Plague infected blankets as biological weapon and instrument of genocide of Indigenous Americans. AIDS is a human disaster of singular and awesome proportions. However, it is growing at accelerating rates across sub-Sahara Africa. Containing AIDS scourge will be difficult and enormously expensive. The price tag for effectively dealing with AIDS in Africa world is astronomical. However, unless a campaign begins now, Africa could be devastated. AIDS has killed more Africans in 1990's than have died in all the wars of the 20th Century: more than 14 million so far. In some nations- Botswana, Namibia and Zimbabwe among them- one in four adults are infected. Namibia was South West Africa recently liberated by Apartheid South Africa. Zimbabwe was the former Rhodesia where Apartheid fell first. South Africa has the highest rate of new HIV infections in the world, 1,600 a day. AIDS is a threat to a huge slice of humanity. AIDS could devastate much of Africa. Pagan Africans accuse Catholics and Protestants for engineering the spread of AIDS epidemic in pagan, Aboriginal tribal Africa to depopulate pagan Africans, as part of the conspiracy to Christianize Africa. West is unwilling to spend trillions of dollars that would be required to treat AIDS victims in Africa. It is likely that Black Africans may disappear because of AIDS, as Native Americans disappeared as result of Plague infected blankets freely distributed by White Catholics and White Protestants in North America.

Europeans used AIDS to Depopulate Africa

Pagan Africans accuse White Belgium for spreading AIDS Virus as part of their free vaccination programs. It is very likely that Black Africa could become a depopulated continent by 2050. Could Third World War start as result of the scramble for lands in Empty sub-Sahara Africa? India and China would not allow White immigration to empty sub-Sahara Africa of future. Would depopulated sub-Sahara Africa re-colonized by Europeans, similar to Anglo Saxon colonization of North Africa after Native Indian American tribes were wiped out by the biological weapon of Plague infected Blankets. Did Western pharmaceutical firms inject millions of poor Africans by AIDS infected vaccines, to develop new markets for their recently patented AIDS drugs? Should UN War Crimes Tribunal open investigations into allegations that Belgium Government and Western Pharmaceutical firms conspired to inject AIDS Virus, via philanthropic mass-vaccination programs? Perhaps public action litigation in US courts demand $ 6,000 Billion damages from Belgium Government and Leading Western Pharmaceutical companies for AIDS Virus propagation conspiracy in Africa. Third World War would start if the West refuses to pay for treating AIDS epidemic in Africa. Third World War would also start if AIDS depopulates Black Africa. Brown Asia could go to war against White Europe to foil European conspiracy to transform Black Africa into White Africa. AIDS is a biological warfare weapon designed by Belgium and propagated by Western Pharmaceutical companies to depopulate Africa and to gain lucrative markets for patented AIDS Drugs. AIDS infected Africa could become the theater of World War III, as a result of the scramble for the empty lands of Black African continent, in case AIDS epidemic devastates and depopulates sub-Sahara Black Africa.

Drug Cartels Cause World Wars

CATHOLIC MONOPOLY OF GLOBAL DRUG CARTELS: White Catholics control 80% of Global Drug trade. Pak-Afghan Sunnis and Chinese Christians control 20 % of Global Drug Trade. The Financial Times of London in 1997 estimated that the estimated worldwide annual income of the Organized Crime was $ 1,000 billions, and Global Drug Cartels generated $700 billions annual income. Half of the income of the organized crime generated in USA that comes to $500 billion annually, and drugs account for the annual income of $350 billions. United States has streamlined its capital transfers, as a result the $350 billion annual income of the American Drug Cartels fuels the Wall Street and makes America the greatest economy of the world. During 80's and 90's incomes from Drug trade injected $ 7,000 billion ($7 trillion) in invisible economic resources in USA. Without the investment capital injected by American Drug Barons the Wall Street would not have enjoyed phenomenal rise. Drug incomes invested in US stock markets. Without continued injection of Heroin-Cocaine generated Capital the Wall Street could collapse.

 

OPIUM WAR AGAINST CHINA: Indian Empire launched Opium War against China in Nineteenth Century. China learnt the tricks of trade and systematically dominated Opium and Heroin trade in the Golden Crescent that includes Burma, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand and Yunnan Province in China. United States strategic partnership with China based on the solid rock foundations of Golden Crescent Heroin Trade. Chinese Drug Cartels control 50% of Heroin distribution in New York. United States invaded Panama and imprisoned President Noriega for laundering Drugs income. It is no accident that ruling elite of Mexico are directly involved in the bulk shipment of Colombian Cocaine to USA. Mexico joined NAFTA primarily to monopolize the Colombian cocaine shipments to USA. Colombian Cocaine fuels the economic growth in Mexico. American Drug Cartels are promoting Afghanistan as the sole supplier of Opium and Heroin to US and UE markets. Afghan and Pakistani Drug Cartels generate billions of dollar income from Opium-Heroin Drug trade estimated at 10 billion dollars annually. China is reputed to earn $70 billion by Opium-Heroin trade. Drug Cartels finance the pro-Afghan, pro-Pakistan, pro-Burma, pro-Khmer Rouge, and pro-China lobbyists in United States that resulted in securing for China the Most Favored Trading Nation's (MFN) Status in USA. Drug Cartels arranged the USA-Afghan and USA-Pakistan strategic alliances. Presently Afghanistan, Pakistan, China, Burma, Mexico and Colombia monopolize the incomes from Opium, Heroin and Cocaine trade, and their monopoly undermining world order. Afghan Taliban use the billions generated by Heroin to finance Islamic terrorism worldwide. Using the precedent of US prosecution of Panama President Noriega, should India invade Burma and Afghanistan and imprison for life, top 100 leaders in Burma and Afghanistan for drug trafficking. Unless the $700 billion annual income generated by Global Drug Cartels distributed equitably among world powers, the scramble for the slice of Global Drug trade could ignite World War III. The small slice of $700 billion annual income from the Global Heroin-Cocaine could finance the World War III indefinitely. The incomes from Diamonds and Gold mines finance the rebel armies in Angola, Zaire-Congo and Zambia. Should India invade Afghanistan, Burma, and Laos and hang every opium-Heroin drug producer and dealer? Would a World War to destroy global drug cartels a lesser evil than the unhampered Global Drug trade that generates $700 billion in incomes, for White Christians, Afghan-Pak Sunnis, and Chinese Christians. The Christian Evangelism in Cambodia, Laos, Burma, and South China financed out of the drug incomes generated by Golden Triangle's Christian Drug Cartels. Christian monopoly of Heroin-Opium Trade in Golden Triangle undermines Buddhism in China, Burma, Laos, Cambodia and Thailand. Christian Drug Cartels underwrite Catholic and Protestant proselytizing activities in Asia to maintain Christian monopoly over Golden Triangle Opium-Heroin trade. Illicit trade in Opium Heroin, Cocaine, Diamonds, and Gold would cause World War III, since the illicit incomes would finance the War ad-infinitum. India cannot remain silent spectator in the Global Heroin Trade since the incomes earned by Afghanistan, Pakistan, Burma, Laos, and China is undermining the military balance in Asia. India would go to war to blockade incomes of Drug Cartels in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Burma and South China.

 

World War III could start as result for the scramble for securing regional monopolies in global production and distribution of Opium, Heroin, and Cocaine. United Nations should intervene and confiscate the $14 trillion drug related economic assets in United States, Europe, Afghanistan, Burma, Mexico and Colombia and use these assets to finance the World Government. Economic inequalities caused by the $700 billion annual incomes of global drug cartels destabilizes the world order and threatening regional military balance of power and undermines the national security of India and Russia. India and Russia should intervene in Afghanistan, Burma and Laos and use the legal precedent of President Noriega to award life sentences to their top 100 ruling elite members. India exercises its right to invade and rule Afghanistan, Burma and Laos to destroy Opium production in the Golden Crescent and Golden Triangle. India would demand that United Nations should confiscate the $14 trillion ($14,000 billion) assets, generated by reinvestments of drug cartels' incomes. These assets should be removed them out of Western economic systems. Mind boggling wealth of Drug Cartels should be confiscated and distributed among non-Heroin producing nations. Would Global Drug Trade cause World War III?

Ramayana War of New Millennium

Clash of Civilizations and Clash of Religions decides the formation of global coalitions of the looming World War. The Third World War likely to take place before or around 2012 AD would resemble Hindu Ramayana War described in Hindu epic. Its salient futures shall be as under. Firstly, it shall be war between Devas representing Religion, the Divine principle, the Thesis, the Chi, and the Spiritual Powers. The Asuri, the adversaries represent Irreligion, the Anti-Thesis, and the Material Powers. Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs, Jains, Taoists, Confucians, Shintoists, Eastern Christianity, Black Gnostic Arian Christianity, Kabbalah Jews, Sufis, Incas, Mayas, ancient religions of Egypt and Greece shall join the Alliance of Devas. The Catholics, Protestants, Sunnis and Communists shall be adversaries. Secondly, Hindus and Buddhists shall join forces with down trodden indigenous tribal Africans, and indigenous Native American Indians, just as Rama aligned with monkey-king Sugriva to defeat Ravana. Hindus shall align with the victims of Catholic Inquisition, Catholic Slave Trade, and Catholic massacre of Incas, Mayas, Aztecs and Indigenous American Indians. Thirdly, Hindus and Buddhists shall join forces with Greek Orthodox Church, just as god Rama aligned with Vibhishan the estranged brother of King Ravana. The estranged Eastern Christianity's alliance with Hinduism portends the demise of Catholic and Protestant Church in Asia and Africa and the subsequent victory of Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Fourthly, Hindus and Buddhists support Matriarchal Religions, Goddess, and oppose the suppression of women. The abduction of Sita provided the moral cause of the Ramayana War. The oppression of women in Islamic world especially Afghanistan provides similar moral justification of Hindu invasions of Afghanistan. Catholic Inquisition tortured and burnt at stakes millions of women, children and men.

