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Artificial Intelligence for the Internet of Everything

Organizers:

Ranjeev Mittu (ranjeev.mittu@nrl.navy.mil), Don Sofge (don.sofge@nrl.navy.mil), Ira Moskowitz (ira.moskowitz@nrl.navy.mil), Naval Research Laboratory; Stephen Russell (stephen.m.russell8.civ@mail.mil), Army Research Laboratory; and W.F. Lawless, Paine College (w.lawless@icloud.com)

AAAI Web Page: https://aaai.org/Symposia/Spring/sss18symposia.php#ss02

Participants: 

In 2 to 8 pages submitted to the organizers, we desire participants who can discuss the foundations, metrics or applications of IoE systems (or IoT [1], IoBT, etc.) and how these systems will affect targeted audiences or society. The topic is open-ended. We will consider all papers that address how IoE systems affect humans or other smart systems. Our ultimate goal is to advance IoE theory and concepts with AI to improve society. We plan a follow-on book with expanded contributions [2].

Invited Speakers:

  • Neil Gershenfeld, Director, MIT’s Center for Bits and Atoms, neil.gershenfeld@cba.mit.edu
  • Joseph Lyons, 711 Human Performance Wing, RHX/Human Centered ISR Division, joseph.lyons.6@us.af.mil: "Trust, humans and machines"
  • Stephen Russell, Chief, Battlefield Information Processing Branch US Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD stephen.m.russell8.civ@mail.mil
  • Barry Horowitz, Munster Professor of Systems Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, University of Virginia, bh8e@virginia.edu
  • Alexander Kott, Chief Scientist, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD, alexander.kott1.civ@mail.mil
  • Hesham Food, Computer Scientist, Virtual Environments and VisualizationInformation Technology Division Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC; hesham.fouad@nrl.navy.mil
  • Shu-Heng Chen, Distinguished Professor, Department of Economics, Director, AI-ECON Research Center, VP, National Chengchi University, Taipei, Taiwan 11623, R.O.C.; chen.shuheng@gmail.com
  • Georgiy Levchuk, Simulation & Optimization Engineer, Aptima, Woburn, MA; georgiy@aptima.com 

Program Committee:

  • Michael Floyd; Knexus Research; michael.floyd@knexusresearch.com
  • David Atkinson; Continental Corporation; David.Atkinson@continental-corporation.com
  • William Kennedy; George Mason University; wkennedy@gmu.edu
  • Boris Galitsky; bgalitsky@hotmail.com
  • Brian Haberman; Johns Hopkins RIOT lab (Research IOT Lab); Brian.Haberman@jhuapl.edu
  • Alexander Stimpson; Duke University; ajstimps@gmail.com 
  • K. Suzanne Barber, AT&T Endowed Professor in Engineering, Director, Center for Identity, The University of Texas at Austin; sbarber@identity.utexas.edu
  • Razieh Nokhbeh Zaeem, The University of Texas at Austin, razieh@identity.utexas.edu
  • Mo Jamshidi, University of Texas SAT, Founding Editor-in-Chief, Systems Journal; Fellows Identification Chair, Mo.Jamshidi@utsa.edu
  • Joseph Lyons, 711 Human Performance Wing, RHX/Human Centered ISR Division, joseph.lyons.6@us.af.mil
  • Doug Lange, Computer Scientist at Space and Naval Warfare System Center (Spawar), Pacific, dlange@spawar.navy.mil
  • Geert-Jan.Kruijff, Nuance Mobility Technical Product Management, Technology Lines: AI, NLU & Dialogue, Evaluation/Benchmarking, Hybrid Mobile Product Strategy, Geert-Jan.Kruijff@nuance.com



DRAFT Agenda


Monday, March 26


9:00 am - 930am

Welcome Day 1

Steve Russell, co-chair

930am - 10:30 am

Invited Speaker 1

Alexander Kott,  Chief Scientist, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD, alexander.kott1.civ@mail.mil, Title: "Challenges and Characteristics of Intelligent Autonomy for Internet of Battle Things in Highly Adversarial Environments"

10:30 am - 11:00 am

Coffee Break


11:00 am - 12:00 pm

Invited Speaker 2:

Neil Gershenfeld, Director, Center for Bits and Atoms, MIT, neil.gershenfeld@cba.mit.edu. Title: "From Bits to Atoms”

