Bibliography of Islamic Calligraphy

This Bibliography should represent a starting point for all enquiries concerning Ottoman Calligraphy development over the centuries or any conceivable aspect of calligraphic art, whether from the academic historian, student, the amateur or the general enquirer. The Bibliography is hosted by Worldcat, please click on the reference links in list.


Akbaş, M., & Kara, O. (1997). Günümüz sanatçılarından Türk-İslâm sanatı örnekleri: tezhib, hüsn-i hat, minyatür, ebru. Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı yayınları, 224. [Turkey]: Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı Yayınları.

Alparslan, A. (1999). Osmanlı hat sanatı tarihi. Beyoğlu, İstanbul: Yapı Kredi Kültür Sanat Yayıncılık.

Arthur M. Sackler Gallery (Smithsonian Institution), & Lowry, G. D. (1988). An annotated and illustrated checklist of the Vever Collection. Washington, D.C.: Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution.

Arthur M. Sackler Gallery (Smithsonian Institution), Lowry, G. D., & Nemazee, S. (1988). A jeweler's eye: Islamic arts of the book from the Vever Collection. Washington, D.C.: Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, in association with University of Washington Press, Seattle.

Âşık Veysel, & Oğuzcan, U. Y. (1999). Dostlar beni hatırlasın: bütün şiirleri, sanatı, hayatı. Özgür Yayınları, 22. İstanbul: Özgür Yayınları.

Ayverdi, E. H. (1953). Fâtih devri hattatları ve hat sanatı. [İstanbul]: İstanbul Matbaası.

Aziz Efendi, & Serin, M. (1988). Hattat Aziz Efendi. Türk hat üstadları, 1. İstanbul: Kubbealtı Akademisi Kültür ve San'at Vakfı.

Babinger, F. (1975). Die grossherrliche Tughra: ein Beit[r]ag zur Geschichte des osmanischen Urkundenwesens. İstanbul: Doğan Kardeş Matbaacılık Sanayii.

Baker, C. F. (2007). Qur'an manuscripts: calligraphy, illumination, design. London: British Library.

Bayani, M., Stanley, T., & Contadini, A. (1999). The decorated word: Qurʼans of the 17th to 19th centuries. New York: Nour Foundation in association with Azimuth Editions and Oxford University Press.

Bayat, A. H. (1990). Hüsn-i hat bibliyografyası, 1888-1988. [Ankara]: Kültür Bakanlığı.

Begley, W. E. (1985). Monumental Islamic calligraphy from India. Villa Park, Ill: Islamic Foundation.

Behrens-Abouseif, D., & Vernoit, S. (2006). Islamic art in the 19th century: tradition, innovation, and eclecticism. Islamic history and civilization, v. 60. Leiden: Brill.

Bektaşoğlu, M. (2005). Hat sanatı ve Tosyalı hattatlar. Ankara: İrtibat.

Blair, S. (2006). Islamic calligraphy. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Bothmer, H.-C. (1982). Die islamischen Miniaturen der Sammlung Preetorius. München: Lipp.

Derman, M. U. (1998). Letters in gold: Ottoman calligraphy from the Sakıp Sabancı collection, Istanbul. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Derman, M. U. (1990). Fenn'ül hat = (İslam kültürü mirasında hat sanatı). İstanbul: IRCICA.

Derman, M. U., & Çetin, N. M. (1992). İslâm kültür mirâsında hat san'atı. İslâm kültür mirâsı, 1. İstanbul: IRCICA.

Déroche, F., Gladiss, A. v., & Aksoy, S. (1999). Der Prachtkoran im Museum für Islamische Kunst: Buchkunst zur Ehre Allāhs. Veröffentlichungen des Museums für Islamische Kunst, Bd. 3. Berlin: Museum für Islamische Kunst, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Preussischer Kulturbesitz.

Dodd, E. C., & Khairallah, S. (1981). The image of the Word: a study of Quranic verses in Islamic architecture. [Beirut]: American University of Beirut.