 

Fifthly, Brahmins requested Rama to lead the War on Rakshashas to protect Brahmins from Rakshasas who desecrated the Hindu temples, and religious ceremonies. Sixthly, the forthcoming War of Religions shall be Total War. The victors shall destroy the defeated Civilization. It is necessary to understand the Clash of Civilizations in the light of Hindu and Buddhist Mythologies. Catholic Christianity, Protestant Christianity, Islam and Communism are the Irreligion, the Asuri religions defined in Hindu Holy Gita that waged wars against Hindu Religion and Goddess. Hindus do not believe that Irreligion and Asuri Religions worship Devil. The Religion as Thesis, Divine Religions and Irreligion the anti-Thesis, differs in their use of force to propagate religions. Hindus, Buddhists and divine Religions do not believe in the propagation of Religion by force, sword or gun. However, Divine religions advocate use of arms to protect Religions from the demoniac invasions. Hindus, Buddhists, and Orthodox Christians would enter War of Religions to disarm Catholics, Protestants and Communists.

 

6(xxi) Conclusion

The recent advances in military technology, developed by American military-industrial complex would end the Age of Sea Powers and herald the new Age of land Powers. The territorial gains, which the white West European Sea Powers made after 1500 AD, would be reversed. Western Sea Powers would be vulnerable to the precision-guided-munitions of the populous Asian Land Powers.

 

The development of cannons resulted in the Muslim conquest of Byzantine Empire and Hindu India. The development of cannon-armed ships allowed European powers to enter the coastal waters of foreign powers, could engage and either destroy or drive off enemy vessels. Cannon-armed ship was able to project fire ashore. The cannon permitted the Europeans to go where they wanted and do what they wanted. The cannon completely tilted the balance of force at sea. Cannon-armed ships and guns built the European colonial Empires. The guns allowed Europeans to conquer natives armed with spears and swords.

 

The Age of Ballistics is ending. World is entering a fundamentally new period, the Age of precision-Guided Munitions (PGMs). The smart weapons will antiquate the traditional way of making war. The new projectiles are precise and lethally efficient, where guns and artillery are inherently inaccurate. While ballistic weapons platforms need to come within range of the battlefield, PGMs can devastate from any distance.

 

The revolution in warfare has strengthened the United States on land and in the air. Paradoxically, the same revolution in warfare that has increased the American power on land and air threatens to decrease American power at sea. On land and in the air, the United States is the strategic aggressor. At sea, on the other hand, the United States is a defensive power. Unfortunately for the US Navy, the revolution initiated by American air and land forces is inevitably sweeping out to sea. The world’s navies deploy weapons systems that permitted precision air strikes against Iraqi as well as Serb forces and permitted outstanding antitank weaponry on the ground. However, instead of strengthening the strategic position of the United States Navy, the Precision Guided Munitions threaten the US Navy.

 

The Precision-Guided Munitions ranks with the introduction of firearms, the phalanx, and the chariot as a defining moment in human history. The phalanx catapulted Greece to glory. The War Chariot gave us the Persian Empire. Europe conquered the world with the Gun. Each weapon defined not only the manner in which wars were waged but also the very texture of human history. The Precision-Guided Munitions and smart projectiles will end the age of Sea Powers and shift the balance of power in favor of continental Land powers of Eurasian landmass. PGMs will result in the rise of India as a global land power and decline of United States as a Global Sea Power.

 

The Pax Americana, in place at sea since 1945, might well be threatened or undermined as American Naval weapons platforms become vulnerable by PGMs. The force multipliers that benefited the United States in Eurasia seemed to turn against it at sea. There are increasing signs that the carrier battle groups are heading towards senility. The aircraft carriers are heading to the point where the cost of merely keeping them alive is undermining the general capacity of the United States to carry out its strategic mission. The revolution in smart weapons is rapidly moving the US naval fleets in that direction. The revolution in precision weapons allows the United States to engage and defeat much larger air and land forces. However, this ability is meaningless unless United States can also project its forces across the oceans and supply and sustain them there. The United States, like Britain is at root a naval power. The revolution in smart weapon PGMs allows the Land powers to undermine the domination of the sea by the Sea powers.

 

The United States was the master of the maritime airpowers because of its aircraft carriers, a weapon the soviets tried, but failed to emulate. The operational role of the aircraft carriers had less to do with the sea-lane control than with transporting airpowers to Eurasian shores. The threat facing the aircraft carriers is the long-range, hypersonic missile. These missiles will penetrate the carrier’s defenses and sink them. The missiles will do the carrier’s job of bombing enemy installations more efficiently and more cheaply. Missiles can deny the merchant ships the freedom of using sea-lanes. It is cheaper to disrupt the flow of maritime commerce in the sea-lanes than to keep it open.

 

The world is moving into a time when it will be much easier to cut the sea-lanes than to maintain them. It is simply because offensive maritime technology is overwhelmingly more potent than maritime defensive technology. With the advent of hypersonic, long-range cruise missiles, Land powers can cut sea-lanes and sink merchant ships, tankers, and fishing trawlers. Land powers can threaten the prosperity of the global economy, which has become utterly dependent on the unimpeded access of all merchantmen to the sea-lanes.

 

The future of sea, air and land power depends on the centrality of space. The space-based platforms linked to missiles on the ground. A power that has and retains the global reconnaissance capability will be able to choke off the sea-lanes. In future the Sea-lane control will, depend less on oceangoing naval vessels than on space-based vessels. It is not due to any changes in the geography of global trade. It is due to the change in the means of delivery of explosives to their target, that the future Sea Lane control will depend on space based weapons. The explosive power of the ship'’ guns and of carrier aircraft will be delivered to those same points by long-range smart projectiles, targeted and triggered from space. The center of gravity of naval warfare will no longer rest with the carrier battle group. It will shift to the command and control system that can deliver projectiles globally. Whoever controls space, therefore will control the world’s oceans. Whoever controls the oceans will control the patterns of global commerce. Whoever controls the patterns of global commerce will be the wealthiest power in the world. Whoever is the wealthiest power in the world will be able to control space.

 

6(2) What ifs in History of Wars

 

Every general must study the lessons of military history very carefully, if he wants to avoid the blunders many of his peers committed in the past. It is prudent to refuse to be bound by history, and insist on the perpetual possibility for renewal. Those who are obsessed with military history produce self-fulfilling prophecies, but those general who ignore military history are condemned to repeat military blunders. The decline of Europe and the decline of White Christians and the resultant rise of Asia and Brown Hindus and Yellow Buddhists at the start of the Third Millennium, fundamentally altered the global balance of power in the post-Cold war age.

 

Military events, even seemingly insignificant episodes, can have unforeseen consequences, ones that may not become apparent at the time they happen and occasionally not even for centuries. What is the most important might-have-been of military history? The salutary effect of the MHQ’s ‘What if’ exercise is a keener appreciation of the huge difference that choices and fortuities make in the history of nations. For historians, the dominos fall backward. In What Ifs and Buts in History of Wars? Author attempts to make them fall forward What if is historian’s favorite secret question. What ifs have a genuine value that goes beyond the idle parlor game? What ifs can be a tool to enhance the understanding of history, to make it come alive? They can reveal in startling detail, the essential stakes of a confrontation, as well as its potentially abiding consequences. History is properly the literature of what did happen; but that should not diminish the importance of the counterfactual supposes, would-haves, might-haves, could-haves, possibly, perhaps, probably and maybes. Historians and philosophers alike have pondered the crucial turning points of history, events that forever altered the course of civilization and set the stage for the world in which we live today. Now and again in history long-forgotten decisions and long-suppressed emotions, under the direction of some invisible impulse, generate elemental forces, which like gigantic and slowly rolling dice, work out their horrible and destructive course, guided by chance alone. Many of these arguments are developed in What If? Edited by Robert Cowley. The author in this chapter seeks in-depth reflections on the monumental events of the past and amazing speculations as to what our world might be like had things gone differently in a singular moment in time.

 

6 (i) Charles V Sacked Rome in 1526

Catholic nations throughout history had been the mortal enemy of Papacy, even when they continued to practice Roman Catholicism. Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor Charles V sacked Rome in 1526, and Cardinal de Richelieu of France opposed Papacy during Thirty Years War (1618-1648), and Italian King Victor Emmanuel II, the King of Italy, enraged by Vatican Council of 1870, entered Rome and stripped Pope of all temporal powers, who lived then onwards in seclusion till 1929, when Pope Pius XI signed a treaty with King of Italy and Benito Mussolini. Benito Mussolini released the Pope from captivity, hoping to use the Papacy to legitimize Italian Empire. England’s King Henry VIII intensified his quest for divorce, which was just a ploy to declare English Crown’s leadership of the Church in England. Catholic Spain and Catholic Portugal in their quest to create Spanish Empire and Portuguese Empire never subordinated the imperial interests of the Empire to that of the Papacy. Papacy also aligned with United States and supported the Monroe doctrine to scuttle Spanish and Portuguese empires in the Hispanic South America. The moral of the story is that the Catholic nations that constitute the European Union would never subordinate the national interest of the Christian Europe to promote the national interests of the Vatican. On the contrary, the Catholic and Protestant nations of the European Union would join forces to tame, control and democratize the Vatican, Papacy and the Church of Rome.

 

In 1521, Martin Luther defied the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms, setting the stage for permanent split in the Roman Catholic Church. In 1520, Magellan crossed the straits of Magellan. In 1520s Cortes had conquered Mexico. Ottoman Turks had conquered Hungary and reached Vienna. King Henry VIII intensified his quest for divorce. The troops of Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor Charles V troops, having defeated their main enemy, France, moved across a seemingly helpless Italy and sacked and looted Rome, enraged by their hatred for Papacy. The sack of Rome in 1526-27 was inflicted on the Papal city by the Habsburg Holy Roman Empire’s Army driven by its generalized hatred of the Papacy and all its works, and driven by a frenzy of hunger, lack of pay. Holy Roman Empire’s sack of Rome was a destruction of life, art, and treasure of awesome proportions, not to mention a flight of talent that affected roman culture for a generation, while at the same time giving Venice, a safe refuge, an unprecedented infusion of new ideas and creativity. In Italy Ercole d’Este, the Duke of Ferrrara joined in the sack of Rome by supplying the Commander of Charles V’s Army Georg Frundsberg with the good supply of heavy artillery, without which the sack of Rome might have failed. The Estes were a perpetual thorn in the Papacy’s side, particularly when a Medici from the rival city of Florence, Clement VII, sat on the papal throne.

