Who was John Kendrick?

The following history was taken from the book:
Ridley, Scott. Morning of Fire:  John Kendrick's Daring American Odyssey in the Pacific. New York:  William Morrow, 2010.

           
"Born in 1740 on a small hilly farm in East Harwich, Cape Cod, John Kendrick was the third of seven children of Solomon Kendrick and Elizabeth Atkins. Their home bordered lands known as 'Potonumecut' that stretched east along Pleasant Bay and held the remnant native tribes of the outer Cape:  the Pamet people, the Nauset, the Monomoyick, the Saquatucket. Kendrick grew up among these native people and a close-knit group of relatives along the marshy shore." (page 4)

"Kendrick's grandfather, Edward Kendrick, had arrived in Harwich around 1700 and married Elizabeth Snow, the granddaughter of Nicholas Snow, a holder of extensive lands and one of the 'old-comers' from Plymouth who first settled the Cape. Kendrick's father, Solomon, born sometime during the winter of 1705/6, was master of a whaling vessel who was famous in local lore..." (page 4)
                  


                                  
                    Area of Cape Cod Massachusetts


"Following local tradition, Kendrick went to sea with [his father]  by the time he was fourteen. By this late teens, he was sailing with crews of men from Potonumecut. In 1762, he came ashore briefly at the end of the Seven Years' War to serve under a cousin, Jabez Snow, on a militia mission to the frontier of western New York." (page 5)

"...John Kendrick came of age in the defiant atmosphere of the coffeehouses and taverns of Boston. Here, he was in the midst of the firestorm of opposition to the Parliament's Stamp Act of 1765 and the hated Townshend Acts, which usurped local authority and levied an array of onerous taxes. As strife increased on the waterfront, he may have been involved in the widespread boycott of British goods and the burning of Boston's customs house, or riots over seizure and impressment of American sailors for British ships." (page 5)

"During this time, Kendrick also frequented the south coast of Massachusetts, where talk of liberty and independence was rife and smuggling rampant. Perhaps through his grandmother Atkins's family on Martha's Vineyard, he met Huldah Pease, the daughter of an Edgartown seafaring clan. Shortly after Christmas in 1767 they married and settled for a time on the island. Subsequent colonial records show that Kendrick mastered the whaling brig Lydia to the grounds off Cape Verde, and took the schooner Rebecca into the Gulf of Mexico, where he negotiated his way out of being seized by the Spanish garda costa." (page 5)

"Family tradition holds that on the rainy night of December 16, 1773, John Kendrick was part of the legendary band that boarded two East India Company ships at Griffin's Wharf in Boston and dumped 342 chests of tea into the harbor. Thumbing his nose at the British shortly after, he is said to have been master of the brig Undutied Tea." (page 5)          

                    
                    Image depicting the Boston Tea Party

"At the outbreak of the Revolution, Kendrick may have smuggled powder and arms from the Caribbean with the sloop Fanny, whose owners were under contract with a secret committee of the Continental Congress. .... On July 20, 1777, he departed with 104 men for the English Channel and the French port of Nantes, where American privateers gathered. Here the Fanny became known as the Boston, and his crew the 'Boston men." (page 6)       

                    
                    Brigatine from the Revolutionary War

John Kendrick and his "Boston men" battled and took two ships filled with sugar and rum from Jamaica. "Brought into Nantes in mid-August 1777, the captured ships caused an international stir. France had not yet entered the war, and Kendrick's prizes tested French neutrality and engaged Benjamin Franklin in correspondence with King Louis XVI and Congress." The capture of these ships and correspondence thereafter "helped to precipitate the entry of France into the war. In the fall of 1778, Kendrick returned home a hero. ... With his prize money from the French king, Kendrick ought a house, wharf, and a store at a riverfront site called the Narrows in the village of Whareham on the south coast of Massachusetts and built the first public school there." (page 6)