Dutton, Y. (2007). BLAIR, SHEILA: Islamic Calligraphy. BULLETIN- SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF LONDON. 70 (2), 421-422.

Edgü, F. (1987). Türk hat sanatı: (karalamalar / meşkler). [Ankara]: Ada Yayınları.

Fendall, R. (2003). Islamic calligraphy. London: Fogg.

Fisher, C. G. (1991). Brocade of the pen: the art of Islamic writing. East Lansing, Mich: Kresge Art Museum, Michigan State University.

Fraser, M., & Kwiatkowksi, W. (2006). Ink and gold: Islamic calligraphy. London: Published for Sam Fogg by Paul Holberton.

Freer Gallery of Art, Fu, S., Lowry, G. D., & Yonemura, A. (1986). From concept to context: approaches to Asian and Islamic calligraphy. Washington, D.C.: Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution.

Gacek, A. (2001). The Arabic manuscrip[t] tradition a glossary of technical terms and bibliography. Leiden: Brill.

George, A. (2007). The geometry of early Islamic calligraphy. Thesis (D.Phil.)--University of Oxford, 2007.

George, D., & Kurio, H. (1980). Islamische Buchkunst aus 1000 Jahren: Ausstellung d. Staatsbibliothek Preuss. Kulturbesitz, Berlin, vom 25. März.-24. Mai 1980 in Berlin, vom 9. Oktober-23. November 1980 im Wissenschaftszentrum in Bonn. Wiesbaden: Reichert [in Komm.].

Gray, B., & Akimushkin, O. F. (1979). The Arts of the book in Central Asia, 14th-16th centuries. Boulder, Colo: Shambhala.

Gündüz, H., & Taşkale, F. (2000). Türk hat sanati'ndan seçme eserler = A selection of Turkish calligraphic art. Istanbul: Antik A.Ş., Kültür Yayınları.

HADI, Inc. (1999). Islamic calligraphy. [Culver City, CA]: HADI.

Hickmann, R. (1979). Miniaturen und Kalligraphien aus der Zeit der Moghul-Kaiser. Leipzig: G. Kiepenheuer.

Hickmann, R., & Enderlein, V. (1979). Indische Albumblätter: Miniaturen u. Kalligraphien aus d. Zeit d. Moghul-Kaiser. Leipzig: Kiepenheuer.

İnal, I. M. K. (1955). Son hattatlar. İstanbul: Maarif Basımevi.

Kader, T. (2007). Understanding the Art of Islam. Exploring Islamic calligraphy. SCHOOL ARTS. 106 (8), 62-63.

Khaṭībī, ʻ. a.-K., Sijelmassi, M., & Khaṭībī, ʻ. a.-K. (2001). The splendour of Islamic calligraphy. London: Thames & Hudson.

Khatibi, A. (1995). Die Kunst den islamischen Kalligrafia / Abdelkebir Mohamed Sijelmesse. Köln: DuMont.

Khatibi, A., & Sijelmassi, M. (1977). The splendour of Islamic calligraphy. New York: Rizzoli.

Khatibi, A., & Sijelmassi, M. (1977). Die Kunst der islamischen Kalligrafia / Abdelkeb́ir Khatibi, Mohammed Sijelmassi. Köln: DuMont.

Köker, A. H. (1990). Hekimbaşı Kaysuni-zade Mehmed Efendi (1512-1569), Ankara'lı şair hekim Nidai (1502-1570), Türk hat sanatı. Kayseri: Erciyes Üniversitesi Matbaası.

Kühnel, E. (1986). Islamische Schriftkunst. Graz: Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt.

Lavizzari-Raeuber, A. (1979). Islamische Schönschrift. Zürich: Museum Rietberg.

Library of Congress. (2000s). Selections of Arabic, Persian, and Ottoman calligraphy. Global gateway. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.amed/collame.am000003.