 

The military lesson is that the Catholic European states historically hated Papacy. Catholic Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor ordered the sack of Papacy and Rome driven by its generalized hatred of the Papacy. Italian Duke of Ferrara Ercole d’Este supported the invasion of Rome, because Florence’s Medici Clement VII was the pope. Would Germany, Italy, and France again work towards sacking the Vatican, since Poland-born Bishop reigns as the Pope? Catholic states realize that the national interests of Catholic nation states conflict with that of Papacy, hence the catholic states of Europe may have to use force of arms to tame Papacy again in 21st century, as it did on 1526 and 1870.     

 

Holy Roman Emperor Charles V’s establishes the rule that the national interest of Christian Empire, nations and state conflict with that of supranational and transnational Papacy. Habsburg Holy Roman Empire was based in the lands now called Germany. Charles V neglected his inheritances in Germany and focused on conquering Northern Italy. Though Emperor Charles V suppressed Protestantism after the Diet of Worms and favored Catholicism, still he ordered the conquest and loot of Rome in 1526 to bring Papacy under the control of Habsburg Holy Roman Empire.

 

At the start of the Reformation the pro-Catholicism policy of Charles V didn’t imply Habsburg Emperor’s subordination to Papacy. It was true for the Habsburg Holy Roman Empire during the beginning of the Reformation, and it continued to be true during Counter Reformation Thirty Years Wars (1618-1648). Even during Thirty Years War Habsburg Emperor didn’t accept the leadership of Papacy. Germany based Holy Roman Empire used Catholicism as a diplomatic and political instrument to promote the national interests of the Empire, and never intended to subordinate the interests to the empire to that of the Papacy.

 

Cardinal de Richelieu the First Minister of the Catholic King of France, during Counter Reformation Thirty Years Wars (1618-1648) supported the German Protestant princes to prevent the unification of Germany and to keep Holy Roman Empire weak. France never subordinated or sacrificed the national interests of Catholic France to promote the interests of Papacy.

 

Papacy is Roman Empire

The administration of the Roman Catholic Church organized like that of the Roman Empire. Church of Rome is territory-less Roman, engaged in wars for world conquest. On July 18, 1870 the Vatican Council, in the Papal Bull "Pastor aeternus" decreed that the Pope has supreme powers in all matters of faith and discipline pertaining to the pastors and the faithful. It made every priest, even archbishops and cardinals responsible to the Pope.

 

1870-1928 Seclusion of Pope

King Victor Emmanuel II, the King of Italy, enraged by Vatican Council of 1870, entered Rome and stripped Pope of all temporal powers, who lived then onwards in seclusion till 1929, when Pope Pius XI signed a treaty with Italy. Only then, the Pope ceased to be the prisoner of the Vatican. Buddhist Dalai Lama, the supreme spiritual ruler of Tibet, enjoyed greater political power and influence than Pope, who was prisoner of the Vatican during 1870 to 1928. After the admission of the guilt of the Roman Catholic Church by Pope John Paul II, the Church of Rome should be reformed. The role and powers of Pope during the third Christian Millennium should be similar to those enjoyed by Pope during captivity in Vatican during 1870 to 1928. Papacy should be stripped of temporal power and influence, and lose its control over the Catholic Church property in foreign countries.

 

Democratization of Papacy

Democratization of Church of Rome, Vatican, and Papacy is the only apology that would satisfy the Protestants, Hindus, and Buddhists. Vatican should maintain state-to-state relations only. Pope should not enjoy any special treatment, other than what is expected for a sovereign state of similar size and wealth. The national churches alone shall control the property and personnel in the Catholic Churches located within the frontiers of that nation. Every nation should elect the clergy, Priests, Bishops, Archbishops and Cardinals without consulting the Vatican. Chinese Catholic Church appointed in the beginning of the new Millennium Catholic Bishops without consulting Pope. China does not recognize Pope as the Supreme Head of the Chinese Catholic Church. China does not recognize Vatican's ownership of Chinese Catholic Church properties. Hindu India and Protestant dominant United States, Britain and Canada should take China's lead and pass necessary legislation to deny Papal control over foreign Church properties. Protestant leadership should demand that the Catholic laity should elect by direct elections, the Bishops, Archbishops, Cardinals and Pope for fixed term of five years. Past Presidents of United States, Mexico, France, and Brazil, as well as past Prime Ministers of Canada, Britain, and Italy should become the ex-officio members of the Catholic College of Cardinals. Since personal piety is not necessary for the effectiveness of Catholic Sacrament, the election of past president Jimmy Carter as the future Pope of Roman Catholic Church would give correct leadership to the Catholicism. The dominant military power of the Christian world has historically led the Roman Catholic Church. It is inevitable that the incumbent President of the United States, the sole super power of the world would control the Papacy and Church of Rome. Should President Bill Clinton become the Pope after he leaves the office? Would United States enhance the power of the United States, by co-locating the Vatican nearby Pentagon at Arlington, Virginia? Perhaps the direct elections of Pope, by Catholic laity worldwide, with universal adult franchise, would elect Catholic Pope for the fixed term of five years. Either Catholics laity worldwide should elect Pope, Cardinals, Archbishops, and Bishops for fixed terms of five years, or United States Senate and Congress should nominate Catholic Pope, Cardinals and Archbishops. US Secretary of Treasury should supervise Vatican's financial resources. Should India propose Italian Sonia Gandhi as Asia's nominee for the post of next Pontiff? The election of a Female Pope would be the true apology of the Church of Rome for the Catholic Crime of Inquisition. Sonia Gandhi could be the ideal choice for the next Pope. Democratically elected Pontiff, Cardinals, Archbishops, Bishops, and Deaconesses would reform Catholicism. Democratization of Papacy is the moral imperative of the new Millennium and the true apology for the Vatican's Crimes against Humanity. The Gospel of Apostle Mary and Gospel of Apostle James the brother of Jesus Christ should become principal Gospels in the modern Christian Bibles. Half of the Catholic Cardinals, Archbishops, and Bishops should also be women. Only when women lead the Catholic Church that Papacy would end its wars of religions on Protestantism, Orthodoxy, Paganism, Hinduism and Buddhism.

 

6(ii) Two Chinas in Mainland

Rather than invading Communist controlled Manchuria, where Soviet troops controlled the Northern Manchuria, Chiang Kai-shek should have preserved his forces and forced the partition of China and accepted the fait accompli of the secession Communist Manchuria and consolidated its stronghold over rest of Mainland China. But for the foolish gamble of invasion of Manchuria in 1946, the Asian Balance of Power would have been very different from that of today.

 

United States should have forced the partition of China in 1946 just as Allied Powers partitioned India in 1947? Why did United States favored unity of China, which was facing ferocious Civil War and partitioned Indian Empire, which had no civil war? Why were Christian Allied Powers inimical to Hindu India and friendly to Buddhist China? Why United States didn’t oppose Communists and Maoists in China to support Nationalists in the Chinese Civil War after the Second World War? Why did United States sabotage the military victory of Chiang Kai-shek in Manchuria on Harbin? Why did United States pulled the rug under Chiang Kai-shek, even when Chiang had been a reliable ally? Unless the rule of anti-Buddhist communist Party ends in primarily Buddhist China, it is very likely that the Mainland China would be partitioned into Communist North China and Buddhist South China.

 

United States after the Second World War worked towards overthrowing all such Allied leaders as played important military role during the War. United States worked towards electoral defeat of Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill of Great Britain, Charles de Gaulle of France, Netaji General Subash Chandra Bose who led Indian National Army, President Sukarno of Indonesia and General Chiang Kai-shek of China. United States promoted non-entities against Churchill, de Gaulle, Bose and Chiang hoping that weaker leaders would be more vulnerable to America’s charm and the CIA’s covert operations. US General George C. Marshall was in direct negotiations with Mao Tse-tung and he reasoned that Mao would be more vulnerable to American influence than Chiang Kai-shek. This assessment of General Marshall proved correct when Henry Kissinger opened diplomatic ties with Communist China after the defeat in the Vietnam War during Nixon Administration. Christian missionaries favored Mao Tse-tung over Chiang Kai-shek hoping Judeo-Communist Mao Tse-tung would help Christianity by undermining Buddhism in China, more than the Nationalists. Christian missionaries assessment proved true when Mao during Cultural Revolution murdered 60 million Chinese Buddhists, by creating artificial famines, and forced relocation to villages.

 

Had British Indian Empire supported Chiang Kai-shek in 1946 in his war against Maoist Communists there would have been two-Chinas, both on the mainland? If Chiang Kai-shek had not gambled in 1946 to invade Manchuria then under Communist control then Mainland China would have been partitioned into two parts, one under Communist Mao’s control in Manchuria and another under Chiang Kai-sheik. The gambler was the nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek, who at the end of World War II, vowed to eradicate the Communist Chinese presence in Manchuria. Against American advice, he threw in his best troops and in the spring of 1946 seemed on the verge of victory. Suddenly Chiang called a halt, pressured by General George C. Marshall, who was trying to broker peace between the nationalist and the Communists.

 

Late in 1945, after the surrender of Japan, the generalissimo had begun to airlift his best troops into Manchuria, which the communists had made their stronghold. The reds resisted, but was no match for the Nationalists’ battle-hardened veterans, who moved quickly north, smashing communist resistance at Sipingjie in May 1946, after a month of fighting. Southern Manchuria now recovered by the Nationalists and the communists were on the run. On June 6, 1946 the communist commander Lin Biao was ordered to prepare the abandonment of Harbin, the security key to the north Manchuria. But with Nationalist advance units already in sight of the Harbin, Chiang Kai-shek halted his attack. It was an error from which he would not recover. Nationalists lost the momentum, the communists had time to regroup and reorganize. Three years later, in 1949 it was thoroughly beaten and its remnants fled to Taiwan. Chiang Kai-shek had grasped the proverbial defeat from the jaws of victory, with enormous consequences for the rest of Asia felt to this day.

