-  Lecturer in philosophy, Department of Philosophy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, September 2010...
  -  Temporary lecturer in philosophy, Department of Philosophy, University of Reading, Reading, UK, September 2009–August 2010.
  -  Temporary lecturer in philosophy, Department of Philosophy, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK, September 2008–August 2009.

  -  Ethics, especially metaethics and ethical theories.

  -  Political philosophy, free will, realism debates, philosophy of language, applied ethics, Early modern philosophy.

  -  PhD in Philosophy, University of Reading, 2004–2008. 
Dissertation: Contractualist Principles and Wrongness. Supervisors: Brad Hooker and Philip Stratton-Lake, Examiners: Jonathan Dancy and James Lenman (Univ. of Sheffield). 
  -  Visiting scholar, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Aug. 2006–May 2007.
  -  Doctor of Social Sciences in Philosophy, University of Helsinki, 2001–2007.
Dissertation: Ethics of Justification – A Defence of Contractualism. Supervisor: Timo Airaksinen. Opponent: Geoffrey Sayre-McCord (UNC, Chapel Hill). 
  -  Master of Social Sciences, Major: Philosophy, University of Helsinki, 1995–2001.

A) Articles in Peer-Reviewed Journals: 
        Forthcoming in Acta Analytica.
  -  "Contractualism and the Counter-Culture Challenge"
        Provisionally forthcoming in Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics.
        Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics 4, 2014, pp. 113-137.
  -  "Consequentialist Options".
        Utilitas 26 (3), 2013, pp. 276 - 302.
  -  "Moral Error Theory and the Belief Problem".
        Oxford Studies in Metaethics 8, 2013, pp. 168-194.
        The Philosophical Quarterly, 62 (248), 2012, pp. 592–613.
International Journal of Wellbeing 1, 2011, pp. 149-166.
  -  “Non-Naturalism: the Jackson Challenge”. 
Oxford Studies in Metaethics 5, 2010, pp. 87-110.
Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 90 (3), 2009, pp. 364-387. 
Philosophy Compass 4 (5), 2009, pp. 768-779. 
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 7 (5), 2005, pp. 513–535.
Theoria 71 (1), 2005, pp. 38–58.
  -  “What We Owe to Many”.
Social Theory and Practice 30 (4), 2004, pp. 485–506.

B) Books: 
  -   This is Ethics: an Introduction, Wiley-Blackwell, 2014. 
  -   Essays on Derek Parfit’s On What Matters, co-edited with John Cottingham, Blackwell, 2009.

C) Critical Notices 
  -  "Intentions, Blame, and Contractualism".
            An extensive critical review of T.M. Scanlon's Moral Dimensions:
            Permissibility, Meaning, Blame, Jurisprudence 2(2), 2011, pp. 561-573.
  -  "Consequentialism, Constraints, and the Good-Relative-to: A Reply to Mark Schroeder".
            Journal of Ethics & Social Philosophy,, 2009 (March).
  -  "Normativity of Reasons – A Critical Notice of Joshua Gert’s Brute Rationality".
            International Journal of Philosophical Studies 12 (4), 2004, pp. 478–491. 