Lifchez, R. (1992). The Dervish lodge: architecture, art, and Sufism in Ottoman Turkey. Comparative studies on Muslim societies, 10. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Lings, M., & Safadi, Y. H. (1976). The Qurʻān: catalogue of an exhibition of Qurʻān manuscripts at the British Library, 3 April-15 August 1976. [London]: World of Islam Pub. Co. for the British Library.

Lings, M. (2005). Splendours of Qur'an calligraphy and illumination. Liechtenstein: Thesaurus Islamicus Foundation.

Lings, M. (1976). The Quranic art of calligraphy and illumination. [London]: World of Islam Festival Trust.

McWilliams, M., & Roxburgh, D. J. (2007). Traces of the calligrapher: Islamic calligraphy in practice, c. 1600-1900. Houston: Museum of Fine Arts.

Mehmed Hulûsı̂ Yazgan, & Serin, M. (1999). Hulûsı̂ Efendi'nin ta'lı̂k meşk murakkaı. İstanbul: Kubbealtı Neşriyatı.

Nasser D. Khalili Collection of Islamic Art, Safwat, N. F., & Zakariya, M. U. (1996). The art of the pen: calligraphy of the 14th to 20th centuries. London: Nour Foundation in association with Azimuth Editions and Oxford University Press.

Nitzsche, I., Özer, F., & Lixfeld, G. (2003). Von der Ewigkeit des Augenblicks: die Entwicklung türkischer Fayencenmotive : seldschukischer Stil, osmanischer Stil, Schriftkunst, Gegenwartskunst : Arbeiten von: Fügen Özer, Hacer Özkaya, Zehra Serbest, Sevcan Vatansever sowie ausgewählte Arbeiten der Anadolu El Sanatları Galerisi, Kütahya. Schriften des Stadtmuseums Schramberg, Nr. 19. Schramberg: Stadtmuseum Schramberg.

Ozgoren, F. H., Pamukoğlu, G., Schick, I. C., & Hankins, R. D. (2006). The art of Ebrû: Turkish paper marbling with Islamic calligraphy. Worcester, Mass: Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Art Gallery, College of the Holy Cross.

Özyazıcı, M. H., & Serin, M. (2000). Halim Efendi'nin nesih, dı̂vânı̂, celı̂ dı̂vânı̂, rik'a meşk murakkaı. İstanbul: Kubbealtı Neşriyatı.

Parlatır, I. (2006). Osmanlı Türkçesi sözlüğü. Ankara: Yargı Yayınevi.

Parlatır, I. (2006). Osmanlı Türkçesi sözlüğü. Ankara: Yargı Yayınları.

Plate, S. B. (2002). Religion, art, and visual culture: a cross-cultural reader. New York: Palgrave.

Rassoul, M. A. (1996). Von der Faszination der arabischen Kalligraphie. Köln: Islamische Bibliothek.

Rebhan, H., & Riesterer, W. (1998). Prachtkorane aus tausend Jahren: Handschriften aus dem Bestand der Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek München. München: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek.

Richard, F. (2007). Sheila S. Blair, Islamic Calligraphy. ART BULLETIN -NEW YORK-. 89 (2), 368-370.

Robinson, B. W. (1976). Islamic painting and the arts of the book. London: Faber and Faber.

Roxburgh, D. J. (2005). The Persian album, 1400-1600: from dispersal to collection. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Safadi, Y. H. (1978). Islamic calligraphy. Boulder: Shambhala.

Safwat, N. F. (2000). Golden pages: Qur'ans and other manuscripts from the collection of Ghassan I. Shaker. Oxford: Oxford University Press for Azimuth Editions.

Schimmel, A. (1999). Hat Sanati und andere Veroeffentlichungen zur Schriftkunst in der Tuerkei. WELT DES ISLAMS. 39 (2), 231-232.

Schimmel, A. (1984). Calligraphy and Islamic culture. Hagop Kevorkian series on Near Eastern art and civilization. New York: New York University Press.