12:00 am - 12:30 pm

Regular Speaker 1

Kai Chih Chang  Razieh Nokhbeh Zaeem & K. Suzanne Barber, Center for Identity, University of Texas; {kaichih, razieh, sbarber@identity.utexas.edu}; Title: Internet of Things: Securing the identity by analyzing ecosystem models of devices and organizations"

12:30 pm - 2:00 pm

Lunch


2:00 pm - 3:00 pm

Invited Speaker 3

Joseph B. Lyons, Sean Mahoney, Kevin Wynne & Mark Roebke, Wright-Patterson AFB, joseph.lyons.6@us.af.mil; Title: "Viewing Machines as Teammates: A Qualitative Study"

3:00 pm - 3:30 pm

Regular Speaker 2

Breiner, S., Subrahmanian, E. & Sriram, R.D., NIST; ram.sriram@nist.gov; Title: "Compositional models for the Internet of Everything"

3:30 pm - 4:00 pm

Coffee Break

 

4:00 pm - 5:00 pm

Invited Speaker 4

Hesham Foaud & Ira Moskowitz, Information Management and Decision Architectures Branch, Naval Research Lab, DC, hesham.fouad@nrl.nav, Title: "Meta-agents: Managing dynamism in the Internet of Things (IoT) with multi-agent networks"

5:00 pm - 5:30 pm

Regular Speaker 3

 Michael Wollowski, J. McDonald, V. Kapashi & B. Chodroff; wollowski@rose-hulman.edu; Title: "The web of smart entities. Towards a theory of the next generation of the internet of things" 

 5:30 pm - 6:00 pm


Regular Speaker 4
Michael Mylrea,  Senior Manager, Cyber Security & Energy Technology, Blockchain Energy Lead, PNNL,  michaelmylrea@pnnl.gov; Title: "Blockchain Distributed Ledger Technology: Next Generation Autonomous and Resilient Energy and the Internet of Things"

6:00 pm - 7:00 pm

Reception

 


Tuesday, March 27


9:00 am - 930am

Regular Speaker 5

Boris Galitsky, Oracle Corp., boris.galitsky@oracle.com; Title: "Message validation pipeline for agents of the Internet of Everything"

930am - 10:30 am

Invited Speaker 5

Barry Horowitz, Munster Professor of Systems and Information Engineering, UVA, bh8e@virginia.edu; Title: "Policy Issues Regarding Implementations of Cyber Attack Resilience Solutions for Cyber Physical Systems"

10:30 am - 11:00 am

Coffee Break


11:00 am - 12:00 pm

Invited Speaker 6

Steve Russell, Chief, Battlefield Information Processing Branch, US Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD  20783-1197, stephen.m.russell8.civ@mail.mil, Title: "The Internet of Battlefield Things"

12:00 am - 12:30 pm

Regular Speaker 6

W.F. Lawless, R. Mittu & D. Sofge; w.lawless@icloud.com; Title: "Interdependence, intelligence and IoE"

12:30 pm - 2:00 pm

Lunch


2:00 pm - 3:00 pm

Invited Speaker 7

Georgiy Levchuk, Krishna Pattipati, Daniel Serfaty, Adam Fouse & Robert McCormack; Aptima Inc., Woburn, MA,georgiy@aptima.com; Title: "Active Inference in Multi-agent Systems: Context-driven Collaboration and Decentralized. Purpose-driven Team Adaptation"

3:00 pm - 3:30 pm

Regular Speaker 7

 Brian Jalaian, Alec Koppell, Andre Harrison, James Michaelis & Steve Russell, Army Research Lab, brian.jalaian.ctr@mail.mil; Title: "On Stream-centric Learning for Internet of Battlefield Things"

3:30 pm - 4:00 pm

Coffee Break


4:00 pm - 5:00 pm

Invited Speaker 8

Shu Heng-Chen, Distinguished Professor, Department of Economics, Dir., AI-ECON Research Center, VP, National Chengchi University, Taipei; chen.shuheng@gmail.com; Title: "Would Internet of  Everything Make Economics More Neo-Classical or More Behavioral? Richard Thaler’s Prediction, A Revisit”

5:00 pm - 5:30 pm

Regular Speaker 8

M. Sahlgren, E. Ylipaa, B. Brown, K. Helms, A. Lampinen, D. McMillan, J. Karlgren, RISE SICS, Kista and KTH, Stockholm, Sweden; magnus.sahlgren@ri.sejussi@kth.se; Title: "The smart data layer"