D) Book Reviews
  -  "Review of Gunnar Björnsson, Caj Strandberg, Ragnar Francén Olinder, John Eriksson, and Fredrik Björklund’s (eds.) Motivational Internalism". 
            Forthcoming in The Philosophical Quarterly.
  -  "Review of Erik J. Wielenberg’s Robust Ethics: The Metaphysics and Epistemology 
            of Godless Normative Realism". 
            Forthcoming in Ethics.
  -  "Review of Michael Devitt’s Putting Metaphysics First – Essays on Metaphysics and Epistemology". 
            Mind 124 (493), 2015, pp. 327–331.
  -  "Review of Katarzyna De Lazari-Radek and Peter Singer’s The Point of View of the Universe – Sidgwick and Contemporary Ethics". 
            Philosophers’ Magazine 67 (4), 2014, pp. 114–118.
  -  "Review of Gerald Gaus's The Order of Public Reason".
            Economics and Philosophy 30(1), 2014, pp. 106-113.
  -  "Review of James Lenman and Yonatan Shammer's (eds.) Constructivism in Practical Philosophy".
            Ethics 123(4), 2013, pp. 763-768.
  -  "Review of Thomas Hurka's Drawing Morals, Underivative Duty, and The Best Things in Life".
            Philosophy in Review 33 (1), 2013, pp. 44-48.
  -  "Review of Derek Parfit's On What Matters, Vols. 1 and 2".
            Philosophers' Magazine 54 (3), 2011, pp. 102-103.
  -  "Review of Caspar Hare's On Myself and Alison Hills' The Beloved Self"
            Times Literary Supplement, June 17, 2011, p. 25.
            Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews, January 2011.
  -  "Review of Alan Goldman's Reasons from Within".
            Times Literary Supplement, 23 July, 2010, p. 12.
  -  “Review of Anita Superson’s The Moral Sceptic”.
            Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews, July 2009.
  -  “Review of Roger Crisp’s Reasons and the Good”.
            The Philosophical Quarterly 57 (July, vol. 228), 2007, pp. 503–505.
  -  “Review of Nomy Arpaly’s Unprincipled Virtue”.
            Ratio 19 (2), 2006, pp. 261–265.
  -  “Review of T.M. Scanlon’s What We Owe to Each Other”.
            Utilitas 19 (4), 2007, 524–526.

E) Articles in Edited Collections, Special Issues, and Encyclopedias: 
  -  "Naturalism in Metaethics". 
         Forthcoming in Kelly James Clark (ed.): The Blackwell Companion to Naturalism.
  -  "Contractualism and Climate Change". 
         In G. Pellegrino and M. Di Paola (eds.): Canned Heat: Ethics and Politics of Global Climate Change (Routledge, 2014), pp. 115–128.
  -  "Deontology" and "Morality and Wellbeing".
        Forthcoming in A. Michalos (ed.), Encyclopedia of Quality of Life Research, Springer.
  -  "Contractualism and Climate Change".
        Forthcoming in G. Pellegrino and M. Di Paola (eds.), Climate Change: Ethics, Politics, and Themes, Routledge.
  -  "Brad Hooker".
        Forthcoming in J. Crimmins & D. Long (eds.), The Encyclopedia of Utilitarianism, Continuum.
Essays in Philosophy 12, 2011, pp. 32-54, special issue on love and reasons ed. by Constantine Sandis.
  -  "Practical Reason".
        Oxford Bibliographies Online, D. Prichard (ed.), New York: Oxford University Press, 25.5.2011.
  -  “Introduction”. 
In J. Suikkanen & J. Cottingham (eds.): Essays on Derek Parfit’s On What Matters (Blackwell, 2009), pp. 1–20.
  -  “The Open Question Argument”
        In H. LaFollette (ed.): The International Encyclopedia of Ethics (Routledge, 2013), pp. 3714-3720.
  -  “The Naturalistic Fallacy”.
        In H. LaFollette (ed.): The International Encyclopedia of Ethics (Routledge, 2013), pp. 3542-3549. 
  -  “Contractualism”, co-authored with Matthew S. Liao.
In S. Caney (ed.): Encyclopedia of Political Theory, Vol. 1 (SAGE, 2010).

Grants and Awards:
  -  AHRC Early Careers Leadership Fellow award (18 months, Sep 2015–Feb 2017, £135.600).
  -  Award for Excellence in Teaching and Supporting Learning, School of Philosophy, Theology and Religion, University of Birmingham, 2013
  -  Faculty studentship, University of Reading, 2004–2008.
  -  Fees-only award, Arts and Humanities Research Board, 2004–2008.
  -  Dissertation-grant, Finnish Cultural Foundation, Jan.–Dec. 2004.
  -  Dissertation-grant, Finnish Cultural Foundation, Jan.–Dec. 2003. 
  -  Junior research fellow, Department of social and moral philosophy, University of Helsinki, 2003–2005. Research project “Practical Reason and Moral Motivation” funded by the Academy of Finland.