Kendrick settled with his family for the winter; however he reentered the cause after seeing the British burn many of the anchored American ships. "...Kendrick sailed off in late winter to command another privateer, the Count d'Estaing, which he owned in partnership with the New York patriot Isaac Sears. Southwest of the Azores island of Flores, he encountered a British frigate, the twenty-eight-gun Brutus, and her tender with ten guns. Kendrick was forced to strike his colors, and he and his crew were locked below as prisoners on the d'Estaing from April 8 to 22. The British captain forced as many prisoners as possible to sign on with him. Finally, impatient with those who held out, he set Kendrick and thirty of his men in a boat. They made a thirty-mile trip to Graciosa -- one of the central islands of the Azores -- where they were well treated by the inhabitants." (page 7)

"...Kendrick returned to America with the French fleet." (page 7)

"Shortly before the British surrendered at Yorktown in 1781, Kendrick came ashore. In his sporadic visits home he had managed to father six children, and now he buckled down to making his way in the new nation." (pages 7-8)

"After the victorious Revolution and the euphoria of the Peace Treaty of 1783, an economic depression had settled over villages and farms. Port cities and their harbors were left reeling from the war. Inflation was rampant. There was no common currency, state governments were weak, and representatives to the Congress of the Confederation bickered over fundamental issues, threatening to secede. Heavy debts owed to Britain for damages in the war were due, and the prospects for international trade and revenue were bleak. In a punching move, the king had closed all British ports from Canada and the British Isles to the Caribbean to the remaining American ships. France and Spain, likewise, offered no viable trade agreements for their harbors or colonies. Each of those kingdoms wanted the United States as a dependent client nation hemmed in between the Appalachians and the Atlantic." (pages 11-12)

"Securing independence was far from certain, and [Joseph] Barrell, a prominent merchant .... feared along with many others that the blood and suffering of the long revolution might come to nothing." (page 12) Barrell had devised a plan "to launch a daring expedition of two ships into a little-known part of the world. The voyage would be America's first across the broad expense of the Pacific, and shipmasters in the next generation would regard it as one of the most remarkable journeys ever undertaken by the United States." (page 11)

"A push was on for a new federal government. But without trade, without customs revenue, without taxes, it would be impossible to support a new central government and succeed in securing independence. Shipping was the soul of early commerce, and braking the Old World stranglehold on American vessels was essential to the survival of the fledgling nation. Barrell's plan held a way to travel beyond the Atlantic ports closed to American ships, open an American gateway to the Pacific and establish a base for the new nation on the far side of the continent." (page 13)

This plan was based upon the travels of James Cook's third voyage where "he 'discovered' the Hawaiian Islands and a treasure of rich furs on the northern Pacific coast of America. In China, furs that Cook's men had purchased from the American natives in return for trinkets sold for as much as one hundred and twenty Spanish dollars for a single sea otter pelt. This was more than double a full seaman's wages for a year. .... The fortune in furs was still waiting for those daring to venture out." (pages 13-14)

"Following the pattern described in Cook's journal, Barrell outlined a triangular trade of New England goods and trinkets for sea otter furs from Pacific Northwest tribes; an exchange of furs for tea, silk, and other goods at Macao; and a homeward voyage laden with rich Chinese cargo. .... To firmly secure this trade, the Pacific expedition would also seek to purchase lands on the Northwest Coast. .... And even more dramatic, Barrell proposed that the expedition search for the legendary Northwest Passage." (page 14)

This plan was expensive, dangerous, and long. "The key to attracting good men and ensuring success for the expedition rested on finding the right commander.  .... this one would have to be both a seasoned warrior and a diplomat who could negotiate dangers at sea and along unknown coasts. It would take someone experienced in the care of a crew on such a long journey, someone who could hold the hearts of his men and fire their determination through soul-wrenching events. Moreover, he would have to be a master navigator who appreciated the dream of an American outpost on the Pacific and was willing to risk his life in this venture. .... the choice came down to one broad-shouldered captain who literally stood above the others." John Kendrick. (pages 15-16)