 

What explains Chiang’s action? In two worlds: American pressure. General George C. Marshall foolishly forced the halt of Nationalist advance on Harbin. General Marshall was a miscast and outmatched and foolish on Asian affairs and he walked uncomprehending into the snake pit of Chinese politics. General Marshall really began the cold war in Asia. No one expected the communists to win in China when Japan abruptly surrendered. When hostilities suddenly ceased, the communists were mostly holed up in their wartime base at Yanan, far away from the fighting in northern Shaanxi, and in any case lacked heavy military forces. All foreign powers, the USSR included, recognized Chiang Kai-sheik’s government at Chongqing as China’s sole legitimate authority. Stalin certainly did not expect the communists to win. At Yalta he had agreed to secret provisions that gave his forces in Manchuria a privileged administrative and military position that made no reference to Chinese sovereignty in the area. In fact many people expected Moscow simply to annex the territory. Chiang Kai-shek instead of focusing on China proper, where he had problems enough, he turned his government’s attention on Manchuria.

 

Strategically Manchuria had always been a key to the control of china proper: the jumping-off place for conquest dynasties, most recently in 1644 when the Manchus, who have given the territory its name, sent their armies through the passes to Beijing and beyond, to establish the great Qing dynasty, which lasted until 1912.

 

Japanese geopolitical treatise “Tanaka Memorial” declared: “He who controls Korea, controls the Manchuria. He who controls the Manchuria controls China. He who controls China, controls the destiny of the world.”

 

Chiang Kai-shek from 1925 to 1928 gambled his southern army on a lightening invasion, the so-called ‘Northern-Expedition,’ which overthrew the Buddhist military government in Beijing and established the Republic of China regime at Nanjing. China was the only second leader ever to conquer china from the south; no mean achievement. His strategy for Manchuria in 1946 rested on the same basic concept.

 

Chiang was controversial and spoke not a word of English. American commander in the China-Burma-India-theater “Vinegar Joe” Stillwell called him “the Peanut.” Chiang disliked by many Americans. Under Chiang’s leadership, China had been ruined in a war of futile resistance to Japan, and Chiang was personally blamed for rampant corruption, black marketeering and violence. The untried communists looked better to many people, including lots of intelligent and articulate foreigners.

 

Suppose Chiang Kai shek had not contested soviet and Chinese Communist control of Manchuria? How might Asia have developed? The answer is that something like an East Asian East Germany, a Chinese democratic Peoples republic would have developed, which would have been firmly under Moscow’s thumb.

 

As the Chinese civil war heated up, America advised Chiang Kai-shek not to try to take Manchuria. Americans recognized that it would be a risk to reach too far and might well undermine china’s chances of keeping control of China proper. The partition of Mainland China into a small Communist state in Manchuria and a large-non-communist state could have been agreed by the powers in a way that would have removed from Mao’s hands, the leverage to bring great power patrons into local disputes. Chiang’s Manchurian expedition was the flare that set the whole China aflame.

 

At the end of the Second World War, Chiang Kai-shek’s best troops were in China-Burma-India-theater (CBI). The New first and new sixth armies were put into Manchuria. These forces were tough and incomparably stronger than anything the communists had. Furthermore they had powerful artillery that far outmatched the lightly armed communist guerrilla forces. Chiang Kai-shek also had an Air Force.

 

Soviets agreed to withdraw and the Nationalist poured in, first by air, starting in the autumn of 1945 they rolled over all before them. The communist forces were caught by surprise, unprepared and unequipped for this kind of battle. Up and long the railway line, the Nationalist forces moved north. At Sipingjie, a key junction midway up Manchuria, they fought a month’s pitched battle before Communists cracked. Lin Biao, threw human waves after human waves against the Nationalist firepower, including 100,000 factory workers from Changchun. By May 18, 1946, 40,000 communists were dead and Lin Biao fled to the north.

 

What followed next is rather like Hitler’s famous “Halt Order,” which stopped the Wehrmacht as it closed in on the defeated British at Dunkirk, turning what should have been a decisive German victory into a strategic defeat.

 

General Marshall with all the power of a sole Ally, rich and overwhelmingly strong in ruined world, and in his own mind, some unrealistic ideas, General Marshall pressured Chiang Kai shek to halt his advance and Chiang did stop. Chiang’s incredulous commanders begged him to reconsider the order to stop the attack on Harbin, telling him that Harbin in Nationalist hand ensured a total victory over Communist military forces in Manchuria. Later Chiang would call this the worst mistake he ever made in dealing with the Communists. Chiang Kai-shek should have refused General Marshall’s request. After giving the knockout blow to the communists, he would have presented to the world with a fait accompli that would have won not only Washington, but Moscow as well to his side. One thing is certain, though: The decision to halt would remove the one chance Chiang Kai-shek had of actually winning the war militarily.

 

The military momentum of the Nationalist advance was lost. Like Sisyphus, the nationalist army pushed to the top but not quite, and then began to fall back. Had Chiang Kai-shek not contested Manchuria, Nationalist forces concentrated in China proper would have been much stronger. This is the argument of Arthur Waldron, “China Without Tears,” (Robert Cowley, what If, pp 377-392

 

There was no partition. Chiang threw his troops into Manchuria, and almost as soon as that move was made his dream began to crumble. The halt order was arguably the biggest setback. Manchuria was communist’s chosen territory, for which they had no choice but to fight. Manchuria for Communists was the “Death Ground” as Sun Zi calls it. In Manchuria, the communists had two critical advantages. First, Manchuria was their primary theater- the key, as they well understood. Communist could concentrate on Manchuria, while Nationalists had to chase all over China, whenever Communists launched an attack. Second the soviet position in north Manchuria provided active sanctuary for the communist forces. The nationalist lines of communication, by air and sea were by contrast fragile and easily broken.

 

Now, where the opium came from was a major CIA operation. One of the biggest - the only one I know of its scale that is yet to be exposed by journalists or muckrakers of any sort. This was the attempt to overthrow the People's Republic of China In 1949 the Red Army, Mao's Red Army, drove south and they drove the Nationalist forces of Chiang Kai-Shek in two directions: one down to Taiwan to the East and secondly, into this redoubt, this highland plateau which is the Hunan province in southwestern China.

 

The warlord of Hunan surprisingly surrendered, betrayed Chiang Kai-Shek, and surrendered to the communists. Chiang Kai-Shek's plan of having his old World War II redoubt, which was the bastion of his resistance against the Japanese, collapsed. American forces persuaded Buddhist warlord to surrender to communist China, just as America had forced Chiang Kai Shek’s forces to stop the invasion of communist forces in Manchuria. America had also forced Jawaharlal Nehru to stop the attack on Pakistan occupied Kashmir, when India was on the verge of winning the war. This was Chiang Kai-Shek's old mountain bastion. He thought he could hold it and maybe use it for counter-attack against Communist Maoist rebels. Well, the warlord of Hunan betrayed him for reasons nobody quite understands, turned it over to the communists, and Chiang's forces were suddenly without a redoubt. Kuomintang Army fled across the border into the mountains of northeastern Burma, where the CIA set up a massive support operation, including an air link that was of the nature of the hump, the flight from India across the hump of the Himalayas into the Hunan province of southern China during World War II.

 

They also rearranged the politics of Thailand. the CIA became involved in the factional politics among the military leadership in Thailand. They allied themselves with the commandant of the Thai national police, a particularly corrupt man named General Pao. General Pao went into the opium business with the nationalist Chinese forces in Laos. The CIA sustaining Kuomintang nationalist Chinese forces in Northeastern Burma on the China border, supporting two invasions of southern China by this force which left, in a couple of battles, dead white men on the field of battle. These dead men were CIA operatives or contract mercenaries working for the Agency,

 

Rather than surrendering southern Vietnam to the Red rulers' godless goons, the Eisenhower administration decided to create a new nation where none had existed before. Looking at America's post-Geneva policies from the vantage point of the mid 1960s, the Pentagon Papers concluded that South Vietnam was essentially the creation of the United States. The French had little enthusiasm for this emerging nation and its premier, and so the French had to go.

 

The Communists drove these advantages home. They stirred up guerrilla insurgency in Shandong to draw off nationalist forces that could otherwise have gone to Manchuria. Communists pinned down Nationalist forces all over China in positional defense. Then as the Communists’ conventional strength grew they gradually chewed up the pinned down Nationalist forces. The result was like a termite attack on a once-strong building. Appearances were not bad for the Nationalists from 1945 to 1947, as they scored impressive victories, but the military rations were moving against them. As time passed Nationalists were growing weaker and the Communists stronger. In 1948, Manchuria was lost as hundreds of thousands of nationalist troops, cut off and isolated in dozens of garrisons, had no choice but to surrender. In 1949, a powerful series of blows from the now-superior communist forces brought the whole Nationalist military apparatus crashing down.

 

America shocked by the Communist victory in China kick-started the McCarthy period. The “Loss of China” was followed, literally a few months later in June 1950, by the North Korean invasion of South Korea. The astonishing communist victory in China inspired Kim IL Sung in his blitzkrieg against Seoul, which started the Korean War.

 

During Chinese Civil War from 1946 to 1949 Judeo-Christian Nationalists fought against Judeo-Communist Maoists. Chinese Buddhists didn’t play much role in the Communist versus Christian civil war. After the merger of Hong Kong in to China in 1997, and crackdown on 100 million followers of Buddhist Falun Gong religious movement after 2000 and the transfer of power to the newer generation in 2002 in China, the conditions for a new civil war between communists and Buddhists have arisen. Communist China heading for a civil war between the theists and atheists. The forces of religion would confront forces of irreligion and forces of atheism. Hindu India should support the Buddhists in the looming Chinese civil war. The atheist Communists defeated Christian nationalists in the Chinese Civil War (1946-49). It is very likely that Buddhists and Taoists would win the Second civil war in China. China should be partitioned into Communist North China led by Beijing based atheist Mandarins and Communists and South China led by theist Buddhists and Taoists. Hindu India and Christian United States should support the forces of religion in the looming Chinese civil war. Had India after 1947 supported Chiang Kai-shek in the Chinese civil war (1946-1949), the menace of Communist China would not have taken birth and Communism would have remain localized only in Manchuria. Christianity defeat Communism in Poland, Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Buddhism and Taoism would defeat Communism in Southern China.