5:30 pm - 6:00 pm

 Regular Speaker 9

Ira Moskowitz & S. Russell; IMoskowitz: Mathematician, Naval Research Lab; Ira.moskowitz@nrl.navy.mil; Title: "Valuable information and the Internet of Things"

6pm-7pm

Plenary Session

 (Dinner afterwards, as a group or on own)


Wednesday, March 28


9:00 am - 930am

Welcome Day 3

Steve Russell, co-chair; Future plans (Elsevier book, next conference)

930am - 10:00 am

Regular Speaker 7

Open session (until close)

1000am - 10:30 am

Regular Speaker 8

Open session (until close)

10:30 am - 11:00 am

Coffee Break

 

11am-1130am

Regular Speaker 9

 Open session (until close)

11:30 am - 12:00 pm

Conference Ends

  Comments? Book schedule for Elsevier Book






Blurb, 2018: Artificial Intelligence for the Internet of Everything

From the perspective of Artificial Intelligence (AI), for this AAAI symposium on the Internet of Everything (IoE), we desire participants who can discuss the potential meaning, value and effect that the Internet of Things (IoT) may have on ordinary life, in the business or industrial world, on the battlefield (IoBT), in the medical field (IoMT) or on other intelligent agents (IoIT). We leave the topic open-ended for this AAAI symposium. We will consider all papers with an AI perspective that address how IoE affects sensing, perception, cognition and behavior or causal relations, whether the context is clear or uncertain and whether for mundane decisions; decisions made for business, industry or government; complex decisions on the battlefield; life and death decisions in the medical arena; or decisions affected by other intelligent agents and machines. We are interested in practical, measurement and theoretical issues and research questions about how these “things” may affect individuals, teams and society or each other across different units of analysis; or how existing systems and human interactions may affect these “things”. We are especially interested in what may happen when these “things” begin to reason, communicate and act on their own, whether as autonomous agents or interdependently with other “things” in autonomous teams. Must IoE systems speak only to humans, to each other, or both? Will each IoE system be an independent system; an interdependent system; or a combination? Regardless, our ultimate goal is to use AI to advance autonomy and autonomic fundamentals to improve the performance of individual agents and hybrid teams of humans, machines, and robots for the betterment of society.

IoE: IoT, IoBT, and IoIT - Background and overview:

The Internet of Everything (IoE) generalizes machine-to-machine (M2M) communications for the Internet of Things (IoT) to a more complex system that also encompasses people, robots and machines. From Chambers (2014), IoE connects

people, data, process and things. It is revolutionizing the way we do business, transforming communication, job creation, education and healthcare across the globe. … by 2020, more than 5 billion people will be connected, not to mention 50 billion things. … [With IoE] [p]eople get better access to education, healthcare and other opportunities to improve their lives and have better experiences. Governments can improve how they serve their citizens and businesses can use the information they get from all these new connections to make better decisions, be more productive and innovate faster.

For a present overview of IoE, the internet of things (IoT) is “all about connecting objects to the network and enabling them to collect and share data” (Munro, 2017). With the approach of IoT in everyday life (Gasior & Yang, 2013), on battlefields (IoBT), in the medical arena (IoMT), distributed with sensory networks and cyber-physical systems, and even with device-level intelligence (IoIT), some of the known issues identified by Moskowitz (2017) are the explosion of data (e.g., cross-compatible systems; storage locations); security challenges (e.g. adversarial resilience,[3] data exfiltration, covert channels; enterprise protection; privacy); self-* and autonomic behaviors, and the risks to users, teams, enterprises and institutions. As presently conceived, “Humans will often be the integral parts of the IoT system” (Stankovic, 2014, p. 4). For the Internet of Everything, IoT, IoBT, IoMT, IoIT and so on will manifest as heterogeneous and potentially self-organizing complex-systems that define human processes, requiring interoperability, just-in-time (JIT) human interactions, and the orchestration of local-adaptation functionalities in order to achieve human objectives and goals (Suri et. al, 2016). IoE is already impacting industry, too: IIoT.[4] 

Presently, there are also practical considerations: Whatever the systems used for the benefits afforded, each one must be robust to interruptions, to failure, and resilient to every possible perturbation from wear and tear in daily use. For system-wide failures, a system must have manual control backups; user-friendly methods for joining and leaving networks; autonomous updates and backups; and autonomous hardware updates (e.g., similar to re-ordering inventory or goods automatically by a large retailer like Amazon or Wal-Mart). A system must also provide forensic evidence in the event of a mishap, not only with an onboard backup, but also with an automatic backup to the cloud.

