Kadanjoe Asia Pacific Sdn. Bhd. (Company No. 243428-U)

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1. Setting Up An Insurance Audit (Ms Word) 

     (Letting Your Insurance Adviser Gazes Into The Crystal Ball)  

2. From Professional Liability Underwriting Society (Ms Word)      

    (Global Climate Change and D & O Insurance)


For guidance the following rules of interpretation will be useful when endeavouring to construe the policy terms. These are shown in accordance to order of priority:-


(1)     The printed form is the basis of the contract. Certain clauses have been overprinted on the form in italics as they are so often used. It is usual to consider that these clauses override the ordinary printed wording where they are inconsistent.


(2)             While the main wording appears in the “body” of the policy, often, clauses are printed or typed in the margin of the policy. These “marginal clauses” are to be given more importance than the wording in the body of the policy.


(3)            Since the margin of the policy does not provide sufficient space for the Clauses in common use, printed clauses are customarily gummed to the policy form, which over-ride both marginal clauses and the body of the policy, e.g. standard clauses for hull or cargo insurance.

Over the last 20th Century, modern office equipment/computer

has changed such policy packaging but the principles remain.


(4)             Printed wording is over-ridden by typewritten wording, or wording impressed by an inked rubber stamp.


(5)            Handwriting takes precedence over typed or impressed wording. There are no grounds for believing that clauses printed in red are more important than black clauses: devices of colour are only aimed at emphasis.