 

6(iii) 1242 Mongol Invasions of Europe

Mongol Empire was the Buddhist Empire. Dalai Lama of Tibet was the supreme religious leader of the entire Mongol Empire. Buddhist Mongols had conquered the Christian and Islamic world. Victory of Mongols was the victory of the Buddhists over Christians and Muslims. Had Buddhist Emperor Ogadai not died in 1241, Buddhism would have replaced Christianity in Western Europe and Eastern Europe. Europe would have become Buddhist in 1242. Once the Mongols had ridden through, no country was ever the same again.

 

What awaited Christian Western Europe in 1242, due to the impending Buddhist Mongol invasions, could have rewritten history of the white race from the history of dominance to that of the servitude to Asians. In 1242, Buddhist Mongol conquerors had reached Eastern Europe. Buddhist Mongols had destroyed on Christian army in Poland and another in Hungary. Buddhist Mongol vanguards had reached Vienna and the Adriatic. Mongols had established the largest connected land empire in the history of the world. Buddhist Mongol horse warriors out of central steppes of Asia, with composite bows that were far superior to European cross bows, formed the most disciplines and quick-moving fighting forces of their time. Buddhist Mongol army looked like a modern army set down in a medieval world. No one was able to stand up to them.

 

Despisers of city dwellers, culture and elites of any kind they were the Khmer rouge of 13th century. Khmer rouge laid waste entire Cambodia, the Mongols rampaged through an entire Asian continent and were about to swallow another continent of Europe. Never were Western Europe and the historical phenomenon it represented, in so much danger as in 1242. At the last moment, blind luck spared Western Christendom, the death of the great Buddhist Mongol Emperor. History may be a matter of momentum, but we can never forget that the life or death of a single individual, can still matter, the death of Emperor Ogadai Khan, the brilliant, humane, and drunken third son of Genghis Khan, who died of beer poisoning, as he preferred Beer over the drink made from Mare’s milk. Emperor Ogadai Khan not only kept Genghis Khan’s empire together but also directed its expansion. Still, the political organization of the Khanate did not match its military sophistication. The Mongols remained nomad tribesmen, bound by their personal loyalty to their chiefs. When the Emperor Ogadai Khan died, their law required them to go in person back to their heartland in Mongolia to elect a new Khan Emperor. On the brink of the assault on Europe, great general Sabotai let the job go and went home. The Mongols never returned. Their focus thereafter was on China, and in the West on Persia and the Arab states. It was the Mongol worldview, that same force that propelled them so furiously outward, that sucked them back home again, and so saved Europe, Western Christendom. That was a stroke of blind luck in 1242. This argument was beautifully developed by Cecilia Holland, in article, “The death that saved Europe: The Mongols Turns Back 1242” (Robert Cowley, What If? pp 93-106)  

 

By 1241 the Buddhist Mongol Army had already disposed of the two most formidable armies in Eastern Europe. The decisive battles occurred within a day of each other, although they were widely separated in distance. On April 9, 1241, united army of Germans, Poles, Templars and Teutonic knights marched out of Liegnitz to attack Mongols, who were steadily advancing westward across northern Poland. The two armies met on the flat field of Wahlstadt. The initial charges the heavily armored Christian knights seemed to break the Mongols, who fled. Duke Henry’s men pursued, in growing disorder, straight into a perfectly laid Mongol ambush. As General Sabotai and his army descended into Hungary across the plain, the Hungarian king Bela advanced from his capital Buda, to oppose them. Sabotai backed slowly until he reached the bridge over the Sajo River. There the Mongols made their stand.

 

On April 10, 1241, Bela attacked this bridge and drove the Mongol back. Fortifying his camp with heavy wagons lashed together, he swiftly built a makeshift fort securing both sides of the bridge. Sabotai’s scouts had meanwhile discovered a ford downstream. During the night, the great general Sabotai himself led his army downriver and across. At dawn Batu Khan and the rest of his army mounted a concentrated frontal assault on the Hungarian position. Bela swung to meet this pressure, and Sabotai attacked him from behind. Swiftly Bela’s battered troops were driven back into the wagon fort. The Mongols surrounded it, and most of the rest of the day assaulted the Hungarians with arrows, catapults of rocks, burning tar, and even Chinese firecrackers, keeping up a constant barrage, until the embattled Christians were at the breaking point. Then suddenly a gap appeared in the wall of Mongols surrounding the Hungarians. Some of Bela’s exhausted and disheartened men made a dash for it. When the first few seemed to escape, the rest followed, panicking, in a wholesale rout. Attacking from either side, Sabotai and his men at their leisure destroyed the Bela’s army. Only a few escaped back to Buda. One was King Bela, who did not stop running until he reached an island out in the middle of the Adriatic Sea. With Hungary under Mongol’s control, they stopped, and put their herds to graze and raised their yurts on the broad flat grasslands, so much like their native steppes. Though the summer of 1241, they rested and collected for the next assault.

 

Western Europe awaited them, stunned and almost helpless. Holy Roman Emperor Fredrick II and succession of Popes were locked in bitter struggle for supremacy. Preoccupied with Italy, Emperor Frederick II had abandoned his German inheritance to the local nobility. Neither Holy Roman Emperor nor Pope showed any inclination to unite to meet the threat posed by the Mongol army out there on the plains of Hungary. Only the Young King Louis IX of France, vigorous and idealistic was gathering an army of his chivalry, but he had at best a few thousand knights. No Christian army so far had stopped the Mongols or even slowed them down.

 

Buddhist Mongol General Sabotai was one of the Genghis Khan’s “Four Hounds.” Sabotai was coordinating his forces across two mountain ranges and several hundred miles. Sabotai was an old man in 1241, one of the history’s unsung military geniuses. His long and brilliant career ranged from northern China to this current campaign in Europe. His operation in Europe, in a difficult and for him in unusual terrain was flawless. The main body of Buddhist Mongol troops led by general Sabotai crossed the snowy passes of the Carpathians and descended onto the Hungarian plains after marching 270 miles in three days through the snow. The second force crossed through Poland. The third small Mongol force circled south of the mountains through Moldavia and Transylvania to screen their flank.

 

In 1209, Buddhist Genghis Khan and Mongol armies attacked northern china and there learned how to storm cities and began the long process of grinding down Chinese civilizations, the world’s oldest most populous civilization. For a while Genghis Khan contemplated depopulating the whole of northern China and converting it to pasture for his horses. Genghis Khan was deterred from it when an adviser pointed out that living Chinese would pay more taxes than dead ones. Mongol army killed one third of the population of china during Mongol conquests.

 

Part of Buddhist Mongol Genghis Khan’s strategy was calculated massacre. If a city resisted his armies, once it fell to him, and they always fell, he had all he inhabitants slaughtered. Genghis Khan slaughtered 1,600,000 at Herat in 1220, and 1,747,000 at Nishapur. Even when a city surrendered, as Bukhara yielded, the people were ordered out of the city so that it could be sacked, the young men and women and children were carried off into slavery and the city was leveled like a plain. In every conquered territory, the Mongols set up a governor and a tax collector, to continue to plunder the remaining inhabitants. Mongols imposed Yassa, the Mongol law code. Genghis Khan stoked up the central Mongol beliefs that hey were born to rule the world. Genghis Khan led the nomadic tribes of Asia and Gobi desert on a conquest that ultimately stretched from the East China Sea to the Mediterranean. The chief targets of Genghis Khan were the Chinese empires to the east of Mongolia, the Islamic states to the west and the south and the Russian cities beyond the Volga, and what he did to them changed the world for ever.

 

The third and the youngest brother of Genghis Khan became the emperor and Chatagai the elder brother and Batu Khan the son of the eldest brother Jochi served loyally. Batu Khan the grand son of Temujin, the Genghis Khan, received the largest portion of the Mongol Empire, on behalf of his father Jochi Khan, the eldest son of the Genghis Khan, and these lands were farthest from the center of the Buddhist Mongol Empire. In 1237, with general Sabotai masterminding the campaign, Batu Khan’s Mongol army attacked Russia and systematically reduced the Russia cities to rubble. Hundreds of thousands of Russians died. Then, in 1241, after a summer’s fattening on the great plains of southern Russia, the Mongols turned to Eastern Europe.

 

The Buddhist Mongol soldier carried a double recurve bow of laminated horn, with a pull of 160 pounds, which dispatched arrows accurately up to a distance of 300 meters as fast as he could pull them out of his quiver. Mongol soldier wore no heavy clumsy armor, but padded leather to skid aside arrows, and silk underwear to keep wounds clean. Mongol soldier seldom closed with an enemy hand to hand. Above all, he obeyed orders. Mongol soldier could ride horse forty miles a day, stop, camp on the ground and eat a handful of meat he had brought with him and get up at dawn and go another forty miles, day after day, in snow and desert heat and wind and rain fighting all the way. He drove three or four extra horses along with him as he rode and could change mounts without breaking out of a gallop and could shoot arrows without breaking out of a gallop. Enemy armies consistently overestimated the number of the Mongol forces. Mongols tied dummies onto extra horses to confuse the enemy armies.

 

Khwarezm and Persia were crisscrossed with an elaborate underground irrigation system that since antiquity sustained a thriving culture. Mongols destroyed them. The Mongol invasion of Iraq and Syria reduced the Muslim civilization almost to ruin. The Caliph of Baghdad, Islam’s supreme authority was tied into a leather sack and trampled to paste by horses. The Baghdad caliphate has never been restored. Before the Mongol invasions, Muslims had defeated the Christians and won long wars of the Crusades. After the Mongol invasion, the dour conservatism of fundamentalists darkened the entire Muslim world. Fundamentalism of Islam was the direct result of the humiliation it faced at hands of Buddhist Mongol armies.

 

The famous Russian xenophobia is often attributed to Russia’s experience at the hand of the Mongol armies. Russian cities were fat on their river trade, great Novrogrod, Ryazan, and Kiev until the terrible winters of the 1230s. In 1240s travelers found city of Kiev with a golden gate, to be just a village of a hundred persons, surrounded by bone yard.

