The Gluten File
WebMd on iron deficiency and memory
The prevalence of celiac disease in children with iron-deficiency anemia.
PMID:24254265 Aug 2013
Mild enteropathy as a cause of iron-deficiency anaemia of previously unknown origin.
PMID 21233030 June 2011
Results: ninety-eight patients (84% females) with a mean age of 54 years were studied. Anti-TGt2 antibodies were positive in 5% of cases. A total of 67 cases (68%) were haplotype HLA-DQ2 or -DQ8 (+). We found villous atrophy (Marsh III) in 13% of patients, and an inflammatory pattern (Marsh I or II) in 13%. All remaining 72 patients (74%) had no histological duodenal changes.Age, anemia duration, number of transfusions, number of parenteral iron doses, and time on a gluten-free diet were all compared according to the presence or absence of villous atrophy and HLA-DQ2/8 positivity, and no significant differences were found for any of the analyzed variables. Response was positive in 92% of subjects.Conclusions: celiac disease with villous atrophy is rarely a cause of refractory anemia. Gluten intolerance with no histological lesions is seen in almost 75% of patients, and therefore plays a relevant role in its development.
Refractory iron-deficiency anemia and gluten intolerance - Response to gluten-free diet.
PMID:21770680 May 2011
Guidelines for the management of iron deficiency anaemia.
PMID: 21561874 May 2011
[How to explore iron-deficiency anemia.]
PMID: 20447798 May 2010
PMID: 20455043 April 2010
RESULTS: CD was positive in 11 out of 25 patients (44%), H. pylori infection in 12 out of 25 patients (48%), while GER was diagnosed in 11 out of 25 patients (44%). ...In conclusion, refractory IDA may be due to clinically unapparent H. pylori gastritis and CD. CD is one of the most common causes of intestinal malabsorption during childhood which leads to impairment of iron absorption. Apart from offering them gluten-free diet rich in iron, early detection and treatment of IDA and prophylactic iron and folic acid supplementation will go a long way to optimize their mental and psychological functions. Eradication of H. pylori infection with concomitant iron therapy should correct the anemia.
Prevalence of celiac disease, Helicobacter pylori and gastroesophageal reflux in patients with refractory iron deficiency anemia.
PMID: 17908698 Feb 2008
CONCLUSION: There is a high prevalence (e.g. 14.6%) of GSE in patients with IDA of obscure origin. Gluten free diet can improve anemia in GSE patients who have mild duodenal lesions without villous atrophy.
Gluten sensitive enteropathy in patients with iron deficiency anemia of unknown origin.
PMID: 19109873 Dec 2008
Iron deficiency in childhood and adolescence: retrospective review.
PMID: 17325959 June 2006
We identified 8 new cases of adult celiac disease (5%). Forty IDA patients (27%) had autoimmune atrophic gastritis of whom 22 had low serum vitamin B12 levels. H. pylori infection was the only finding in 29 patients (19%), but was a common co-existing finding in 77 (51%) of the entire group. Refractoriness to oral iron treatment was found in 100% of patients with celiac disease, 71% with autoimmune atrophic gastritis, 68% with H. pylori infection, but only 11% of subjects with no detected underlying abnormality.
Role of autoimmune gastritis, Helicobacter pylori and celiac disease in refractory or unexplained iron deficiency anemia.
PMID: 15921373 May 2005
In adult and elderly patients undergoing endoscopy for IDA, the endoscopist should take distal duodenal biopsies to exclude coeliac disease if no upper gastrointestinal cause of anaemia is found. Coeliac disease is not an uncommon cause of IDA in patients >65 years of age and a history of chronic diarrhoea increases diagnostic yield in this age group.
Value of routine duodenal biopsy in diagnosing coeliac disease in patients with iron deficiency anaemia.
PMID: 15299158 Aug 2004
The clinical diagnosis was celiac sprue in 21 patients (32%), aclorhydria in 7 (10.5%), bacterial overgrowth in 1 (1.5%), intestinal giardiasis in 1 (1.5%), menstrual blood loss in 1 (1.5%) and 35(53%) patients remained without a definitive diagnosis.
Iron deficiency: not always blood losses
Institution of a gluten-free diet resulted in correction of the anemia. These observations emphasize the importance of considering a diagnosis of celiac disease in patients with nonresponsive iron deficiency anemia
Refractory iron deficiency anemia as the primary clinical manifestation of celiac disease.
Given the treatable nature of celiac disease, it should be screened for in patients with unexplained iron-deficiency anemia with or without hemoccult-positive stools.
Prevalence of occult celiac disease in patients with iron-deficiency anemia: a prospective study.
This laboratory based methodology detected a considerable number of new coeliac disease cases in the community. Many of these patients did not present with clinical findings suggestive of malabsorption and might not otherwise have been diagnosed
A controlled, prospective screening study of celiac disease presenting as iron deficiency anemia
Our results suggest that iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is commonly associated with CD and iron deficiency state continues for a longer time even after excluding gluten from the diet and iron supplementation.
Iron supplementation in children with celiac disease
Pica and iron-deficiency anemia as presenting symtoms in celiac disease
The stomach and iron deficiency anaemia: a forgotten link.
Link between Helicobacter pylori infection and iron-deficiency anaemia in patients with coeliac disease. PMID:11761018
Gastrointestinal causes of refractory iron deficiency anemia in patients without gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:116905688