-  Senior Lecturer in Philosophy, Department of Philosophy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, August 2016...
  -  Lecturer in philosophy, Department of Philosophy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, September 2010-July 2016
  -  Temporary lecturer in philosophy, Department of Philosophy, University of Reading, Reading, UK, September 2009–August 2010.
  -  Temporary lecturer in philosophy, Department of Philosophy, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK, September 2008–August 2009.

  -  Ethics, especially metaethics and ethical theories.

  -  Political philosophy, free will, realism debates, philosophy of language, applied ethics, Early modern philosophy.

  -  PhD in Philosophy, University of Reading, 2004–2008. 
Dissertation: Contractualist Principles and Wrongness. Supervisors: Brad Hooker and Philip Stratton-Lake, Examiners: Jonathan Dancy and James Lenman (Univ. of Sheffield). 
  -  Visiting scholar, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Aug. 2006–May 2007.
  -  Doctor of Social Sciences in Philosophy, University of Helsinki, 2001–2007.
Dissertation: Ethics of Justification – A Defence of Contractualism. Supervisor: Timo Airaksinen. Opponent: Geoffrey Sayre-McCord (UNC, Chapel Hill). 
  -  Master of Social Sciences, Major: Philosophy, University of Helsinki, 1995–2001.

A) Articles in Peer-Reviewed Journals: 
        Forthcoming in Acta Analytica.
  -  "Contractualism and the Counter-Culture Challenge"
        Forthcoming in Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics.
        Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics 4, 2014, pp. 113-137.
  -  "Consequentialist Options".
        Utilitas 26 (3), 2013, pp. 276 - 302.
  -  "Moral Error Theory and the Belief Problem".
        Oxford Studies in Metaethics 8, 2013, pp. 168-194.
        The Philosophical Quarterly, 62 (248), 2012, pp. 592–613.
International Journal of Wellbeing 1, 2011, pp. 149-166.
  -  “Non-Naturalism: the Jackson Challenge”. 
Oxford Studies in Metaethics 5, 2010, pp. 87-110.
Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 90 (3), 2009, pp. 364-387. 
Philosophy Compass 4 (5), 2009, pp. 768-779. 
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 7 (5), 2005, pp. 513–535.
Theoria 71 (1), 2005, pp. 38–58.
  -  “What We Owe to Many”.
Social Theory and Practice 30 (4), 2004, pp. 485–506.

B) Books: 
  -   This is Ethics: an Introduction, Wiley-Blackwell, 2014. 
  -   Essays on Derek Parfit’s On What Matters, co-edited with John Cottingham, Blackwell, 2009.

C) Critical Notices 
  -  "Intentions, Blame, and Contractualism".
            An extensive critical review of T.M. Scanlon's Moral Dimensions:
            Permissibility, Meaning, Blame, Jurisprudence 2(2), 2011, pp. 561-573.
  -  "Consequentialism, Constraints, and the Good-Relative-to: A Reply to Mark Schroeder".
            Journal of Ethics & Social Philosophy,, 2009 (March).
  -  "Normativity of Reasons – A Critical Notice of Joshua Gert’s Brute Rationality".
            International Journal of Philosophical Studies 12 (4), 2004, pp. 478–491. 