 

Early in 1242, the Mongol army suddenly withdrew. Thousands of miles from Vienna, a single death had saved Christendom from disaster. A single death, the death of great Khan Ogadai, the drunken third son of Genghis Khan, who preferred Beer made from Barley, than the drinks made from milk of Mares. Emperor Ogadai died of Beer poisoning. In a way, Beer saved Western Christendom. No wonder, Christians love Beer, perhaps Christians should worship Beer, since Western Christendom survived because Beer poisoning killed Buddhist Mongol Emperor Ogadai in 1242. Long live Beer drinkers. But for the Beer Christianity would have ceased to exist. However, brown races of Incans, Mayans and Aztecs would have survived the massacre at the hands of white Christian Europeans, who accidentally escaped massacre at the hands of yellow Buddhist Mongols in 1242. Buddhist Mongols would have done to Christianity and to White Europeans, just what White Christian Europeans did to Brown Red Indians, Incans and Mayans and Aztecs. Yellow Buddhist Mongols turned out to be no less civilized and no more ruthless than the White Christian Europeans of the 16th Century New World.

 

China has inherited the patrimony of the Mongol Empire. Super power China has three options for expansion. Firstly, China could expand northward towards Eastern Siberia, which may result in the nuclear war with super power Russia. Secondly, China could expand southward towards Malaysia and Indonesia and subsequently Australia and New Zealand and it would require powerful Chinese Navy. Thirdly, China could follow the historic Silk Route and target Oil-producing Middle East. China is primarily a land power and it lacks aircraft carriers to launch massive invasions of Australia and New Zealand. Chinese invasions of Australia and New Zealand might result in the United States nuclear strikes against China. It might be in the national interest of Russia and United States to let China conquer the Middle East and to impose modern secular communist regime in Saudi Arabia to rid the world of the Islamic terrorism. Just as the Mongol conquest of Baghdad Caliphate destroyed Baghdad Caliphate forever and the Caliphate shifted from Semite Arabs to the Aryan Ottomans. Ottomans belonged to the nomadic tribes of Central Asia, who provided the military services to Chatagai Khan, the son of Genghis Khan as Mongol army controlled by his younger brother Emperor Ogatai Khan. China has the military capability to reclaim Mongol patrimony over the Islamic world to recreate new Mongol Empire in the Middle East. Hindu India might support Chinese conquest of the Middle East as prelude to the creation of Sinic Mongol Empire where Central Asian Muslim republics would get suitable influence and political role. Asian powers can conquer the Arab world following the route taken by Mongols. China could resettle 300 million Chinese in the Middle East. Chinese occupation of the Arabian Peninsula would permanently eradicate the menace of Wahhabi terrorism.

 

6 (iv) 410 Barbarian Conquest of Rome

America during Bush Administration or subsequent administrations would lose the war on Islamic Terrorism, if it repeatedly fails to recognize that Wahhabi terrorism as the historical barbarian invasions of the civilizations, which requires the decisive and collective response of the world civilizations to destroy the menace. If Christian civilization guided by Real Politik attempts to hire the Wahhabi terrorists, to destabilize Hindu India or Orthodox Russia, the results would be catastrophic to all civilizations.

 

Roman Civilization and Persian Civilization lost to the barbarian invaders, because Roman Empire sought to recruit barbarian Visigoth soldiers in the Roman Army. Had Roman Empire and Persian Empire settled imperial ambitions and made a common cause against barbarian Visigoths, both Roman civilization and Persian Civilization would have survived to this date. Roman Empire lost to the Visigoth German barbarian tribes and Persian empire lost to the barbarian Arab Bedouin nomads, because Roman and Persian civilizations failed to develop the common Civilization’s military response to the looming threat of the barbarian invasions. Persian Zoroastrian Empire and Roman Hindu Empire should have taken common stand against barbarians in the north and in the south.

 

The ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, Rome and Persia worshipped the same gods and followed the same religion and culture. The civilizations of ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Persia and India then followed the religion presently followed by the people of India and known as Hinduism. The soldiers of the Roman Army as well as of Persian Army worshipped God Mithra and sought Mithra’s blessings for victory, even during Persian Roman Wars. Roman Emperor Theodosius I (d. 395) changed to Christianity after he won the crucial war, where both sides worshipped Mithra. Church of Rome aligned with the barbarian invaders of Rome to weaken Rome and to destroy the Roman Empire and sought to legitimize the barbarians’ empires as Holy Roman Empire.

 

The rise and fall of an empire is a long process, but the heaviest doors pivot on small hinges, and at the battle of Adrianople (august 9, 378) the hinges turned. At Adrianople, a Germanic people, the Visigoths, destroyed a Roman army and killed the Roman Emperor Valens (r. 364-378). Around AD 350 a single empire, Rome governed much of the Near East and North Africa as well as what is now England, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Spain, Italy, Switzerland and western Germany. Then violent barbarian invasions began to tear Roman Empire apart. In the east the Roman Empire survived as the Byzantine state for a thousand years, until the Ottoman Turki conquest of Constantinople in 1453. The Western Roman Empire had been tottering for years. Roman land plundered and Roman cities were attacked. Rome itself was sacked in 510 and 455. Roman men were killed and Roman women dragged off as war booty to marry barbarian Germanic chiefs. The central roman government could not stop foreigners from settling en masse on roman lands and from eventually carving out separate kingdoms in the Roman state. Roman population had declined. Pope Gelasius (r. 492-496) wrote of Emilia, Tuscany provinces of Italy in which nearly not a single human existed. The city of Rome, which had one million people in first century, had a population of about 25,000 in ninth century AD.  

 

Throughout history, Roman Empire had to face continual military challenges from the warlike peoples on its frontiers. In the fourth century AD, a double threat confronted Roman Empire, with Persia on the rise in the east and various Germanic barbarians pushing from the north. In response to the frequent emergencies, the Roman Empire was divided into two, with one Eastern Roman Emperor in Constantinople and another Western Roman Emperor at Rome.

 

In the early fourth century AD, the Visigoths, a Germanic barbarian people, had settled north of the Danube in Dacia (modern Romania), formerly a roman province. About fifty bears later Visigoths invaded by other German tribes, who were in turn fleeing from the Huns. In AD 376 the Visigoths asked the Roman government in Constantinople for permission to cross Denube to seek refuge, a permanent home, in roman Thrace, all 200,000 Visigoth tribe men, women and children. Eastern Roam Emperor Valens (r. 364-378) agreed to their requests. Emperor Valens knew that Visigoths were dangerous warriors but he planned to co-opt them and add them to Roman armies, which already had a Visigothic contingent. No sooner did the Visigoths cross the Danube they came into conflict with the Roman officials. In early 377 Visigoths began a revolt that defeated a Roman army and the revolt spread among other aggrieved groups such as miners and slaves. With the help of large cavalry contingent from their barbarian allies, Visigoths forced a Roman retreat. The barbarians poured over a wide extent of Thrace like wild animals escaping from their cages.

 

In spring 378, the Eastern Roman Emperor Valens prepared to counterattack with an army estimated at thirty to forty thousand men. Valen’s nephew Gratian (r. 367-383) marched to his aid from Raetia (roughly

Switzerland). Instead of waiting for Gratian’s reinforcements, Valens insisted on fighting. The battle took place on the plains near the city of Adrianople (modern Edirne, in Turkey) on 9th august 378. Visigoths might have been barbarians, but their leader Fritigern had a sure instinct for the enemy’s weak points, especially the weak points of the Emperor Valens himself. About two-thirds of the Romans in the battle were killed. Thirty-five high-ranking officers got killed. The greater casualty was Emperor Valens himself. Romans lost 20,000 to 25,000 men in a single day, was big enough to imperil Rome’s manpower needs. Visigoths were now free to roam the Balkans. The defeat at Adrianople resulted in the end of the Old roman ability to bounce back from defeat. Then onwards Rome allowed the enemy Visigoths to settle within the boundaries of the Eastern Roman Empire, south of the Danube, in the area of modern Bulgaria. Rome allowed the Visigoths to keep their arms. Visigoths were in theory allies, but in practice Visigoths were a rival state. Visigoths in 390s looted Greece and the Balkans and then after 400 they did the same to Italy. The height of disaster came in 410, when the Visigoths led by the wily and aggressive Alaric took the city of Rome and sacked it for three days.

 

The defeat at Adrianople (378) resulted in the defeatism and lowered the morale of Roman army, which argued that Rome could not prevail in battle against the enemy. Rome also needed Visigoths as soldiers and the Romans believed that they could co-opt them and tame them. Four times between 395 and 405, in Italy and the Balkans, roman armies fought and beat the Visigoths under Alaric, but each time they allowed Visigoths and Alaric to escape. In 408, thirty years after battle of Adrianople (378) Alaric and Visigoths were in Italy. After sacking Rome in 410, Visigoths settled in Gaul and Spain. Meanwhile, to save Italy, Western Roman Empire had to withdraw troops from Britain and Gaul, which gave other barbarian German tribes the opportunity to invade the Western Roman empire. Britain was lost to Rome after 407 and soon large parts of Gaul, Spain and North Africa were effectively independent. Then Western Roman Army became dependent on barbarian mercenaries, then Western Roman Empire couldn’t but travel far down on the road to 476, when the barbarian German tribes in Italy, deposed the last Western Roman emperor, Romulus Augustus (r. 475-476), whose empire was mere fiction.   