Schimmel, A. (1970). Islamic calligraphy. [Institute of Religious Iconography, State University Groningen]. Iconography of religions, Section 22: Islam. Fasc. 1. Leiden: Brill.

Schopen, A. (2006). Tinten und Tuschen des arabisch-islamischen Mittelalters: Dokumentation - Analyse - Rekonstruktion : ein Beitrag zur materiellen Kultur des Vorderen Orients. Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen, Philologisch-Historische Klasse, 3. Folge, Nr. 269. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Serikoff, N., & Abdullaeva, F. I. (2007). Islamic calligraphy from the Wellcome Library. Chicago: Serindia.

Serin, M. (2006). Kemal Batanay: bestekâr, tambûrî, hattat, hâfız. Türk hat üstadları, 3. İstanbul: Kubbealtı Neşriyatı.

Serin, M. (1988). Hattat Aziz Efendi. Türk hat üstadları, 1. Istanbul: Kubbealtı Akademisi Kültür ve Senát Vafkı.

Serin, M. (1988). Türk hat üstadları. İstanbul: Kubbealtı Akademisi Kültür ve Sanʹat Vakfı.

Serin, M. (1999). Hat sanatı ve meşhur hattatlar. İstanbul: Kubbealtı Akademisi Kültür ve San'at Vakfı.

Serin, M. (1996). Şevki Efendi'nin sülüs ve nesih meşk murakkaı. İstanbul: Kubbealtı.

Şevki Efendi, & Serin, M. (2000). Şevki Efendi'nin sülüs ve nesih meşk murakkaı. İstanbul: Kubbealtı Neşriyatı.

Şeyh Hamdullah, & Serin, M. (1992). Hattat Şeyh Hamdullah: hayâtı, talebeleri, eserleri. Türk hat üstadları, 2. İstanbul: Kubbealtı Akademisi Kültür ve San'at Vakfı.

Shulman, K. (2001). Islamic Calligraphy: Music for the Eyes. GRAPHIS. 336, 90-93.

Staatsbibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz, George, D., & Kurio, H. (1980). Islamische Buchkunst aus 1000 Jahren: Ausstellung der Staatsbibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz vom 25. März bis 24. Mai 1980 in Berlin, vom 9. Oktober bis 23. November 1980 im Wissenschaftszentrum in Bonn. Berlin: Die Bibliothek.

Stanley, T. (2006). BIBLIOGRAPHY - Islamic Calligraphy - Sheila S. Blair. TLS, the Times Literary Supplement. (5411), 32.

Subaşı, M. H. (1987). Yazıya giriş. İstanbul: Dersaadet yayınevi.

Süleymaniye Umumı̂ Kütüphanesi, & Turkey. (1982). Hat sanatı- yazma eserler ve fermanlar sergisi = Calligraphy, manuscripts and imperial edicts exhibition. İstanbul: Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı.

Tarapor, M. (1979). Islamic calligraphy. [New York]: Asia Society.

Turkey. (1983). İslâm sanatları sergisi: Hicretʼin 15. Yüzyılında = Islamic arts exhibition : on the occasion of the fifteenth centennial of Hegira. İstanbul, Turkey: Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı.

Ülker, M. (1987). Türk hat sanati = The art of Turkish calligraphy : başlangiçtan günümüze : from the beginning up to present. Ankara: Türk Iş Bankası Kültur Yayınları.

Ülker, M. (1987). Başlangıçtan günümüze Türk hat sanatı = The art of Turkish calligraphy from the beginning up to present. [Turkey]: Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları.

Welch, A. (1979). Calligraphy in the arts of the Muslim world. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Welch, S. C. (1987). The Emperors' album: images of Mughal India. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Yazır, M. (1972). Medeniyet âleminde yazı ve İslâm medeniyetinde kalem güzeli. Ankara: Ayyıldız Matbaası.

Zakariya, M. U., & White, B. (1998). Music for the eyes: an introduction to Islamic and Ottoman Calligraphy. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art.