                    
                    1793 Drawing of Columbia by George Davidson, who served as the ship's artist

"... the expedition's two ships where tied up at Hancock's Wharf. .... The command ship, the Columbia Redivia, was a three-masted brig, eight-three feet six inches long on deck, with a 212-ton carrying capacity, snub-bowed and deep in the hull like the whalers Kendrick had once taken into the icy North Atlantic. ... Her name meant 'dove reborn,' which was symbolic of the new nation and perhaps also implied the biblical dove sent in search of new land and prosperity." (page 19)

"The Lady Washington was a coastal sloop of sixty feet and ninety tons, built low and tough in the shipyards north of Boston..." (page 19)

                

                Replica of Lady Washington

"News of the voyage appeared in Boston newspapers and spread down the coast." (page 20)

"The prospect of adventure and word of Kendrick's mastering the expedition brought on veterans of the Revolution and seasoned hands as well as young sailors." (page 20) The crew included sailmakers, gunners, blacksmiths, carpenters, furriers, and even celebrities, and included boys as young as age 12. "Kendrick also enlisted two of his sons for the historic venture:  Jonathan, eighteen years old, as fifth officer, and Solomon, sixteen, as a common seaman." (page 21)

"Serving under Kendrick as captain of the Lady Washington was thirty-three-year-old Robert Gray, who had grown up on Narrangansett Bay and was the nephew of Samuel Gray, one of four men killed in the Boston Massacre in 1770. Gray was a brash, one-eyed Rhode Islander who was said to have sailed in the Continental navy. He thought himself to be the better choice to command the voyage. Headstrong, arrogant, and focused on the merchant purpose of the expedition, he would continually chafe under Kendrick's command." (page 21)

                    
                    Captain Robert Gray   
  
"The third officer, nineteen-year-old Robert Haswell, whose father had been a Loyalist and lieutenant in the British navy during the American Revolution, would become the unofficial chronicler of the first two years of the voyage." (page 21) 

                    

                    Robert Haswell - The ship artist and historian of the expedition; also 2nd Mate of the Columbia, later switching to Lady Washington

                    
                    Drawing by Robert Haswell of the Columbia and the Lady Washington

"And the Columbia's first officer, Simeon Woodruff, whom young Haswell referred to as 'the aged gentleman,' came aboard as a kind of celebrity. Woodruff was a Connecticut native who served in the British navy during the American Revolution and sailed with Captain James Cook on his third voyage of discovery. He had already seen the rich furs of the Northwest and the amorous women of the Pacific islands, and had fought off native attacks." (page 21)    

On Friday, September 28, 1787 the ships were moved to the channel and final preparations were made. On Sunday, September 30, 1787 the ships, freshly painted and rigged sat while guests and families said their "goodbyes." Prayers were offered for the voyage. They set sailed to the entrance of the harbor and had a celebration. Then, they embarked on this new voyage. (pages 22-23)

Over the next five months, the ships crossed the Atlantic toward Cape Verde, off the western coast of Africa. They then sailed down the coast of South America, "staying well offshore to avoid Spanish patrols. At the desolate Falkland Islands they stopped for water and final preparations." (page 25)

                                        
                    Location of Cape Verde Islands (Near Africa)

Storms ensued. "It was like a passage into the underworld. Ceaseless wind. Blinding ice storms. Utterly black nights. Immense waves. Exhausted men washed overboard." Haswell noted that it was improbable that they would succeed this passage around the Cape at this time of year. (page 26) 

"On Kendrick's ships, numbing cold increased the grumbling among the men. As on most vessels, there were divisions among them." Loyalists formed cliques; others backed Kendrick (page 30)