For new and future systems, we also want to see addressed: Will systems communicate with each other or be independent actors? Will humans always need to be in the loop? Will systems communicate only with human users, or also with robot and machine users?

For future systems, we are also interested in what may happen when these “things” begin to “think”. Foreseeing something like the arrival of the IoE, Gershenfeld (1999, p. 8, 10), the Director of the MIT Center for Bits and Atoms (which grew out of MIT’s Media Lab), wrote it 

has an identity, knowing something about our environment, and being able to communicate … [we will need] components that can work together and change … [to produce a] digital evolution so that the digital world merges with the physical world. 

Gershenfeld helps us to link this symposium with our past symposia on using AI to reduce human errors.[5] Intelligence is perceived to be a critical factor in overcoming barriers in order to direct maximum entropy production to solve difficult problems (Wissner-Gross & Freer, 2013; Martyushev, 2013). But intelligence may also save lives. For example, a fighter plane can already take control and safe itself if its fighter pilot loses consciousness during a high-g maneuver.[6] We had proposed in 2016 that with existing technology, the passengers aboard Germanwings Flight 9525 might have been saved if the airliner had safely secured itself by isolating the copilot who committed murder and suicide to kill all aboard (Lawless, 2016). Similarly, the Amtrak train that derailed in 2015 from the loss of awareness by its head engineer could have been spared the loss of life had the train taken control until it or its central authority had safely stopped the train.[7] 

Gershenfeld’s evolution may arrive when intelligent “things” and humans team together as part of a “collective intelligence” to solve problems and to save lives (Goldberg, 2017).

We desire participants for this AAAI symposium on the Internet of Everything (IoE) who can not only advance the present state of these “things”, but also address how they think that the science of “collective intelligence” may afford the next evolution of society.

References

Chambers, J. (2014, 1/15), Are you ready for the Internet of everything? World Economic Forum, from https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2014/01/are-you-ready-for-the-internet-of-everything/

Gasior, W. & Yang, L. (2013), Exploring covert channel in Android platform. 2012 International Conference on Cyber Security, pp. 173–177. DOI: 10.1109/CyberSecurity.2012.29

Gershenfeld, N. (1999), When things start to think. New York: Henry Holt & Co.

Goldberg, K. (2017, 6/11), “The Robot-Human Alliance. Call it Multiplicity: diverse groups of people and machines working together”, Wall Street Journal, from https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-robot-human-alliance-1497213576

Lawless, W.F. (2016), “Preventing (another) Lubitz: The thermodynamics of teams and emotion”, in Harald Atmanspacher, Thomas Filk and Emmanuel Pothos (Eds.), Quantum Interactions. LNCS 9535, Springer International Switzerland, pp. 207-215.

Martyushev, L.M. (2013), Entropy and entropy production: Old misconceptions and new breakthroughs, Entropy, 15: 1152-70.

Moskowitz, Ira S. (2017, 5/23), personal communication.

Munro, K. (2017, 5/23), How to beat security threats to 'internet of things’, from http://www.bbc.com/news/av/technology-39926126/how-to-beat-security-threats-to-internet-of-things

Stankovic, J.A. (2014), Research Directions for the Internet of Things, IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 1(1): 3–9, DOI: 10.1109/JIOT.2014.2312291

Suri, N., Tortonesi, M., Michaelis, J., Budulas, P., Benincasa, G., Russell, S., ... & Winkler, R. (2016, May). Analyzing the applicability of internet of things to the battlefield environment. In Military Communications and Information Systems (ICMCIS), 2016 International Conference on (pp. 1-8). IEEE.

Wissner-Gross, A. D., and C. E. Freer (2013), Causal Entropic Forces, Physical Review Letters: 110(168702): 1-5


[1] http://ioeassessment.cisco.com

[2] e.g., our symposium on Computational context in 2017: https://aaai.org/Symposia/Spring/sss17symposia.php#ss03

[3] e.g., password authentication, back proofing, etc.

[4] http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEFUSA_IndustrialInternet_Report2015.pdf

[5] e.g., in 2016, AI and the mitigation of human error; see https://www.aaai.org/Symposia/Spring/sss16symposia.php#ss01

[6] http://aviationweek.com/air-combat-safety/auto-gcas-saves-unconscious-f-16-pilot-declassified-usaf-footage

[7] https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/05/17/us/amtrak-train-crash-derailment-philadelphia.html?_r=0Ωxcv