Fabulous Caligraphy: A collection of Arabic, Persian and Ottoman script calligraphy dating from the 8th to 19th centuries is now available online in the Library's Global Gateway site. (2006). Library of Congress Information Bulletin. 65 (9), 207.

Islamic calligraphy. (2005). Art series. Rome: Semar.

Türk hat sanatı = la calligrapfhie Turque. (1900s). İstanbul: Dost Yayınları.

Adil, M. (1992). Islamic calligraphy. Thesis (M.A.) -- University of South Australia, 1992.

Aḥmad, A. (1984). Islamic calligraphy: noon-wa-qalam. Rawalpindi, Pakistan: Rajput Printers.

Ahmed, A. S., Anderson, H., & Thomas, R. (2006). Istanbul. Glories of Islamic art, pt. 3. Falls Church, VA: Landmark Media.

Ahuja, M., & Loeb, A. L. (1995). Tessellations in Islamic Calligraphy. LEONARDO -OXFORD THEN CAMBRIDGE MA-. 28 (1), 41.

Akimushin, O. F., & Gray, B. (1979). The Arts of the book in central Asia, 14th-16th centuries. London: Serindia Publications.

Aliksāndrīnā (Library). (2006). Abgadiyat = Abjadiyyāt. Alexandria, Egypt: Calligraphy Center, Bibliotheca Alexandrina.

Amīr Khānī, G. H. (2001). Rasm al-khaṭṭ-i Amīr Khānī: āmūzish-i khaṭṭ-i nastaʻlīq. [Tehran]: Vizārat-i Irshād-i Islāmī.

Anjuman-i Khūshnivīsān-i Īrān. (2002). Kilk-i dīrīn. Shīrāz: Anjuman-i Khūshnivīsān.

Atanasiu, V. (1999). De la fréquence des lettres & de son influence en calligraphie arabe. Sémantiques. Paris: Harmattan.

Avadenka, L., & Zakariya, M. U. (2001). Root words: an alphabetic exploration. [Huntington Woods, MI]: Land Marks Press.

Bābā, K. (1983). Rūḥ al-khaṭṭ al-ʻArabī. Bayrūt: Dār Lubnān.

Banday, A. A. (2007). Prolegomenon to the Study of Islamic Calligraphy in Kashmir. ORIENTATIONS -HONG KONG-. 38 (7), 48-53.

Boydaş, N. (1994). Ta'lik yazıya plastik değer açısından bir yaklaşım. İstanbul: M.E.B.

British Museum. (1970). Islamic calligraphy and illumination. [London]: The Museum.

Ḍār, S. (1981). The roots of Muslim calligraphy in Arabia, Iran, and Pakistan. [Peshawar]: Dept. of Archaeology, University of Peshawar.

Dāwūd, M. M. (1991). al-Kitābāt al-ʻArabīyah ʻalá al-āthār al-Islāmīyah: min al-qarn al-awwal ḥattá awākhir al-qarn al-thānī ʻashar lil-hijrah. al-Qāhirah: Maktabat al-Nahḍah al-Miṣrīyah.

De Guise, L. (2006). Al-Qurʼan: the sacred art of revelation. [Kuala Lumpur]: IAMM Publications.

Denny, W. B. (1976). The image and the word: Islamic calligraphy. By Walter B. Denny. An exhibition at the Museum of Fine Arts. Springfield, Massachusetts. February 29-April 11, 1976.

Derman, M. (2002). Sabancı Üniversitesi Sakıp Sabancı Müzesi hat koleksiyonundan seçmeler. İstanbul: Sabancı Üniversitesi Sakıp Sabancı Müzesi.

Derman, M. U., Çetin, N. M., & İhsanoğlu, E. (1990). Fann al-khaṭṭ: tārīkhuhu wa-namādhij min rawāʼiʻihi ʻalá marr al ʻuṣūr. Isṭanbūl: IRCICA.