Kendrick had gotten into a heated disagreement with first mate Simeon Woodruff, who seemed to be at the forefront of dissent. .... Woodruff's British navy background and the haughty attitude of royal offers differed greatly from Kendrick's style, and Woodruff's celebrity status may have prompted him to act like something of a peacock. At the end of the first week of December, Kendrick removed him from his position as first officer of the Columbia. He offered Woodruff the choice of staying aboard as a passenger and undertaking tasks he was set to, or leaving the expedition. Woodruff requested that he be allowed to go on board Gray's ship, the Lady Washington. After more bickering, Woodruff refused to sign departure papers. Kendrick ordered him before the mast, where Woodruff spent the night in open air without bedding. In the morning he signed the papers and was set ashore at Praia." (pages 30-31)

"Haswell felt Woodruff's departure as a personal blow, and he protested bitterly in his journal..." (page 30)

"The day after Woodruff was set ashore, the ship's surgeon, Dr. Roberts, claimed that his health was declining and asked Kendrick for a discharge. Kendrick responded that he'd grant the request if Roberts would pay for his passage from Boston to Cape Verde. Roberts refused. Nevertheless, the next day Kendrick gave him permission to go ashore. Roberts did not return, and Kendrick received a note from the governor of the island saying that Roberts had sought his protection, complaining of 'inhuman treatment." (page 30) He eventually asked to be returned, but Kendrick refused and also left him in Praia. (page 31)

                    
                    Cape Horn at the tip of South America

"Tensions continued to mount as the ships bounded southward toward Cape Horn. One day Haswell struck and bloodied one of the men. .... "[Kendrick] exploded and grabbed Haswell and slapped him. .... Haswell was removed from his cabin to common quarters with the men. He requested that Kendrick allow him to leave the ship for another vessel, and Kendrick agreed he could take the first vessel they encountered. Unfortunately, no other ship appeared. At he Falklands, Haswell was transferred to the Lady Washington to serve under Gray." (page 32)

"On March 19 [1788], the ships were nearly five hundred miles south of Cape Horn..." Brutal storms came again the following month. (page 32) "With [Lady Washington's] deck surging underwater, and towering swells breaking nearly on top of her, Haswell huddled with Gray and his crew below deck, believing they faced certain destruction at any moment. Both officers cursed Kendrick for delaying so long at Praia, for keeping them at the Falklands, and for leading them into a storm they might never escape. In three days of raging seas and fierce blizzard, the ships became entirely lost to one another. Neither knew if the other survived, or if the dreams they had embarked with six months earlier were doomed." (page 33)

The ships were separated in the storms. "...the Columbia had been driven back toward the east. .... As they lay stalled below Cape Horn, the crew worked to make repairs in continuing squalls." (page 34)

Meanwhile, Spain sent out orders to colonies and ships looking to capture Columbia and Lady Washington. "Any nation venturing to the Pacific Northwest Coast was assumed by Spain to be searching for the entrance to the legendary passage and attempting to claim the territory around it. This posed a dire threat to Spain's dominion over the region." (page 42)

"Far to the southwest, Robert Gray welcomed the empty horizon as the storm cleared. ....he now saw an opportunity to escape Kendrick's command. .... Just before leaving the Falklands, Kendrick had written orders for what Gray should do if they were separated, or if the Columbia perished. The first step was a rendezvous at the remote island of Mas Afuera, 540 miles off the coast of Chile." They arrived on April 22. "The next morning Gray scanned the horizon. As he expected the slow-sailing command ship, if she still existed was nowhere in sight. He determined that he had fulfilled his orders from Kendrick, and was now on his own." (pages 47-48)

Gray and his crew needed fresh water. They didn't have casks to swim to shore and retrieve water from the islands. So, they tried to reach other islands where they could anchor. They had little luck and over three weeks and sixteen hundred miles, "they had run out of islands that might have offered some chance to replenish wood and water." (pages 49-50)