Teaching Experience:
University of Birmingham
  -  Ancient philosophy: Plato and Aristotle (first year module), spring 2015
  -  The ethics and politics of climate change (second year module), spring 2015
  -  Placement module (MA module), spring 2014, spring 2015
  -  Global Ethics 1, Distance learning (MA module), autumn 2013
  -  Philosophy of Human Rights (MA module), autumn 2013, spring 2015
  -  Metaethics (second year module), spring 2013
  -  Locke and Hume (third year), spring 2013, spring 2014
  -  Research Skills and Methods (MA module), autumn 2012
  -  Philosophy of Mind (second year module), spring 2012
  -  Independent Study II (second year module), spring 2012
  -  History of Philosophy A (Descartes, first year), autumn 2011, autumn 2012
  -  Independent Studies I (first year), spring 2011, spring 2012, spring 2013, spring 2014
  -  Contemporary Political Philosophy (second year), spring 2011, autumn 2011, autumn 2012, spring 2014
  -  Philosophical Texts (second year), autumn 2010, autumn 2011, autumn 2012
  -  Global Ethics I (MA students), autumn 2010, autumn 2011
  -  Philosophical Research (MRes students), 2010-2011, 2011-2012, 2013-2014

University of Reading:
  -  Early Modern Philosophy 1 (Locke and Berkeley), Autum 2009 and Spring 2010.
  -  The Subject of Experience: Persons, Selves, and Self-Awareness, Autumn 2009.
  -  Contemporary political philosophy, teaching assistant for Bart Streumer, Autumn 2007.
  -  Moral philosophy, teaching assistant for Brad Hooker, Autumn 2007. 
  -  Mind and World (A course on Descartes’ Meditations on First Philosophy), teaching assistant for David Oderberg. (Spring 2006 (two weekly seminars), and Spring 2005 (two weekly seminars)). 
  -  Values and Virtues, teaching assistant for Jonathan Dancy (Autumn 2005, three weekly seminars), and for Brad Hooker (Autumn 2004, two weekly seminars). 

University of Leeds:
  -  Ethics, Sex, and Love, lecture course (and tutorials), Spring 2009.
  -  Media Ethics, lecture course (and tutorials), Spring 2009.
  -  Continental philosophy, lecture course (and tutorials), Autumn 2008.

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill:
  -  Introduction to ethics, teaching assistant for Geoffrey Sayre-McCord, two weekly recitations, Spring 2007.
  -  Bioethics, teaching assistant for Terry Price, two weekly recitations, Autumn 2006.

University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland:
  -  Introduction to Philosophy, lecture course, Autumn 2005.
  -  Introduction to Political Philosophy, lecture course, Spring 2004.

University of Helsinki:
  -  Ethics, weekly small-group tutorials, Autumn 2003 and Autumn 2002.