Derman, M. U., & Schick, I. C. (. C. (2000). M. Uğur Derman armağani: altmışbeşinci yaşı münasebetiyle sunulmuş tebliğler. İstanbul: Sabancı Universitesi.

Dzul Haimi Md. Zain. (2007). Ragam hias al-Qur'an di alam Melayu. Cheras, Kuala Lumpur: Utusan Publications & Distributors.

Edgü, F. (1980). Turkish calligraphic art: (karalama/meşk). [İstanbul]: Ada Press.

Erduman, D. (2004). Geschriebene welten: Arabische Kalligraphie und Literatur im Wandel der Zeit. Köln: DuMont Literatuar und Kunst Verlag.

Folsach, K. v. (2007). For the privileged few: Islamic miniature painting from the David Collection. Humlebæk, Denmark: Louisiana Museum of Modern Art.

Fraser, M. (2005). Geometry in gold: an illuminated Maml̄uk Qur'ān section. London: Sam Fogg.

Gauhar, K. ʻ. (2006). The wonders of calligraphy = ʻAjāʼibāt-i k̲h̲at̤t̤āt̤ī. Lahore: Sang-e Meel Publications.

Geneva (Switzerland). (1988). Calligraphie islamique: textes sacrés et profanes = Islamic calligraphy : sacred and secular writings. Geneva: Musée d'art et d'histoire and Treasures of Islam.

Grube, E. J. (1976). Calligraphy and the decorative arts of Islam. London: Bluett.

Gulgee, A. (2006). Artists' voices: calligraphy : the Amin Gulgee Gallery, 2006. Karachi: Oxford University Press.

Halem, H. v. (1975). Calligraphy in modern art: papers read at a symposium, organised by the Goethe-Institut Karachi, Pakistan, Pakistan-German Cultural Centre, and the Pakistan German Forum, Karachi, September 1974. Karachi: Pakistan-German Forum.

Hamdard Foundation Pakistan. (1991). A Treasure of Qurʼanic calligraphy. [Karachi]: Hamdard Foundation Pakistan.

Ḥanash, I. M. (1998). al-Khaṭṭ al-ʻArabī fī al-wathāʼiq al-ʻUthmānīyah. ʻAmmān: Dār al-Manāhij.

Hattstein, M., & Delius, P. (2004). Islam: art and architecture. Cologne: Könemann.

Hawa, R. A. (2006). Weaving: expressions of meditation. KSU masters theses (School of Art). Thesis (M.F.A.)--Kent State University, 2006.

Honda, K. F. (1996). Islamic calligraphy: [exhibition catalogue]. Kuala Lumpur: Rashid Hussain Berhad.

Horlbeck, B. E. (2003). Voices from the walls: meaning and politics in the calligraphic inscriptions of Andalusian and Moroccan architecture. Paper (M.A.)--University of St. Thomas (Saint Paul, Minn.), 2003.

Huart, C. (1972). Les calligraphes et les miniaturistes de l'Orient musulman. Osnabrück: O. Zeller Verlag.

ʻImād al-Ḥasanī, & Habsburg, F. v. (1996). The St. Petersburg Muraqqaʻ: album of Indian and Persian miniatures from the 16th through the 18th century and specimens of Persian calligraphy by ʻImād al-Ḥasanī. Milano: Leonardo arte.

International Calligraphy Competition in the Name of Sheikh Hamdullah. (2001). Katālūj al-lawḥāt al-fāʼizah fī al-Musābaqah al-Dawlīyah al-Rābiʻah li-Fann al-Khaṭṭ = Catalogue of winners' plates in the Fourth International Calligraphy Competition in the name of Sheikh Hamdullah. Istānbūl: al-Lajnah al-Dawlīyah lil-Ḥifāẓ ʻalá al-Turāth al-Ḥaḍārī al-Islāmī.

Jafari, F. K. (1985). Islamic calligraphy on fabric. Thesis (M.S.)--University of Wisconsin--Stout, 1985.