D) Book Reviews
  -  "Review of Errol Lord and Barry Maguire's Weighing Reasons". Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews, July 2016.
  -  "Review of Gunnar Björnsson, Caj Strandberg, Ragnar Francén Olinder, John Eriksson, and Fredrik Björklund’s (eds.) Motivational Internalism". 
            The Philosophical Quarterly 66 (264), 2016, pp. 658-661.
  -  "Review of Erik J. Wielenberg’s Robust Ethics: The Metaphysics and Epistemology 
            of Godless Normative Realism". 
            Ethics 126 (2), 541-545.
  -  "Review of Michael Devitt’s Putting Metaphysics First – Essays on Metaphysics and Epistemology". 
            Mind 124 (493), 2015, pp. 327–331.
  -  "Review of Katarzyna De Lazari-Radek and Peter Singer’s The Point of View of the Universe – Sidgwick and Contemporary Ethics". 
            Philosophers’ Magazine 67 (4), 2014, pp. 114–118.
  -  "Review of Gerald Gaus's The Order of Public Reason".
            Economics and Philosophy 30(1), 2014, pp. 106-113.
  -  "Review of James Lenman and Yonatan Shammer's (eds.) Constructivism in Practical Philosophy".
            Ethics 123(4), 2013, pp. 763-768.
  -  "Review of Thomas Hurka's Drawing Morals, Underivative Duty, and The Best Things in Life".
            Philosophy in Review 33 (1), 2013, pp. 44-48.
  -  "Review of Derek Parfit's On What Matters, Vols. 1 and 2".
            Philosophers' Magazine 54 (3), 2011, pp. 102-103.
  -  "Review of Caspar Hare's On Myself and Alison Hills' The Beloved Self"
            Times Literary Supplement, June 17, 2011, p. 25.
            Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews, January 2011.
  -  "Review of Alan Goldman's Reasons from Within".
            Times Literary Supplement, 23 July, 2010, p. 12.
  -  “Review of Anita Superson’s The Moral Sceptic”.
            Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews, July 2009.
  -  “Review of Roger Crisp’s Reasons and the Good”.
            The Philosophical Quarterly 57 (July, vol. 228), 2007, pp. 503–505.
  -  “Review of Nomy Arpaly’s Unprincipled Virtue”.
            Ratio 19 (2), 2006, pp. 261–265.
  -  “Review of T.M. Scanlon’s What We Owe to Each Other”.
            Utilitas 19 (4), 2007, 524–526.

E) Articles in Edited Collections, Special Issues, and Encyclopedias: 
  -  "Naturalism in Metaethics". 
         In Kelly James Clark (ed.): The Blackwell Companion to Naturalism (Wiley-Blackwell, 2016), pp. 351-368.
  -  "Contractualism and Climate Change". 
         In G. Pellegrino and M. Di Paola (eds.): Canned Heat: Ethics and Politics of Global Climate Change (Routledge, 2014), pp. 115–128.
  -  "Deontology" and "Morality and Wellbeing".
        Forthcoming in A. Michalos (ed.), Encyclopedia of Quality of Life Research, Springer.
  -  "Contractualism and Climate Change".
        Forthcoming in G. Pellegrino and M. Di Paola (eds.), Climate Change: Ethics, Politics, and Themes, Routledge.
  -  "Brad Hooker".
        Forthcoming in J. Crimmins & D. Long (eds.), The Encyclopedia of Utilitarianism, Continuum.
Essays in Philosophy 12, 2011, pp. 32-54, special issue on love and reasons ed. by Constantine Sandis.
  -  "Practical Reason".
        Oxford Bibliographies Online, D. Prichard (ed.), New York: Oxford University Press, 25.5.2011.
  -  “Introduction”. 
In J. Suikkanen & J. Cottingham (eds.): Essays on Derek Parfit’s On What Matters (Blackwell, 2009), pp. 1–20.
  -  “The Open Question Argument”
        In H. LaFollette (ed.): The International Encyclopedia of Ethics (Routledge, 2013), pp. 3714-3720.
  -  “The Naturalistic Fallacy”.
        In H. LaFollette (ed.): The International Encyclopedia of Ethics (Routledge, 2013), pp. 3542-3549. 
  -  “Contractualism”, co-authored with Matthew S. Liao.
In S. Caney (ed.): Encyclopedia of Political Theory, Vol. 1 (SAGE, 2010).

Grants and Awards:
  -  AHRC Early Careers Leadership Fellow award (18 months, Sep 2015–Feb 2017, £135.600).
  -  Award for Excellence in Teaching and Supporting Learning, School of Philosophy, Theology and Religion, University of Birmingham, 2013
  -  Faculty studentship, University of Reading, 2004–2008.
  -  Fees-only award, Arts and Humanities Research Board, 2004–2008.
  -  Dissertation-grant, Finnish Cultural Foundation, Jan.–Dec. 2004.
  -  Dissertation-grant, Finnish Cultural Foundation, Jan.–Dec. 2003. 
  -  Junior research fellow, Department of social and moral philosophy, University of Helsinki, 2003–2005. Research project “Practical Reason and Moral Motivation” funded by the Academy of Finland.