 

War of Arminius Hermann AD 9

Romans feared the furor Teutonicus. The barbarians massacred the three Roman legions with 15,000 infantry and 10,000 women, children, auxiliaries, and slaves halfway between two military strong points in the thickly wooded ravines of the Teutoburg Forest, in 9 AD. Romans died like penned cattle. The mob of screaming barbarians fell upon the roman column. The difficulty of the terrain ( a narrow causeway between steep embankments, the wet ground treacherous and slippery around the roots and longs, overturned wagons, horses dying in the mud, prevented the Roman legions from bringing to bear their superior weapons and tactics. Roman legions trained to fight in the open field they carried heavy javelins and the short Spanish sword with which they were accustomed to cutting down their enemies in the manner of farmers reaping wheat. But in the German forest Roman army was caught in a tangle of trees, encumbered by a baggage train strung out over a distance of nine miles, unable to form their cohorts into disciplined lines. The Cherusci, Chatti and Bructeri barbarian tribes began the attack at dusk, hurling their spears from the rock outcroppings higher up on the hillsides, and during three days and three nights of leisurely slaughter in a cold and steady rain, they annihilated the entire roman army. Varus committed suicide, so did every other officer who knew that it was the practice of the Cherusci barbarians to nail their vanquished but still living enemies to the trunks of sacred oak trees. Arminius sent Varus’s head to Maroboduus, the barbarian king in Bohemia, who forwarded the head of Varus to Rome. Emperor Augustus so shocked by the utter destruction of so fine an army that he rent his garments and was in great affliction. The fear of barbarian invasion drifted through city of Rome. Mocked by the defeat in the Teutoburg Forest, Emperor Augustus abandoned the project of civilizing the German wilderness, and in the will that he left to his successor Tiberius, he bequeathed the virtue of prudence, “Be satisfied with the status quo and suppress completely any desire to increase the empire to greater size.” Emperor Augustus died in AD 14. By and large Tiberius headed the advice but in AD 15 he allowed his nephew, Germanicus to undertake the revengeful campaign against the Cherusci. Germanicus didn’t manage to defeat arminius in a decisive battle and on his recall to Rome in AD 16, emperor Tiberius adopted the policy of settling the Roman empire’s northern boundary along the angle formed by the Danube and the upper Rhine. Barbarian clans knew Arminius by the name of Hermann, and they proclaimed him first a hero and then a legend. Arminius Hermann was unmistakably the liberator of Germany, and challenger of Rome, not in its infancy but at the height of its power. Arminius defied the majesty and cynicism of Rome, not only in the Teutoburg Forest but also in pitched battles against legions under the command of both Germanicus and Tiberius. During the third and fourth centuries AD the name and triumph of Arminius served as a metaphor for the valor of the barbarians crowding south upon the decay of Rome.

 

Leopold von Ranke discovered in the prowess of Arminius Hermann an early proof of Aryan supremacy, stalwart blond people, blue-eyed and fair-skinned, resisting the advance of the mongrel races enlisted under the imperial eagles of roman luxury and greed.

 

Sir Edward Creasy in “Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World” (1852) argued that Roman Empire represented the corruption of debased Italians deserving defeat at the hands of purebred Anglo-Saxons notable for their bravery, their fidelity to their word, their manly independence of spirit, their love of their natural free institutions and their loathing of every pollution and meanness. Richard Wagner set the words to music, and the American pioneers carried them west against the Sioux, and President teddy Roosevelt endorsed it. Adolf Hitler fitted the Arminius strategy in the design of Auschwitz. The White Anglo Saxon Protestant’s WASP USA had more in common with the Anglo Saxon barbarian Arminius Hermann than with the Roman Empire.

 

American imperialism even in 21st century exudes the barbarian streaks of Anglo Saxon tribes than that of the Roman Empire, which sought to preserve not destroy different civilizations. Just as Anglo Saxon barbarians destroyed the Roman civilization, similarly WASPs destroyed the Native American Civilization. The ancient civilizations of the New World Incas, Mayas, Aztecs and Sioux civilizations were as great as that of the ancient roman civilization and they like Roman Empire fell to the invasion of the European barbarians. White European Christian invasion and conquest was the barbarian conquest of the Civilizations Native Americans, Incas, Mayas and Aztecs. Just as descendants of German barbarian tribes Visigoth represent the greatness of the Western Christendom Civilization, which emerged out of the corpse of the Roman Civilization, similarly the descendants of barbarian Anglo Saxons and Lombards and Franks represent the civilization of the New world which emerged out of the conquest of the great civilizations of Native Americans, Aztecs, Mayas and Incas. Arnold Toynbee explains in the “Study of History” that barbarians conquer the civilizations and they adapt the civilization to recreate the civilization and come to represent the civilization itself over the period of time, and become vulnerable to the invasions of the new barbarians. The descendants of the barbarian Anglo Saxon tribes that destroyed Native American Civilization in 17th 18th and 19th Centuries have now come under attack of barbarian Wahhabi terrorists, because like the Roman Empire, United States hired Islamic terrorists to promote American interests in the near past.

 

6(v) Military Blunders of Hitler

Rather than attacking Soviet Union Adolf Hitler should have attacked the Middle East and secured Oil. Hitler like Napoleon seriously contemplated a campaign through the Near East, following the route of another conqueror Alexander the Great. Hitler and Napoleon both came to grief in Russia. If in 1941, Hitler had put off his invasion of the Soviet Union for a year and had gone for the prize of the Middle Eastern Oil that might have given him the edge against the Allied Powers. In the summer of 1941, Hitler should have chosen to make his major attack not into Soviet Union but across the eastern Mediterranean into Syria and the Lebanon. Had Hitler developed amphibious Navy to transport his troops to the Syrian coast via Crete following the coastlands of Turkey he would have conquered Vincy French Syria. From Syria Hitler should have attacked Iraq and then Iran. The establishment of strong military presence in northern Iran would have positioned his forces close to the Soviet oil production centers on the Caspian Sea. Nazi drive into southern Iran would have given Hitler possession of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company’s wells and vast refinery at Abadan. From eastern Iran, the land routes lay open towards Punjab and Delhi. Indian leader Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose had offered Indian support to Nazi Germany in exchange for German military support for India’s independence from British rule. The Nazi occupation of the French Levant- Syria and Lebanon would have placed Hitler astride a network of strategic highways leading not only to the main centers of Middle eastern oil supply but also to entry points to India and also the southern provinces of Stalin’s Russia. However, by the spring of 1941 Russia had become a strategic obsession to Hitler. Even after the invasion of Soviet Union, Hitler should have turned southward after reaching Stalingrad to invade Iran from the north. The conquest of Soviet Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia would have given Nazi Germany access to the Soviet oil production centers at Baku and solved the oil-shortage in Nazi Germany. By marching southward after reaching Stalingrad Hitler would have gained control over Caspian Sea and Black Sea. Hitler stupidly sent troops to Libya as Egypt had no resources and had no value. Hitler should have used nazi Navy to invade Syria and launched infantry invasion of Iraq and Iran. The Kurds would have supported German invaders to gain freedom from Arab and Turki oppression.

 

Hitler signed the Tripartite Pact between Germany, Italy and Japan on September 27, 1940, hereafter known as the Axis Powers. The foremost strategy of Germany should have been to use the Italy as the launching point to conquer Greece and then to control the coastline of turkey to invade Syria, then to Iraq, then to Iran and to invade Indian Empire. The freedom fighters of India would have joined German troops to link the Nazi armies with the Japanese armies that had reached Burma and Assam. Even after reaching Stalingrad Hitler should have moved southward towards Iran and moved on to the Southern Iran and southern Iraq to capture the oil production centers of Iraq and Iran. 

 

Japan after Pearl Harbor attack should have attacked Australia, which was defenseless. In exchange for the open immigration to Australia millions of Chinese would have joined Japanese army and China would have become the Ally of Japan rather than an enemy.

 

Hitler launched Marita to bring Yugoslavia and Greece under his complete control. On April 6, 1941 Yugoslavia was simultaneously from five directions, by the Italians from Albania, by the Hungarian army and by German forces based in Austria, Romania and Bulgaria. Yugoslavia was attacked from five frontiers from Albania, Hungary, Austria, Romania and Bulgaria. The Yugoslav army collapsed immediately, freeing the Germans and Italians to switch Axis troops southward into Greece. On April 27, 1941 British survivors succeeded in making their escape from southern Greek ports, leaving many prisoners and almost all their heavy equipment behind them. Operation Marita was a great triumph for Hitler. At almost no cost, Hitler had completed his conquest of mainland Europe, leaving only Sweden, Switzerland and the Iberian Peninsula outside his or that of his allies. Hitler was stupid to send famous Afrika Korps under Erwin Rommel to rescue Italians from defeat in Libya.  

 

Adolf Hitler foolishly overlooked that ample oil lay close at hand, all the closer since he had completed the conquest of Greece. Iraq, Iran and Saudi Arabia were the world’s largest producers of oil and a direct route towards their fields and refinery lay just across the eastern Mediterranean through Syria. If Turkey’s neutrality was to be violated a land route was also available. Kurds would have joined the war on the side of Nazi Germany against Kemalist Turks. The French Levant, Syria and Lebanaon was weakly defended. The Vichy French army in Syria and Lebanon numbered only 38,000, without modern equipment or air cover. The British army in Palestine, Egypt, and Libya numbered only seven divisions and was already locked in combat with the Afrika Korps, which buttressed a larger Italian army. Militarily, if the German-Italian forces in the Middle East were strengthened, the Middle East was ripe for plucking. There was even the making of a local pro-German client regime. On April 3, 1941, Rashid Ali had overthrown the pro-British government in Iraq and asked for German help. German aircraft arrived at Mosul on 13th May 1941, having staged through Syria, the Vichy French garrison feeling powerless to impede. Furher Directive 30 of 23rd May 1941 outlined a project to support the Arab Freedom Movement in conjunction with a German-Italian offensive towards the Suez Canal. The Furher Directive 32 of 11th June 1941 anticipated assembly of forces in Bulgaria sufficient to render turkey politically amenable or overpower her resistance. Hitler should have sent Erwin Rommel to invade Syria, Iraq and Iran rather than to North Africa.   

 

Hitler should have chosen the Nazi thrust into the Middle East from Bulgaria and Greece as the principal operation for 1941, rather than sending troops to Africa and invasion of the Soviet Union. Hitler should have used Italian Dodecanese Islands off the Turkish coast, other Greek islands or British Cyprus as stepping-stones to Vichy Syria. Italian Rhodes might have been chosen as a staging point for an airborne assault on Cyprus, employing the 7th airborne division, in practice uselessly thrown away in the descent on Crete on 20th May 1941. Behind an airborne bridgehead in Cyprus and employing local shipping protected by German airpower, a sizable amphibious assault force could have been built up for landings in Syria and Lebanon. Once a secure foothold had been established in the French Levant, mobile columns could have crossed desert to northern Iraq to create a strong lodgment area. The reinforcements from the lodgment area would have begun the conquest of southern Iraq, Iran and Saudi Arabia. The oil of the Middle east would have solved all Hitler’s difficulties in maintaining his military machine. By the end of 1941, with a force of only twenty-five divisions, Hitler would have pushed towards Russian Caucasus from northern Iran to threaten Stalin’s oil-producing centers on the Caspian Sea. This scenario depends for its success on the assembly of sufficient shipping in the eastern Mediterranean to transport the force required.