Research Presentations:
A) Conferences (peer-reviewed): 
  -  "Contractualism and the Counter-Culture Challenge". Seventh Annual Arizona Normative Ethics Workshop, Tuczon, Arizona, US, 14.–16. 1. 2016.
  -   "Ethical Theories and the Correlation Problem". Grounding and Fundamentality in Metaphysics and Ethics conference, Bogazigi University, Istanbul, Turkey, 10. - 12. 10. 2013.
  -   "Contractualism and the Repugnant Conclusion". Population ethics workshop, Eindoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, Netherlands, 2. 3. 2013.
  -   “Contractualism and the Conditional Fallacy”. Fourth Annual Arizona Normative Ethics Workshop, Tucson, Arizona, US, 3.–5. 1. 2013; The British Society for Ethical Theory Conference, University of Stirling, Stirling, UK, 9.–11. 7. 2012. 
  -   “Contractualism as Constrained Constructivism”. The Future of Contractualism Conference, University of Rennes, Rennes, France, 11.–12. 5. 2012.
  -   “Moral Error Theory and the Belief Problem”. Eight Annual Metaethics Workshop, University of Wisconsin – Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA, 16.–18. 9. 2011.
  -   “Blaming the Past Generations”. Joint Session of the Aristotelian Society and Mind Association, Open Session, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK, 8.–10. 5. 2011.
  -   “Reason-Statements as Non-Extensional Contexts”. St Louis Annual Conference on Reasons and Rationality, University of Missouri-St Louis, St Louis, Missouri, USA, 22.–24. 5. 2011.
  -  “In Defence of Wide-Scope Reasons”. Joint Session of the Aristotelian Society and Mind Association, Open Session, University College, Dublin, Ireland, 9.–11. 7. 2010.
  -  “Saving the Moral Fiction: the Content Challenge”. Fictionalism Conference, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK, 15.–17. 9. 2009.
  -  “Act-Consequentialism and Options”. Rocky Mountain Ethics Congress, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado
, USA, 6.–9. 8. 2009.
  -  “Realism, Pluralism about Truth, and Discourses”. Joint Session of the Aristotelian Society and the Mind Association, Open Session, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK, 10.–12. 7. 2009. 
  -  “Could We Pass the Buck with Thick Properties?”. Thick Properties Conference, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK, 3.–5. 7. 2009.
  -  “Non-Naturalism: the Jackson Challenge”. Fifth Annual Metaethics Workshop, University of Wisconsin – Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA, 12.–14. 9. 2008. 
  -  “Expressivism is Subjectivist After All”. Joint Session of the Aristotelian Society and the Mind Association, Open session, University of Aberdeen, 11.–13. 7. 2008; American Philosophical Association, Pacific Division Meeting, Pasadena, California, USA, 18.–23. 3. 2008.
  -  “Consequentialism and the Good-Relative-to”. British Postgraduate Philosophy Association Conference, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK, 27.–29. 6. 2008; Open Minds, University of Manchester graduate conference, Manchester, UK, 9.–10. 6. 2008. 
  -  “Moral Worth Externalism”. Ohio State University ethics graduate conference, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA, 2.–3. 5. 2008.
  -  “Revising the Buck-Passing Account of Value”. Syracuse University graduate philosophy conference, Syracuse, New York, USA, 4.–5. 4. 2008.
  -  “A Dilemma for Rule-Consequentialism”. Joint Session of the Aristotelian Society and the Mind Association, Open session, University of Bristol, UK, 6.–8. 7. 2007.
  -  “The Argument from Intransigence for Non-Cognitivism”. Joint session of the Aristotelian Society and the Mind Association, Open session, University of Southampton, UK, 7.–9. 7. 2006. 
  -  “Is the Ideal Code Self-Undermining?”. International Society of Utilitarian Studies conference, Dartmouth, NH, USA, 11.–14. 8. 2005. 
  -  “Reasons and Value – A Common Ground?”. Joint Session of the Aristotelian Society and the Mind Association, Open session, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK, 9.–11. 7. 2004.
  -  “Hume’s Theory of Motivation and the Principles of Causal Reasoning”. The Annual Conference of the International Hume Society, UNLV, Las Vegas, USA, 29. 7.–2. 8. 2003.

B) Invited Presentations: 
  -  "From Theories of Reasons to Principles of Distribution". MANCEPT Public Reason workshop, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK, 1.–3. 9. 2015.
  -  "Are Humans Valuable?", Philosophers’ Question Time event, University of Warwick, Department of Philosophy, Warwick, UK, 2. 2. 2015.
  -  "Judgment Internalism and Self-Knowledge". Institute of Philosophy, Practical Reasoning Seminar Series, King’s College, London, UK, 27. 10. 2014; Visiting Speakers Seminar, Department of Philosophy, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK, 7. 10. 2014; Birmingham Workshops in Philosophy Series, Department of Philosophy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, 16. 5. 2014.
  -  "Kantian Contractualism and the Wrong Kind of Reasons". Wrong Kind of Reasons Workshop, Humboldt-University, Berlin, Germany, 22.–25. 9. 2014. 
  -  “Ethical Theories and the Correlation Problem”. Philosophy Colloquium, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland, 14. 11. 2011; Departmental Colloquium, University of Minnesota, Duluth, Duluth, Minnesota, USA, 19. 9. 2011.
  -  “Comments on Seal Walsh’s ‘Indeterminacy of Compatibilist Counterfactuals of Consequentialist Theories of Right’”. Symposium on Metaethics, APA Pacific Division Meeting, San Diego, USA, 20. 4. 2011.
  -  “Counter-Examples to Buck-Passing, Again”. Workshop on Practical Reasoning, Scottish Network for Normative Philosophy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK, 28.–29. 6. 2009. 
  -  “Restricted Constructivism”. Workshop on Constructivism and Practical Reason, Philosophy department, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK, 20. 6. 2009.
  -  “Non-Naturalism: The Jackson Challenge”. Senior Seminar, Philosophy department, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK, 19. 2. 2009.
  -  “Revising the Buck-Passing Account of Value”. Workshop on reasons and value, Centre for Ethics and Metaethics, Philosophy department, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK, 17. 5. 2008. 
  -  “Minimalist Contractualism”. Monday moral philosophy seminar, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK, 28. 5. 2007.
  -  “A Comment on Joshua Gert’s ‘Harm and Irrationality’”. On-Line Philosophy Conference (OPC) at, 14. 5. 2006.