Teaching Experience:
University of Birmingham
  -  Ancient philosophy: Plato and Aristotle (first year module), spring 2015
  -  The ethics and politics of climate change (second year module), spring 2015
  -  Placement module (MA module), spring 2014, spring 2015
  -  Global Ethics 1, Distance learning (MA module), autumn 2013
  -  Philosophy of Human Rights (MA module), autumn 2013, spring 2015
  -  Metaethics (second year module), spring 2013
  -  Locke and Hume (third year), spring 2013, spring 2014
  -  Research Skills and Methods (MA module), autumn 2012
  -  Philosophy of Mind (second year module), spring 2012
  -  Independent Study II (second year module), spring 2012
  -  History of Philosophy A (Descartes, first year), autumn 2011, autumn 2012
  -  Independent Studies I (first year), spring 2011, spring 2012, spring 2013, spring 2014
  -  Contemporary Political Philosophy (second year), spring 2011, autumn 2011, autumn 2012, spring 2014
  -  Philosophical Texts (second year), autumn 2010, autumn 2011, autumn 2012
  -  Global Ethics I (MA students), autumn 2010, autumn 2011
  -  Philosophical Research (MRes students), 2010-2011, 2011-2012, 2013-2014

University of Reading:
  -  Early Modern Philosophy 1 (Locke and Berkeley), Autum 2009 and Spring 2010.
  -  The Subject of Experience: Persons, Selves, and Self-Awareness, Autumn 2009.
  -  Contemporary political philosophy, teaching assistant for Bart Streumer, Autumn 2007.
  -  Moral philosophy, teaching assistant for Brad Hooker, Autumn 2007. 
  -  Mind and World (A course on Descartes’ Meditations on First Philosophy), teaching assistant for David Oderberg. (Spring 2006 (two weekly seminars), and Spring 2005 (two weekly seminars)). 
  -  Values and Virtues, teaching assistant for Jonathan Dancy (Autumn 2005, three weekly seminars), and for Brad Hooker (Autumn 2004, two weekly seminars). 

University of Leeds:
  -  Ethics, Sex, and Love, lecture course (and tutorials), Spring 2009.
  -  Media Ethics, lecture course (and tutorials), Spring 2009.
  -  Continental philosophy, lecture course (and tutorials), Autumn 2008.

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill:
  -  Introduction to ethics, teaching assistant for Geoffrey Sayre-McCord, two weekly recitations, Spring 2007.
  -  Bioethics, teaching assistant for Terry Price, two weekly recitations, Autumn 2006.

University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland:
  -  Introduction to Philosophy, lecture course, Autumn 2005.
  -  Introduction to Political Philosophy, lecture course, Spring 2004.

University of Helsinki:
  -  Ethics, weekly small-group tutorials, Autumn 2003 and Autumn 2002.