"A month behind the, the Columbia paused offshore as Mas Afuera. Not finding the Washington at the rendezvous gave Kendrick deepened concern for her crew's fate. He had been ordered by Joseph Barrell 'not to touch at any part of the Spanish dominions on the western continent of America, unless driven there by some unavoidable accident.' With the Columbia needing repairs, his water and wood running low, and hoping for some word of the sloop, Kendrick decided to risk putting in at Mas a Tierra." (page 50)

Kendrick used his intellect in dealing with the Spanish at this port. "He made signals of peace and invited the two Spanish soldiers on board." He was questioned in Spanish, which none of the crew understood. "Kendrick tried to explain in French that he needed safe anchorage to make repairs and take on fresh water and wood." In an account by Juanes (the Spanish leader of the island), "Kendrick said that General Washington of the United States had sent him on this expedition to inspect the Russian settlements north of California." Juanes noted that the Columbia had only a crew of 40, 18 of which were boys between 12 and 16 who obviously weren't trained in weapons. He thought the captain was friendly. They allowed anchoring and provisions. They remained anchored until June 3, 1788. (pages 52-53)

This stop in Mas Afuera got back to Spain, who quickly sent out warnings and ships. "If the Columbia or its consort, Lady Washington, appeared, they were to be seized and the crews arrested as pirates." (page 55)

"June passed into July as they plodded northward. .... Rain kept the water barrel full, and albacore and turtles provided fresh meat." (page 57)

Unfortately, scurvy broke out among the crew. (page 57)

"The Washington's men were also afflicted with scurvy, and her progress had slowed as well. When the Columbia was departing Cumberland Bay on June 3, the Washington was seven hundred fifty miles southwest of Manzanillo on the Mexican coast." (page 59)

On July 31, 1788 the Lady Washington finally made it to the American coast, "approximately twenty miles south of the Oregon border near the Klamath River." (pages 59-60) Unfortunately, there was no place for them to get ashore. (page 60)

"It wasn't until the evening of August 13 that they found a harbor large enough for the sloop. ... The Washington anchored a half mile from shore, near what is now Tillamook Bay." They traded with the natives, and things appeared congenial. However, a skirmish ensued, and the crew quickly had to retreat to their ship." (pages 62-63)

"As the Washington was fleeing the Tillamook, the Columbia was logging slow and steady headway a thousand miles off the Mexian Baja coast. The pursuing ships had dropped off long ago, but the alarm about the American expedition was still spreading." (page 66)

On September 22, 1788, the Columbia reached the American landmass. They had reached the vicinity of Nootka (Vancouver Island). (page 75)

"Gray had arrived at Nootka only a week earlier, on September 16." (page 76)

                    

                    late 1700 drawing of Nooka Sound - Where Kendrick held port

"Gray had been preparing the Washington for a cargoless voyage to China when the Columbia appeared. .... There is no record of the conversation between Kendrick and Gray, but the health of the crews and the condition of the sloop would have been foremost." (page 77)

Kendrick quickly reworked his plans. He realized that there were two goals that needed to be separated:  a search for the northwest passage and the trade route with China. So, he added a second mass to the Washington, making her a brigantine and reworked the Columbia with a kiln and chimney to provide warmth. (page 85)

Natives continued their trade with Kendrick. Chief Manquinna was the regional chief of the Mowachaht people, and Kendrick and him conversed as best they could to set up trade agreements.  (pages 92-93)

Kendrick's changes to the ships eventually made Columbia a "storehouse." It was determined that "the Washington, which had a shallower draft and much greater maneuverability, would be the primary trading vessel for coastal inlets and bays." (page 97)

Over the next year, Kendrick set up relationships with the natives. In the meantime, there were also several altercations with both the Spanish and the British, both wanting to stop this trade. Both the Spanish and British were also trying to set up their own trade with the natives as well. As a side note, Kendrick's eldest son, "well versed in navigation, and fluent in the Mowachaht language, announced that he had decided to remain at Nootka and join the Spanish navy." Not much is written about this discussion but it was noted that the "American commander stood with tears streaming down his cheeks as he told his son that life held no greater fortune than to be a man of goodwill and to faithfully follow that path." (page 135)