C) Other Presentations: 
  -  "Contractualism and the Conditional Fallacy". Philosophy department, University of Edingburgh, Edinburgh, UK, 12. 2. 2013.
  -  “A New Whole Life Satisfaction Theory of Happiness”. Staff seminar, Philosophy department, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, 11.10.2010.
  -  “Consequentialism and Moral Constraints”. Philosophy department, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK, 22.5. 2009; School of English, Communication, and Philosophy, Cardiff University, Cardiff 21. 7. 2009. 
  -  “Realism, Pluralism about Truth, and Discourses”. Work in Progress Seminar, Philosophy department, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK, 29. 1. 2009. 
  -  “Realism about Reasons”. School of English, Communication, and Philosophy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK, 13. 5. 2008.
  -  “A Dilemma for Rule-Consequentialism”. Work in progress seminar, Philosophy department, UNC, Chapel Hill, USA, 24. 1. 2007.
  -  “Ongelma toiminnan syiden ymmärtämiselle suosimissuhteiden avulla” (“A Problem for Understanding Practical Reasons in Terms of Favouring-Relations”). The Annual Conference of SFY (Philosophy Association of Finland), Helsinki, Finland, 9.–10. 1. 2006. 
  -  “Contractualist Account of Reasons for Being Moral Defended”. International meeting of the Academy of Finland’s research project “Practical Reason and Moral Motivation”, Villa Lante, Rome, Italy, 8.–11. 9. 2004. 

Professional Activities:
  - Manuscript reviews:
      -  Journals: American Philosophical Quarterly; Australasian Journal of Philosophy; The Canadian Journal of Philosophy; Dialectica; Diametros; Ergo; Erkenntnis; Ethical Perspectives; Ethical Theory and Moral Practice; Ethics; European Journal of Philosophy; Grazer Philosophische Studien; Inquiry; International Journal of Philosophical Studies; Journal of Ethics & Social Philosophy; The Journal of Moral Philosophy; The Journal of Philosophical Research; The Journal of Value Inquiry; Law, Ethics and Philosophy; Mind; Noûs; Pacific Philosophical Quarterly; Philosophia; Philosophical Papers; The Philosophical Quarterly; Philosophical Studies; Philosophy and Phenomenological Research; Polish Journal of Philosophy; Politics, Philosophy and Economics; Ratio; Res Philosophica; Social Theory and Practice; Southern Journal of Philosophy; Studies in the History and Philosophy of Sciences; Theoria; Thought; and Utilitas.
     -  Book manuscripts and proposals: Columbia University Press, Continuum, Open Book Publishers, Oxford University Press, Palgrave MacMillan, Routledge, and SAGE publishing.
     -  Conferences: British Society for Ethical Theory and Chapel Hill Metaethics Workshop.
  -  External Examiner, Bradford University, 2013 onwards.
  -  A visiting co-editor for a special issue on Derek Parfit’s On What Matters, Ratio vol. 22, issue 1 (March 2009).
  -  Graduate representative of the British Society for Ethical Theory (July 2005–July 2008).
  -  A member of the organising committee for the ‘Workshop on Moral Judgment and Moral Psychology’ at the University of Helsinki, Finland, 13.–14. 12. 2005. 
  -  Administrator for the ‘Parfit Meets Critics’ conference at the University of Reading, UK, 2.–3. 11. 2006.
  -  A contributor to the Pea Soup blog ( on philosophy, ethics, and academia.