Tier 1 Intervention Toolkit

This page contains links to resources for implementing Tier 1 interventions and assessments.  This toolkit can aide schools in developing a standard protocol response to common academic and behavioral concerns.



The 5 Common Reasons for Academic Problems

We have decided to use the model of five common reasons why students fail academically proposed by Daly and Martens (1997). This model provides a simple and quite comprehensive approach to quickly selecting functional explanations. Those interested in an in depth explanation of this framework are directed to read the original article (A model for conducting a functional analysis of academic performance problems. School Psychology Review, 26(4), 554-575). Specifically, the five common reasons are;

  1. The academic activity is too hard (Academic Acquisition Interventions).
  2. They have not had enough help to do it (Academic Proficiency (Accuracy) Interventions).
  3. They have not spent enough time doing it (Academic Proficiency (Speed) Interventions).
  4. The student has demonstrated the skill before, but are having difficulty applying the skill in a new manner (Academic Generalization Interventions).
  5. They do not want to do it (Behavioral Fluency Interventions).  

Posted by: University of Missouri at http://ebi.missouri.edu




The 4 Common Reasons for Behavior Problems

In relation to behavior problems, we have decided to mirror the above approach. Specifically, children acquire, become fluent, and then generalize appropriate social behaviors.  Behavioral acquisition interventions are the parallel to the first in the academic framework.  Behavioral Fluency intervention are the parallel to the second and third in the academic framework.  Finally, generalization programming is the parallel to fourth in the academic framework.  We have also added a category for classwide strategies to support appropriate behavior. Specifically, the three common reasons are;

  1. Classwide Interventions
  2. Student has not learned the behavior (Behavioral Acquisition Interventions).
  3. The contingencies in the environment do not support the desired child behavior (Behavioral Proficiency Interventions).  This common reason can be further broken down in to cases where the student is trying to get something (often attention) or escape something (often an academic task demand)
  4. The student has not had to do the behavior that way before (Behavioral Generalization Interventions).
Posted by: University of Missouri at http://ebi.missouri.edu