June 24, 1789:  "[Kendrick] explained to Gray that there were not enough provisions for both ships to cruise north, and an early start to the market at Macao with the Columbia might bring a better price for furs. Much to Gray's surprise, Kendrick then told him they would switch ships. Gray would take the Columbia to Canton. Kendrick would take the Washington north." (page 139)

Gray returned to Boston via Canton, later taking a second expedition in the Columbia that would enter the Columbia River on the modern Washington-Oregon border. Thus, the river was named the Columbia River, in honor of the first non-indigenous vessel that entered it. 

                    

                    Columbia River

Meanwhile, Captain John Kendrick remained on the northwest coast. While in the Northwest Territory, Kendrick's crew explored the area and traded with the natives. Kendrick sailed up the coast of Vancouver Island at the end of June. It has also been claimed that Captain Kendrick determined Vancouver was an island by sailing completely around it. 

                    

                    Vancouver Island

Captain John Kendrick traded with the Haida and their chief, Coyah, on the Queen Charlotte Islands. "After a few days anchored off the village, someone stole the captain's linen that had been washed and left hanging to dry. Petty thievery had been going on since their arrival, and Kendrick decided to send for Coyah and Schulkinanse, an older chief who may have been his father-in-law. When they climbed on board, Kendrick confronted Coyah about the thefts and, learning nothing, took both men hostage. .... Kendrick told them and others in a canoe alongside that if they did not return the stolen goods, he would kill them. The canoe carried Kendrick's threat to shore, and the people of the village soon appeared with some of what had been taken. Recognizing that trading would be at an end when they released the two chiefs, Kendrick forced them to bring out all the furs they had left, and gave the same rate in goods he had previously paid." (pages 147-178)

"Of all the native people he would encounter, the one with Coyah was Kendrick's only recorded case of brutality." (page 149) "While beating Coyah seemed out of character for Kendrick, who was usually singled out for his humanity toward native people, he may have wanted to see the tyrant deposed in favor of another chief, or maybe the wilderness or desperation for funds was bringing out the bloody work he was capable of." (page 148)

                                        
                    First Image:  Haida Shamans and Second Image:  Haida Totem Pole and Canoes

Kendrick made his way to the Sandwich Islands (now called Hawaii). John Kendrick became the first American to use Pearl Harbor as a naval operating base. While at the Islands, he recorded land concession deeds he made with the Indians. These deeds were later used in settling the boundary dispute between Canada and the United States. 

                    
                    Map of Sandwich Islands (or Hawaiian Group)

"Once fully provisioned, the Washington sailed due west. The five-thousand-mile trip to Macao, across the western Pacific and threading through the islands between Formosa and the Philippines, would take about five weeks with fair weather." (page 176)


Kendrick reached Macau in January 1790 to make fur trades. Gray had been there with the Columbia with very little success in forming a trade relationship. (The area was held by the British, who were thwarting all trade efforts.) By the spring, trades were made. (page 189) He eventually left Macau in March 1791, along with Captain William Douglas's ship, the Grace. Kendrick and Douglas continued to Japan, which at that time was a closed country, arriving on May 6, 1791, probably becoming the first official Americans to meet the Japanese. The next day a typhoon came and forced Kendrick's ship northeast to Kashinoura Harbor. Kendrick ran into unknown trouble with the Japanese, who sent some samurai to make sure things did not get out of hand. Kendrick finally left on May 17. He and Douglas parted ways at a group of islands that they called the Water Islands.

