Cope, B., & Kalantzis, M. (2009). Multiliteracies : New literacies new learning, Pedagogies : An International Journal, 4 (3),         164-195. doi: 10.1080/15544800903076044

Cope and Kalantzis described how The New London Group applied change to traditional literacy pedagogies, as these were no longer current in literacy teaching and learning. “New Literacies, New Learning” stated that the world is increasing in multimodal texts, which incorporates text design elements (visual, audio, gestural, spatial and linguistic) and the need for multilingual and multimodal dimensions in literacy as in the text design element pedagogies. Overt instruction and situated practise was expanded to form the Four Components Pedagogy, in which four elements are used simultaneously. From this article it is apparent that new literacies had to emerge due to the cultural and social changes to students learning.


The New London Group. (1996). A pedagogy of multiliteracies: Designing social futures. Harvard Education Review, 66 (1), 60-66. Retrieved from EJS database.

The New London Group states that change within the community has forced the development of multiliteracies to allow for “local diversity and global connectiveness”. “Designing Social Futures”, reiterates that the purpose of education is to allow all community members to participate in social and cultural life fully, which includes using and understanding multimedia and information texts. The use of multimodal literacy pedagogies, such as text design elements, enables more multiple intelligent learners to be taught using specialised methods (spatial-visual intelligent learners) including visual and audio elements. Cultural diversity can be overcome by incorporating multiliteracies and multimodal teaching techniques in the classroom to cater for diversity

Winch, G., Johnston, R. R., March, P., Ljungdahl, L. & Holliday, M.(4th ). (2010). Literacy: Reading, Writing & Children’s Literature. 
New South Wales: Oxford University Press.

This chapter affirms that information communication technology (ICT) can assist to blend traditional teaching methodology with emerging teaching techniques to encourage imaginative responses and unite diversity. Discussions surrounding technology competent teachers incorporating the use of blogs, webquest and treasure-trove within their teaching, allows students to feel more confident in learning new concepts using familiar multimodal devices, similar to those used at home or in the community environment. The article underpins that both traditional and multimodal teaching and learning techniques are necessary for students to learn efficiently and effectively.

Campbell, R. & Grean, D. (3rd). (2006). Literacies and Learners: Current Perspectives. Page 6-8. New South Wales:             Pearson Education Australia.

Campbell and Green state that literacy encourages students to read texts in a number of different ways depending on the student’s culture and the society in which they live. “Literacies and Learners” discusses decoding the world and different texts, including Multimodal Literacy Design Elements (visual, audio) as well digital and multimedia texts. The Curriculum needs to enforce readings of different texts for students to be literate. Three strands of literacy have been designed to help students to include multiliteracies within traditional methods of teaching and learning literacy (Operational, Cultural and Critical). These strands can be seen as similar to the Freebody and Luke Four resources model as well as the Four Processes pedagogy.

Cole, D., R. & Pullen D., L. (2009). Multiliteracies in Motion: Current Theory and Practice. Page 173 – 186. New York and Unitied Kingdom: Routledge. 

“Multiliteracies in Motion” states that learning and teaching should be based around cultural norms in the classroom as well as being a teaching resource. Cole and Pullen describe the classroom that expands the curriculum to welcome new cultural and society pedagogies, as they state that “learning is a social practise and cultural relevance helps to establish learning relationships (2009)”. Digital identity now needs to be included as another element of culture along with race, gender and language. This chapter depicts how the use of multimodal pedagogies can now extend the classroom walls. Teaching and learning pedagogies that incorporate multiliteracies into the curriculum ensure that all students are fully literate within their culture and society.

Cope, B. & Kalantzis, M. (2000). Multiliteracies: Literacy Learning and the Design of Social Futures [Monograph].             Retrieved from ebook collection database.

This chapter discusses the how multiliteracies can be incorporated into teaching and learning pedagogies of cultural and social diverse classrooms. Cope and Kalantzis describe the use of the multiliteracy pedagogy, The Four Components, and how the use of this teaching resource can apply to students. Knowledge and learning needs to be relevant to students inside and outside of the classroom, enabling the students to use the Four Knowledge processes. Honouring students’ cultural diversity in learning and teaching opens another opportunity for students to better themselves not only within the literacy classroom but overall. 

Henderson, R. (2004). Recognising Difference: One of the Challenges in using a multiliteracy approach? Practically Primary, 9 (2), 11-14. Retrieved on March 25, 2012, from A+ Education Database. 
This article discusses the link commonly made between Multiliteracies, computers and the use of information communication technologies (ICT). Henderson refers to the New London Group and states that consideration within the planning and teaching of the curriculum needs to be taken in relation to cultural and linguistic diversity. Statements in this article highlight the necessity to teach to students’ strengths. The knowledge of students’ cultural and social environment will assist in teaching to students’ strengths. Overall, Henderson emphasises that Multiliteracy pedagogy needs to factor in students cultural and social background for the teacher to be able to teach to the students’ strengths.


Asseline, M. & Moeyeri, M. (2011). Practical Strategies: the participatory classroom: Web 2.0 in the classroom.                        Literacy Learning: The Middle Years, 19 (2), i-vii. Retrieved from Education Research Complete Database.

Asseline and Moeyeri examine technologies within the classroom, stating that without them students would lack the opportunity to become completely literate in today’s society. This article states that web 2.0 applications enable students to actively participate and increase their knowledge. The article encourages the change from traditional texts to multimodal versions. New literacy pedagogies enable teachers to use multimodal methods for information location, evaluation and synthesising as well as discovering answers. The deconstruction of multimodal texts should be encouraged to discover and understand the foundations of the text as well as the class, gender, race and culture to which the text was aimed. 


Sutherland, R., Robertson, S. & John, P. (2008). Improving Classroom Learning with ICT : Integrating Teaching and            Learning in ICT. Retrieved from               =95&u=Va9XQdUESQKuG8RUFOl57w%3d%3d&t=1332664156&h=2F522405944E053F70B9B5FF1114AE1            7DF249DD0&s=5493784&ut=243&pg=44&r=img&c=-1&pat=n#

“Improving classroom learning with ICT” suggests that traditional teaching and learning methods are no longer effective and the need for information communication technologies (ICT) is now essential to enhance the learning experience. Sutherland, Robertson and John state that students often have a prior knowledge of using technology and this needs to be established. The teacher needs to become the expert in technology to be able to fully use the benefits of ICT. Case study one illustrates how technologies have overtaken traditional methods and how this teacher has used ICT in literacy to enhance the learning experience and encouraged students to self-learn and participate in peer teaching and learning.


Hoffman,J. V., & Goodman, Y., M. (2009). Changing Literacties for changing times: An Historical Perspective on                        the future of reading, public policy, and classroom practises. Retrieved from               

Hoffman and Goodman define all language occurrences as multimodal in one sense or another. Chapter three of this book discusses that the use of oral language is often accompanied by gestures and written text can also include pictures making both these interactions multimodal. Multimodality in a social practise that is demonstrated in the text examples. In these examples the children are quite young and are not yet at school or are yet to learn about multimodality. This allows the reader to believe that social and cultural practise learnt outside of the classroom is how this knowledge was acquired. 

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