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An Internet of Things Testbed


The whole concept of an Internet of Things (IoT) is reviewed in this thesis, architectures are discussed and some notable commercial solutions are presented. We then build our own development platform by setting up a wireless network of sub-GHz devices and connecting it to a virtual Internet cloud. Moreover, software applications (Smart Parking and Geo Fencing) are designed to complete an End-to-End Machine to Machine (M2M) communication network and therefore, emulate an entire Internet of Things environment. The communication framework that is developed, allows us to research a variety of IoT concepts including the upcoming smart grid which is a significant improvement to the current electric power distribution system.


Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................................. 11

    1.1 RELATED WORK ....................................................................................................................... 12

    1.2 THESIS OVERVIEW .................................................................................................................... 12

RESEARCH ON THE INTERNET OF THINGS............................................................................... 14

    2.1 THREE-LAYER IOT MODEL ........................................................................................................ 14

        2.1.1 The Perception Layer...................................................................................................... 14

        2.1.2 The Network Layer .......................................................................................................... 15

        2.1.3 The Application Layer...................................................................................................... 15

    2.2 INTERNET OF THINGS COMPONENTS.......................................................................................... 15

        2.2.1 End-Devices .................................................................................................................... 17

        2.2.2 Communication Protocols for the IoT.............................................................................. 17

        2.2.3 Internet of Things Operating Systems............................................................................. 23

        2.2.4 Gateway for the M2M Area Network ............................................................................... 25

        2.2.5 Message Queues ............................................................................................................ 26

        2.2.6 Application Layer Protocols for the IoT ........................................................................... 29

        2.2.7 IoT Cloud Platforms......................................................................................................... 34

    2.3 THE OPENREMOTE PLATFORM .................................................................................................. 38

        2.3.1 OpenRemote Controller .................................................................................................. 39

        2.3.2 OpenRemote Designer.................................................................................................... 39

        2.3.3 OpenRemote Control Panels .......................................................................................... 40

    2.4 SUGGESTED ARCHITECTURE FOR THE TESTBED ......................................................................... 40

AN IOT TESTBED ........................................................................................................................... 42

    3.1 THE PANSTAMP PROJECT ......................................................................................................... 43

        3.1.1 PanStamps ...................................................................................................................... 43

        3.1.2 Base Boards .................................................................................................................... 45

        3.1.3 PanStick .......................................................................................................................... 46

        3.1.4 Lagarto Servers ............................................................................................................... 47

    3.2 RASPBERRY PI ......................................................................................................................... 54

        3.2.1 Raspberry Pi PanStamp Shield....................................................................................... 57

        3.2.2 The Raspberry Pi as a Gateway ..................................................................................... 58

        3.2.3 Practical Implementation ................................................................................................. 59

    3.3 TESTED CLOUD PLATFORMS ..................................................................................................... 61

        3.3.1 ThingSpeak ..................................................................................................................... 61

        3.3.2 OpenSense...................................................................................................................... 62

    3.4 SECURITY ASPECT.................................................................................................................... 63

    3.5 THE PUBLIC IP APPROACH ......................................................................................................... 64

    3.6 ALTERNATIVE COMPONENTS FOR THE TESTBED ......................................................................... 65

IMPLEMENTED REAL LIFE SERVICES ........................................................................................ 68

    4.1 ANDROID PROGRAMING............................................................................................................. 68

        4.1.1Google Maps Android API v2........................................................................................... 69

    4.2 SMART PARKING APPLICATION .................................................................................................. 70

    4.3 GEO FENCING APPLICATION ...................................................................................................... 72

APPROACHING THE ELECTRIC POWER GRID .......................................................................... 75

    5.1 THE CURRENT POWER GRID ..................................................................................................... 75

        5.1.1 Generation....................................................................................................................... 76

        5.1.2 Transmission ................................................................................................................... 76

        5.1.3 Substations...................................................................................................................... 77

        5.1.4 Distribution....................................................................................................................... 78

        5.1.5 Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition....................................................................... 79

    5.2 THE NEED FOR IMPROVEMENT................................................................................................... 80

    5.3 THE IOT PERSPECTIVE OF A SMART POWER GRID...................................................................... 81

        5.3.1 Smart Grid ....................................................................................................................... 82

        5.3.2 IEC 61850 and GOOSE .................................................................................................. 83

        5.3.3 Phasor Measurement Units and GOOSE generation ..................................................... 83

    5.3.4 Gateway for the GOOSE................................................................................................. 84

CONCLUSIONS – FUTURE WORK................................................................................................ 87

REFERENCES................................................................................................................................. 89

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