Jainal Sakiban. (2005). Seni khat: keindahan dalam kepelbagaian : sejarah, tokoh, dan karya. Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan: Synergymate.

Jalil, A. R., & Horrell, D. (1990). Sculpture: exploration with Islamic calligraphy. Thesis (M.A.)--Ohio State University, 1990.

James, D., & Déroche, F. (1988). Calligraphie islamique = Islamic calligraphy. Genève: Éditions du Tricorne (distr.).

James, D. L. (1992). After Timur: Qur'ans of the 15th and 16th centuries. The Nasser D. Khalili collection of Islamic arts, v. 3. [London]: Nour Foundation in association with Azimuth Editions and Oxford University Pr.

James, D. L. (1980). Qur'ans and bindings from the Chester Beatty Library: a facsimile exhibition. [London]: World of Islam Festival Trust.

Jubūrī, K. S. (1999). Mawsūʻat al-khaṭṭ al-ʻArabī. Bayrūt: Manshūrāt Dār wa-Maktabat al-Hilāl.

Jubūrī, M. S. (2006). al-Khaṭṭ al-ʻArabī fī al-Madrasah al-Baghdādīyah. Bayrūt: al-Dār al-ʻArabīyah lil-Mawsūʻāt.

Jubūrī, T. ʻ. ʻ., & Khāqānī, ʻ. (1975). al-Khaṭṭ al-ʻArabī al-Islāmī. Bayrūt: Dār al-Turāth al-Islāmī.

Khaṭībī, ʻ. a.-K. (2001). The splendour of Islamic calligraphy. London: Thames & Hudson.

Khatibi, A., & Sijelmassi, M. (1996). The splendour of Islamic calligraphy. New York: Thames & Hudson.

Khatibi, A., & Sijelmassi, M. (1976). L'Art calligraphique arabe: ou, La Célébration de l'invisible. [Paris]: Chêne.

Khaṭībī, o. a.-K., & Sijelmassi, M. (1996). The splendor of Islamic calligraphy. New York: Thames and Hudson.

Lau, L. S. (1997). Report from Singapore: The Harmony of Letters Islamic Calligraphy from the Tareq Rajab Museum, Kuwait. Oriental Art. 43 (4), 71.

Lings, M. (2005). Rawāʼiʻ fann al-khaṭṭ wa-al-tadhhīb al-Qurʼānī. Liechtenstein: Thesaurus Islamicus Foundation.

Majmaʻ al-Tūnisī lil-ʻUlūm wa-al-Ādāb wa-al-Funūn. (2006). Maqūlāt ʻAbd al-Raḥman ibn Khaldūn bi-aqlām khaṭṭāṭīn Saʻūdīyīn. Tūnis: Majmaʻ al-Tūnisī lil-ʻUlūm wa-al-Ādāb wa-al-Funūn.

Marlborough Rare Books, London. (1986). Islamic calligraphy and illumination.

Musābaqah al-Duwalīyah li-Fann al-Khaṭṭ, & Tamīmī, M. D. (2001). Katālūj al-lawḥāt al-fāʼizah fī al-Musābaqah al-Duwalīyah al-Rābiʻah li-Fann al-Khaṭṭ. [Istanbul]: Lajnah al-Duwalīyah lil-Ḥifāẓ ʻalá al-Turāth al-Ḥaḍārī al-Islāmī.

Museum of Fine Arts (Springfield, Mass.), & Denny, W. B. (1976). The image and the word: Islamic painting and calligraphy. Springfield, Mass: Museum of Fine Arts.

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Sotheby Parke Bernet & Co. (1978). Catalogue of fine oriental miniatures, manuscripts, Qajar paintings and lacquer: Persian and Arabic calligraphy and illumination from the 14th to the 19th century ... which will be sold by auction by Sotheby Parke Bernet & Co. ... London ... Monday, 9th October, 1978. London: Sotheby Parke Bernet &.

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