We believe in Divine Preordination, whether good or bad, which Allah has measured and ordained for all creatures according to His knowledge and as deemed suitable by His wisdom.
Levels of Belief
Belief in Divine Preordination has four levels: 1) Knowledge: We believe that Allah, may He be Exalted, knows everything. He knows what has happened and what will happen and how it will happen. His knowledge is eternal. He does not acquire a new knowledge nor does He forget what He knows.
2) Recording: We believe that Allah has recorded in the secured tablet (al-Lowh al-Mahfuz) whatever is going to happen until the Day of Judgment: "Did you not know that Allah knows all that is in heaven and Earth? Surely that is in a book. Surely that for Allah is an easy matter" (22:70).
3) Will: We believe that Allah has willed everything in heaven and Earth. Nothing happens except by His will. Whatever He wills will take place, and whatever He does not will, will not take place.
4) Creation: We believe that "Allah is the Creator of all things; He is
the Guardian over all things, and to Him belong the keys of the heavens
and the Earth" (39:62-3). This level includes whatever Allah Himself
does and whatever His creatures do. Thus each saying, deed, or omission
of the people is known to Allah, Who has recorded, willed, and created
them: "To those among you who will to be upright. But you shall not
will except as Allah wills, the Lord of the Worlds" (81:2829); "And had
Allah willed they would not have fought one against the other; but
Allah does whatever He desires" (2:253); "Had Allah willed, they would
not have done so, but leave them alone and their false inventions"
(6:137); and "And Allah created you and what you do" (37:96).
Man's Free Will
We believe, however, that Allah has granted humans power and free will by which they perform their actions. That a person's deeds are done by their power and free will can be proven by the following points:
1) Allah says: "So approach your fields (wives) when and how you will" (2:223); and "Had they desired to go forth, they would have made some preparation for it" (9:46). In these verses, Allah affirmed for humans "a going forth" by their will and "a preparation" by their desire.
2) Directing man to do or not to do. If humans have no free will and power, these directions mean that Allah is asking humans to do that which they cannot do. This proposition is rejected by Allah's wisdom, mercy and truthful statement: "Allah does not charge a soul beyond its capacity" (2:286).
3) Praising the virtuous for their deeds and blaming the evildoer for their actions and rewarding each of them with what they deserve. If the action is not done by the individual's free will, then praising the virtuous is a joke and punishing the evildoer is injustice, and Allah is, of course, far from removed from that.
4) Allah has sent messengers who are "bearing good tidings, and warning, so that mankind might have no argument against Allah after the messengers" (4:165). If the individual's action is not performed by free will, this argument is not invalidated by the sending of messengers.
5) Every doer of actions feels that they do or do not do a thing without any coercion. They stand up and sit down, come in and go out, travel and stay by their own free will without feeling somebody is forcing them to do any of these actions. In fact, they clearly distinguish between doing something of their own free will and someone forcing them to do that action. The Islamic law also wisely distinguishes between these states of affairs. It does not punish a wrongdoer for an action done under compulsion.
No Excuse for Sinners
We believe that the sinner has no excuse in Allah's divine decree, because they commit sins by free will, without knowing that Allah has decreed for them, for no one knows Allah's decree before it takes place: "No soul knows what it will earn tomorrow" (31:34). How can it be possible, then, to present an excuse that is not known to the person who is advancing it when they commit the offense? Allah invalidated this type of argument by saying: "The idolaters will say 'Had Allah willed, we would not have been idolaters, neither our fathers, nor would we have forbidden anything.' So did the people before them cry lies until they tasted our might. Say: 'Have you any proofs that you can show us? You follow nothing but assumption, and you are Lying"' (6:148). We say to the sinner who is using divine decree as an excuse: 'Why did you not perform deeds of obedience, assuming that Allah has decreed them upon you, since you did not know the difference between good deeds and sins? That is why, when Prophet Muhammad told his Companions that everyone's position in paradise or hell has been assigned, they said: 'Should not we rely on this and stop working?' He said: 'No, work and everyone will be directed to what he is created for"' (Bukhari and Muslim).
Evil Not Attributed to Allah
We believe that evil should not be attributed to Allah, due to His
perfect mercy and wisdom. The Prophet said: "And evil is not
attributable to You" (Muslim). Thus Allah's decree by itself has no
evil whatsoever, because it is coming from mercy and wisdom. Evil may,
however, result from some of His decrees, because the Prophet said in
the supplication for Qunut which he taught to al-Hasan: "And protect us
from the evil of what You decreed" (Tirmidhi and others). Here, the
Prophet attributed evil to what He decreed. Despite this, evil in His
decree is not pure evil. It is rather evil in one respect and good in
another, or it is evil in one case and good in another. Thus corruption
in the land resulting from drought, disease, poverty, and fear is evil,
but it is good in another respect. Allah, the Exalted said: "Corruption
has appeared on the land and sea for what men's hands have earned.
Allah has ordained this for men, so that they may taste some of what
they have done, in order that they may turn back (from evil)" (30:41).
Cutting off the thief's hand or stoning the adulterer is an evil thing
for the thief and the adulterer, but it is good for them in one
respect, because it is a purification for them so that the punishment
of this life and the hereafter are not combined for them. These
punishments are good in another respect: their application protects
property, honour, and relationships.