Research Presentations:
A) Conferences (peer-reviewed): 
  -  “Non-Realist Cognitivism, Truth, and Objectivity”. Objectivity in Ethics conference, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands, March 31. 3.–1. 4. 2016; The Language and Metaphysics of Normativity Conference, Department of Philosophy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden, 30.–31. 5. 2016; Humboldt Normativity Conference, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 27.–29. 6. 2016.
  -  "Contractualism and the Counter-Culture Challenge". Seventh Annual Arizona Normative Ethics Workshop, Tuczon, Arizona, US, 14.–16. 1. 2016.
  -   "Ethical Theories and the Correlation Problem". Grounding and Fundamentality in Metaphysics and Ethics conference, Bogazigi University, Istanbul, Turkey, 10. - 12. 10. 2013.
  -   "Contractualism and the Repugnant Conclusion". Population ethics workshop, Eindoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, Netherlands, 2. 3. 2013.
  -   “Contractualism and the Conditional Fallacy”. Fourth Annual Arizona Normative Ethics Workshop, Tucson, Arizona, US, 3.–5. 1. 2013; The British Society for Ethical Theory Conference, University of Stirling, Stirling, UK, 9.–11. 7. 2012. 
  -   “Contractualism as Constrained Constructivism”. The Future of Contractualism Conference, University of Rennes, Rennes, France, 11.–12. 5. 2012.
  -   “Moral Error Theory and the Belief Problem”. Eight Annual Metaethics Workshop, University of Wisconsin – Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA, 16.–18. 9. 2011.
  -   “Blaming the Past Generations”. Joint Session of the Aristotelian Society and Mind Association, Open Session, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK, 8.–10. 5. 2011.
  -   “Reason-Statements as Non-Extensional Contexts”. St Louis Annual Conference on Reasons and Rationality, University of Missouri-St Louis, St Louis, Missouri, USA, 22.–24. 5. 2011.
  -  “In Defence of Wide-Scope Reasons”. Joint Session of the Aristotelian Society and Mind Association, Open Session, University College, Dublin, Ireland, 9.–11. 7. 2010.
  -  “Saving the Moral Fiction: the Content Challenge”. Fictionalism Conference, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK, 15.–17. 9. 2009.
  -  “Act-Consequentialism and Options”. Rocky Mountain Ethics Congress, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado
, USA, 6.–9. 8. 2009.
  -  “Realism, Pluralism about Truth, and Discourses”. Joint Session of the Aristotelian Society and the Mind Association, Open Session, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK, 10.–12. 7. 2009. 
  -  “Could We Pass the Buck with Thick Properties?”. Thick Properties Conference, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK, 3.–5. 7. 2009.
  -  “Non-Naturalism: the Jackson Challenge”. Fifth Annual Metaethics Workshop, University of Wisconsin – Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA, 12.–14. 9. 2008. 
  -  “Expressivism is Subjectivist After All”. Joint Session of the Aristotelian Society and the Mind Association, Open session, University of Aberdeen, 11.–13. 7. 2008; American Philosophical Association, Pacific Division Meeting, Pasadena, California, USA, 18.–23. 3. 2008.
  -  “Consequentialism and the Good-Relative-to”. British Postgraduate Philosophy Association Conference, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK, 27.–29. 6. 2008; Open Minds, University of Manchester graduate conference, Manchester, UK, 9.–10. 6. 2008. 
  -  “Moral Worth Externalism”. Ohio State University ethics graduate conference, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA, 2.–3. 5. 2008.
  -  “Revising the Buck-Passing Account of Value”. Syracuse University graduate philosophy conference, Syracuse, New York, USA, 4.–5. 4. 2008.
  -  “A Dilemma for Rule-Consequentialism”. Joint Session of the Aristotelian Society and the Mind Association, Open session, University of Bristol, UK, 6.–8. 7. 2007.
  -  “The Argument from Intransigence for Non-Cognitivism”. Joint session of the Aristotelian Society and the Mind Association, Open session, University of Southampton, UK, 7.–9. 7. 2006. 
  -  “Is the Ideal Code Self-Undermining?”. International Society of Utilitarian Studies conference, Dartmouth, NH, USA, 11.–14. 8. 2005. 
  -  “Reasons and Value – A Common Ground?”. Joint Session of the Aristotelian Society and the Mind Association, Open session, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK, 9.–11. 7. 2004.
  -  “Hume’s Theory of Motivation and the Principles of Causal Reasoning”. The Annual Conference of the International Hume Society, UNLV, Las Vegas, USA, 29. 7.–2. 8. 2003.

