Gluten-sensitive enteropathy (GSE) is increasingly diagnosed in adults. The symptoms of this disease can overlap with those of functional dyspepsia. The prevalence of GSE in dyspepsia has been reported to be 1.2-6.2% and could be higher if the entire spectrum of lesions related to gluten sensitivity, including lymphocytic enteropathy, is considered. Patients with dyspepsia secondary to GSE could be mistakenly diagnosed with functional dyspepsia unless upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is completed with duodenal biopsy and immunostaining for intraepithelial lymphocytes. A missed diagnosis could have major consequences in terms of morbidity and mortality and quality of life. Consequently, endoscopic study of patients with dyspepsia should be completed by duodenal biopsy when there are symptoms suggestive of GSE.
[Gluten-sensitive enteropathy and functional dyspepsia].
CONCLUSION:: GERD symptoms are common in classically symptomatic
untreated CD patients. The GFD is associated with a rapid and persistent
improvement in reflux symptoms that resembles the healthy population.
Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in patients with celiac disease and the effects of a gluten-free diet.
PMID: 20601132 July 2010
Purpose: To establish the interdependence between the intensity of the clinical symptoms and the acid reflux index in children with primary GER and GER secondary to cow's milk protein allergy (CMA) and/or other food allergies (FA).
Acid gastroesophageal reflux and intensity of symptoms in children with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Comparison of primary gastroesophageal reflux and gastroesophageal reflux secondary to food allergy.
PMID: 19058330 Dec 2008
PMID: 16344626 Jan 2006
PMID: 15316418 Sept 2004
CONCLUSION: Coeliac patients have a high prevalence of reflux oesophagitis. That a gluten free diet significantly decreased the relapse rate of GORD symptoms suggests that coeliac disease may represent a risk factor for development of reflux oesophagitis.
Reflux oesophagitis in adult coeliac disease: beneficial effect of a gluten free diet.
PMID: 12631661 April 2003
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a potential trigger of asthma. The esophagus and lung interact through a variety of mechanisms. Esophageal acid-induced bronchoconstriction can be provoked by a vagally mediated reflex, whereby acid in the distal esophagus produces airway responses; by neural enhancement of bronchial reactivity, whereby esophageal acid augments airway hyperresponsiveness; or by microaspiration, in which small amounts of esophageal acid in the upper airway cause significant airway responses. Interestingly, even in the microaspiration model, the vagus nerve plays a significant role. Neurogenic inflammation in the lung may occur with either vagally mediated mechanisms or with microaspiration. The prevalence of reflux symptoms, esophagitis, and abnormal esophageal acid contact time is higher in patients with asthma than in control populations. Potential mechanisms, whereby asthma may predispose to the development of GER, include autonomic dysregulation, an increased pressure gradient differential between the thorax and the abdomen, a high prevalence of hiatal hernia, alterations in crural diaphragm function, and bronchodilator medication use. Further research will help define how the esophagus and lung interact.
Gastroesophageal reflux, asthma, and mechanisms of interaction.
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a factor often neglected in the etiopathogenesis of asthma. The estimated incidence of GER in asthmatic children reaches 50-60% and is higher than in the general population. GER may accompany typical symptoms: hoarseness, sore throat, thoracic pain, cough or wheezing. GER may not only aggravate the course of bronchial obstruction, but may also cause it, or trigger obstruction due to other factors. Asthma and GER coincidence has been acknowledged for many years.
Asthma and gastroesophageal reflux in children.
PMID: 11887043 (free full text available as download)