 

The landward invasion of Iran through neutral Turkey would have worked very well. Turkey was weak militarily. Turks lacked during the Second World War any sort of modern military equipment. Hitler should have invaded eastern Turkey after the conquest of Yugoslavia and Greece, but before the invasion of Soviet Union using Bulgaria and Greek Thrace as springboard, to capture Istanbul, cross the Bosphorus and capture Anatolia, the Turkish mainland. The Wehrmacht was certainly capable of surmounting the difficulties of traversing the Anatolian terrain. Nazi army ‘s rapid advance to the Caucasus barrier, Russia’s frontier with turkey, would have secured the Wehrmacht’s flank with the Soviet Union. From Anatolia it would have been easy march into Iraq and Iran and Saudi Arabia. Hitler should have conceived Barbarossa as a pincer movement rather than a blunt frontal assault on Soviet Union. Hitler should have used Balkan victories of April 1941 in Yugoslavia and Greece to align his forces for an Anatolian (turkey) and Levantine (Syria, Lebanon) victory leading to wide conquests in Arabia and the securing of decisive positions on Russia’s southern flank. Hitler by invading Anatolia and Levant would have fatally undermined Britain’s foothold in the Middle East and dangerously threatened British dominance of the Indian Empire.

 

Hitler worked within a strategic vision limited by legalistic and ideological blind spots. Legally Hitler could find no quarrel with Turkey’s stringent neutralist diplomacy. Ideologically Hitler’s fear and hatred of Bolshevism allowed him no freedom to choose an alternative to his desire to smash the Soviet Union by direct frontal assault. Adolf Hitler, the Fuhrer lost the Second World War because he was a stupid military strategist and lacked clear understanding of geopolitics. 

 

6(vi) 1521 Conquest of Aztecs

The final military event in the conquest of Mexico was the Aztec surrender on 13th August 1521. One of the central episodes of the 1520s was the taking of the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan, by Herman Cortes, the Spanish conquistador. The question most asked is how so few men could topple an entire kingdom. Spanish force was not more than 900 men. Disease has never been a respecter of historical odds. Small Pox, which Spanish brought with them, killed 40 percent of the population of Mexico in a year, including one Aztec King.

 

There would not have been any Spanish rule in Mexico had Aztecs killed Spaniards rather than capturing them for sacrifice to the Aztec god of war. Aztec empire was lost because they failed to kill Cortes and other captives, because they wanted to sacrifice them to Aztec god of war, Huitzilopochtli. Cortes and his men leapt across the breach in the causeway to pursue the fleeing Aztecs, only to see them turn and attack. Drawn into the trap, Herman Cortes and sixty-eight other Spaniards were captured and dragged off. Cortes escaped his death by sacrifice at Aztec temple, only through the intervention of Cristobel de Olea, who sprang to his defense, killed the four Aztecs who were dragging him off, and freed his leader at the cost of his own life. The very conquest of Mexico hung on this single act. Herman Cortes had been captured and Aztecs were dragging him to the temple of Huitzilopochtli for sacrifice, when he escaped when one soldier killed the four Aztecs who were dragging him to the temple. 

 

Mesoamerica discovered by Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba. He landed in Yucatan in 1517 and he clashed with the Maya and was ultimately repulsed with devastating losses. This was followed by the second expedition in 1518, under Juan de Grijalva, who also clashed the Maya but who sailed beyond Yucatan and up the gulf coast to central Veracruz where he encountered the Aztecs. Third expedition under Herman Cortes reached Yucatan in early 1519 with as many as 450 men and reached Grijalva’s anchorage on the central Veracruz coast and there was greeted by Aztecs officials bearing food and gifts but who left later on. Aztecs should have attacked the Cortes with force. There Totonac King established contact and allied with Cortes against Aztec.

 

The Aztec Empire relied on conquest or intimidation to subdue opponents, and left the local rulers in place. No imperial offices or officeholders were imposed to hold the system together, so this system was also vulnerable to shifts in the local power balance that could quickly and easily alter allegiances. The Spanish arrival was such a change and the Totonacs seized on it.

 

In 1519, en route to Tenochtitlan, Spaniards neared the province of Tlaxcallan (Tlaxcala) and were repeatedly attacked by Tlaxcaltecs. Spaniards suffered many wounded and their supplies were running low. Cortes sent repeated entreaties to Tlaxcaltecs. Two sides eventually forged an alliance. The Tlaxcaltecs could have defeated the Spaniards had they continued the battle as their commander wanted and Cortez’s adventure would have ended. But the Tlaxcaltecs had their own reason for allying with the Spaniards. Tlaxcaltecs had been engaged in a long-term war with the Aztecs and completely encircled and cut off, their defeat was only a matter of time. The coming of the Spanish offered them an unforeseen way to win.

 

A major tactic in Mesoamerican battles was to breach the opposition lines and turn the enemies’ flanks, which was very difficult to do. But Spanish cannons, the matchlock muskets called harquebusiers, crossbows and horsemen could disrupt enemy lines and though the Spanish force was too few men to exploit these breeches, the Tlaxcaltecs were not short of manpower and could exploit these breeches. Spanish arms greatly multiplied the effectiveness of the Tlaxcaltec army.

 

The Spaniards stayed in Tlaxcallan for 17 days before marching to the province of Cholollan (Cholula), where Chololtecs welcomed the Spaniards. However, Cortes assembled the nobles in the main courtyard and massacred the Chololtec nobles who had welcomed him. The Chololtecs chose a new king and Cholollan re-allied with Tlaxcallan.

 

Two weeks later, Cortes marched into the Valley of Mexico and reached Tenochtitlan on November 8, 1519. Cortes was greeted by Moteuczoma (Montezuma) and housed in the palace of his deceased father, Axayacatl, who had been the King from 1468 to 1481. The enormous island-city of at least 200,000 Tenochtitlan was connected to the mainland by three major causeways that could be quickly severed. Cortes seized Monteuczoma within a week of his arrival, held him captive, and ruled through him for the next eight months.

 

Pedro de Alvarado had been left in Tenochtitlan with eighty soldiers, while Cortes had gone to the coast to challenge Panfilo de Navarez sent by governor Velazquez to capture Cortes. Pedro de Alvarado placed artillery at the four entrances of the walled courtyard of the great Temple and then massacred an estimated eight to ten thousand unarmed Aztec nobles trapped inside. Word of massacre caused the uprising. Cortes returned with a force of 1,300 Spaniards and 2,000 Tlaxcaltecs on June 24, 1520. Once Cortes was inside the city, the Aztecs raised the causeway bridges and the Spaniards were apparently trapped. Cortes took Moteuczoma onto the roof to stop the attack, but to no avail, and Spanish captors killed King Monteuczoma.

 

Cortes ordered portable wooden spans built to bridge the gaps in the causeways and during a heavy rainstorm just before midnight on June 30 1520 the Spaniards began their escape. They were quickly discovered and only a third of the Spanish force got away. Cortes reached Tlaxcallan, but Cortes had lost over 865 Spaniards and 1000 Tlaxcaltecs. If the Aztecs had assailed the fleeing Spaniards immediately and continuously, few if any would have survived. The 440 surviving Spaniards rested for three weeks and then in early august 1520 marched again and conquered nearby Aztec tributary cities.

 

Indians now faced a new, nonmilitary threat. Smallpox arrived with Narvaez’s expedition and swept through central Mexico, killing some 40 percent of the population of Mexico in one year in 1520, including Moteuczoma’s successor, King Cuitahua, who ruled for only eighty days. Death of King Cuitlahua meant that with the accession of his successor King Cuauhtemoc, the Aztecs had three kings in less than six months during 1520.

 

Since 1515, Tetzcoco the second most important city of the Aztec Empire in Mexico had been politically divided over who should succeed to the throne in Tetzcoco. Cacama took the throne of Tetzcoco with strong Aztec support, but another contender Ixtlilxochitl fought a civil was, conquered the area north of Tetzcoco, which he then ruled in an uneasy accommodation with Tenochtitlan. When Cortes entered the Mexico valley in 1520 with 40 horsemen and 550 Spanish foot soldiers, Ixtlilxochitl seized the opportunity to ally with him, and the reigning King Tetzcoco fled Tetzcoco. Ixtlilxochitl’s support gave the Spaniards a strong foothold for their attacks and provided a secure logistical base. Cortes won the allegiance of disaffected cities in the Mexico valley and fought a series of battles with the Aztecs.

 

City of Tenochtitlan was supplied by canoe, so Cortes planned to take control of the lake. Spaniards began assembling the brigantines. On April 28, 1521, Cortez launched his ships, each over forty feet long, with twelve oarsmen, twelve crossbowmen or harquebusiers, a captain and an artilleryman for its bow mounted cannon. Supported by thousands of Indian canoes, they barricaded Tenochtitlan and cut off its flow of food and water.

 

The Spaniards now numbered just over 900 and those not on the brigantines were divided into three armies of fewer than 200 Spaniards each supported by 20,000 to 30,000 Indian troops each. The main event took place on June 30, 1521, when the Aztec defenses seemed to crumble in the heat of the battle the Spaniards crossed an unfilled breech on the Tlacopan causeway. Their ploy having succeeded, the Aztecs turned trapped the attackers and killed many more. The captives were all sacrificed and fearing a shift in the tide of war, most of the Cortes’s Indian allies left. Aztecs foolishly captured cortes and instead of killing him were carrying him for sacrifice at the temple of the god of war. Cristobal de Olea sacrificed his own life to kill four Aztecs who were dragging Cortes to the temple for sacrifice. The Aztecs should have killed all the Spanish captives. Cortes had three lieutenants but there was no clear second in command. The Spanish conquest of Mexico would have been lost, had Aztecs killed 68 Spanish captives including Cortes, instead of capturing and dragging them to sacrifice them at the temple of god of war.

 

 

 

 

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