B) Invited Presentations: 
  -  "From Theories of Reasons to Principles of Distribution". MANCEPT Public Reason workshop, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK, 1.–3. 9. 2015.
  -  "Are Humans Valuable?", Philosophers’ Question Time event, University of Warwick, Department of Philosophy, Warwick, UK, 2. 2. 2015.
  -  "Judgment Internalism and Self-Knowledge". Institute of Philosophy, Practical Reasoning Seminar Series, King’s College, London, UK, 27. 10. 2014; Visiting Speakers Seminar, Department of Philosophy, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK, 7. 10. 2014; Birmingham Workshops in Philosophy Series, Department of Philosophy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, 16. 5. 2014.
  -  "Kantian Contractualism and the Wrong Kind of Reasons". Wrong Kind of Reasons Workshop, Humboldt-University, Berlin, Germany, 22.–25. 9. 2014. 
  -  “Ethical Theories and the Correlation Problem”. Philosophy Colloquium, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland, 14. 11. 2011; Departmental Colloquium, University of Minnesota, Duluth, Duluth, Minnesota, USA, 19. 9. 2011.
  -  “Comments on Seal Walsh’s ‘Indeterminacy of Compatibilist Counterfactuals of Consequentialist Theories of Right’”. Symposium on Metaethics, APA Pacific Division Meeting, San Diego, USA, 20. 4. 2011.
  -  “Counter-Examples to Buck-Passing, Again”. Workshop on Practical Reasoning, Scottish Network for Normative Philosophy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK, 28.–29. 6. 2009. 
  -  “Restricted Constructivism”. Workshop on Constructivism and Practical Reason, Philosophy department, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK, 20. 6. 2009.
  -  “Non-Naturalism: The Jackson Challenge”. Senior Seminar, Philosophy department, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK, 19. 2. 2009.
  -  “Revising the Buck-Passing Account of Value”. Workshop on reasons and value, Centre for Ethics and Metaethics, Philosophy department, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK, 17. 5. 2008. 
  -  “Minimalist Contractualism”. Monday moral philosophy seminar, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK, 28. 5. 2007.
  -  “A Comment on Joshua Gert’s ‘Harm and Irrationality’”. On-Line Philosophy Conference (OPC) at, 14. 5. 2006.

Professional Activities: 
  - Manuscript reviews:
      -  Journals: American Philosophical Quarterly; Australasian Journal of Philosophy; The Canadian Journal of Philosophy; Dialectica; Diametros; Ergo; Erkenntnis; Ethical Perspectives; Ethical Theory and Moral Practice; Ethics; European Journal of Philosophy; Grazer Philosophische Studien; Inquiry; International Journal of Philosophical Studies; Journal of Ethics & Social Philosophy; The Journal of Moral Philosophy; The Journal of Philosophical Research; The Journal of Value Inquiry; Law, Ethics and Philosophy; Mind; Noûs; Pacific Philosophical Quarterly; Philosophia; Philosophical Papers; The Philosophical Quarterly; Philosophical Studies; Philosophy and Phenomenological Research; Polish Journal of Philosophy; Politics, Philosophy and Economics; Ratio; Res Philosophica; Social Theory and Practice; Southern Journal of Philosophy; Studies in the History and Philosophy of Sciences; Theoria; Thought; and Utilitas.
     -  Book manuscripts and proposals: Columbia University Press, Continuum, Open Book Publishers, Oxford University Press, Palgrave MacMillan, Routledge, and SAGE publishing.
     -  Conferences: British Society for Ethical Theory and Chapel Hill Metaethics Workshop.
  -  External Examiner, Bradford University, 2013 onwards.
  -  A visiting co-editor for a special issue on Derek Parfit’s On What Matters, Ratio vol. 22, issue 1 (March 2009).
  -  Graduate representative of the British Society for Ethical Theory (July 2005–July 2008).
  -  A member of the organising committee for the ‘Workshop on Moral Judgment and Moral Psychology’ at the University of Helsinki, Finland, 13.–14. 12. 2005. 
  -  Administrator for the ‘Parfit Meets Critics’ conference at the University of Reading, UK, 2.–3. 11. 2006.
  -  A contributor to the Pea Soup blog ( on philosophy, ethics, and academia.