                                        
                    Macau - on the southern portion of China (and Proximity to Japan)

On June 13, 1791, Kendrick landed on the shores of the Haida village, Ce-uda'o Inagai, Queen Charlotte's Island. Although it was two years later when Kendrick returned, the Haida had not forgotten Kendrick's treatment and a battle ensued. Under the auspice of trade, the Haida sent about 50 aboard Kendrick's ship, half of whom were women, and another 100 in canoes along side the Lady Washington. The natives captured the arms chest of the Washington and overran the decks of the ship. One of Coyah's men held a fierce-looking weapon at Kendrick's face, ready to kill when the order was given. As Kendrick's crew were taken to the hold below deck, they quietly and secretly grabbed any weapons left in unnoticeable places. Kendrick found an iron bar and when Coyah came into sight, he leaped on top of the Haida chief. Coyah slashed Kendrick's belly with a knife. When the chief saw that the crew was armed, he fled. Kendrick and his men charged the Haida, shooting at them and picking up weapons. One Native woman urged the fight to continue, even though she had lost an arm. She was the last one to retreat from the Lady Washington, jumping into the water and trying to swim away. A crewman shot her as she swam to shore. About 40 Haida were killed that day, including Coyah's wife and two children. Coyah was wounded as well as his two brothers and another chief named Schulkinanse.  In shame, Coyah was removed from chief to ahliko. (The Haida decreased in numbers but in later years would have some successful ship captures along with human slaughters.) Interestingly, a ballad was written about the ordeal by one of the crew. Taking a different perspective of the battle, the ballad noted Kendrick's bravery and coolness in keeping the vessel from falling into the hands of the Natives.

Kendrick immediately left after the battle and arrived in Marvinas Bay on July 12, 1791. Kendrick built a small fort called Fort Washington in Clayoquot Sound in late August.


                    
                    Robert Haswell's drawing of Columbia and Lady Washington together again off Northwest Territory (Haita Natives in foreground of drawing)

Captain John Kendrick and his crew were the first and only Americans to engage in a victorious battle at Pearl Harbor. On December 3, 1794, he arrived in Fairhaven (now Honolulu) Hawaii during tumultuous times - a civil war between Kalanikupule and his half-brother Ka'eokulani. Kalanikupule offered a British seaman (Captain William Brown of the Butterworth) the island of Oahu and 400 pigs for his assistance in the war. (Captain Brown had been his father's ally for military aid). Brown and Kalanikupule struck a deal, and the crew from Brown's ship chipped in on the front lines. However, the seamen were of little help as they were more interested in counting their newfound fortune in pigs than in chasing bad guys. When King Kalanikupule saw the United States flag flying from a newly arrived American ship, he paddled out and pleaded for help. Captain John Kendrick could not resist the challenge and quickly offered his assistance. The decisive battle (Battle of Kalauoa) was fought at the water's edge at Kalauwao in the Ewa district. While the king's men engaged in combat on land, Captain Kendrick and his men offered support from their ship as they lay off shore at Pearl Harbor. Ka'eokulani tried to escape, but the seamen saw his 'ahu 'ula (his scarlet coat with yellow feathers) and fired at the enemy chief from the boat to show his position to Kalanikupule's men. The Oahu warriors killed Ka'eokulani along with his wives and chiefs, ending the battle with Kalanikupule as the victor. To celebrate the victory, Captain Kendrick fired a salute from his ship and then retired to his cabin for a rest. As he lay his head back, he heard the other British ship of Captain Brown answer his salute. The third salvo from their guns went askew and unintentionally hit Captain John Kendrick's cabin, leaving him Hawaii's shortest lived hero. Thus, Captain John Kendrick was killed on the 7th of December 1794(*). How ironic to die in such a way! A man as he to die from a shot fired in his honor.

                    
                    Battle of Kalauoa

(*) There are conflicting records of the length of the Battle of Kalauoa and of John Kendrick's date of death. Some note the end (and his date of death) as December 12, 1794.


Interesting Note #1 - The images of Columbia that John Kendrick sailed was the model for the ship built at Disneyland for the ride.

Interesting Note #2 - A replica of Lady Washington is located at Grays Harbor Historical Seaport in Aberdeen, Washington and serves as the official ship of the State of Washington.




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