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Chad


 
O Chad é um país do Norte da África. A capital é N'Djamena. As principais religiões são o Islamismo e o Cristianismo. As línguas nacionais são o Francês e o Árabe. O Chad, parte das possessões Africanas da França até 1960, sofreu três décadas de guerra civil bem como invasões da Líbia antes que uma aparente paz fosse finalmente restaurada em 1990. O governo finalmente redigiu uma constituição democrática, e realizou eleições presidenciais falhas em 1996 e 2001. Em 1998, uma rebelião irrompeu no norte do Chad, que tem sido  esporadicamente deflagrada apesar de vários acordos de paz entre o governo e os rebeldes. Em 2005, surgiram novos grupos rebeldes no oeste do Sudão e fizeram ataques exploratórios no leste do Chade, apesar da assinatura de acordos de paz em Dezembro de 2006 e Outubro de 2007. A capital sofreu uma ameaça rebelde significativa no início de 2008, mas não teve ameaças rebeldes significativos desde então, em parte devido à aproximação do Chade com o Sudão em 2010, que anteriormente usava os rebeldes Chadianos como proxies. DEBY em 2011 foi reeleito para seu quarto mandato em uma eleição que os observadores internacionais descreveram como sem incidentes. O poder permanece nas mãos de uma minoria étnica.
 

17/01/2017

Locked in the heart ofAfrica, far from the nearest seaport, lies the country of Chad. It stretches from the Sahara in the north to the savannas of tropical Africa in the south. The largest country of the former French Equatorial Africa, Chad is bounded on the north by Libya, on the east by Sudan, on the south by the Central African Republic, on the southwest by Cameroon, and on the west by Nigeria and Niger.

The country's population is distributed unevenly over a large area. The entire northern half of the country is desert and almost empty. The south, particularly the southwest, where most of the cities are located, is the most heavily populated area. Chad achieved independence in 1960.

THE LAND

Chad occupies the eastern half of a vast interior African basin. The country slopes down from the Tibesti Massif in the north and the Ennedi Plateau in the east to the lowlands of Djourab north of Lake Chad.

Lake Chad, a large, shallow, freshwater lake, lies 925 ft. (282 m.) above sea level at the meeting place of Chad, Niger, Nigeria, and Cameroon. The Chari and Logone are the two main rivers flowing into Lake Chad, but this body of water has no visible outlets. The size of the lake varies greatly from season to season.

THREE REGIONS AND THREE WAYS OF LIFE

Chad spans three distinct climatic zones. These have helped shape three different ways of life.

Southern Chad

The south is a wooded savanna, with trees and tall grasses. During the rainy season in the summer, between 35 and 47 in. (89 and 120 cm.) of rainfall. Southern Chad is the region best suited to agriculture.

The traditional way of life is one in which members of a family live in a group headed by a patriarch, who is the oldest man in the family. A large family may occupy dozens of individual dwellings. These are usually houses with clay walls and cone-shaped straw roofs.

People live as settled farmers, raising food for their own use—millet, sorghum, peanuts, peas, rice, and beans—and cotton, which is the country's main export. Along the Shari and Logone Rivers, people catch fish for food. They also smoke and dry fish for marketing.

Sorghum and millet are planted in a different place each year to allow natural vegetation to restore needed elements to the soil. This vegetation is then removed by cutting and burning. Farm tools are limited mainly to hoes and small hatchets. Plows drawn by animals are also used in cultivating the land. Sowing takes place at the beginning of the rainy season. Sorghum and millet harvested from October to December are stored in granaries of beaten earth or enormous woven straw bottles. The grain is crushed as it is needed, and the flour is made into a boule, or ball, of boiled dough. This is eaten with a spice, fish, or meat sauce. Millet is also used to make bil-bil, a kind of beer.

Central Chad

Central Chad is open grassland, with a shorter rainy season and less rainfall than the south. The central area receives between 10 and 35 in. (25 and 89 cm.) of rain a year. But farming is still possible. People raise peanuts and millet, and, in the area around Lake Chad, they grow wheat and corn. They also tap gum arabic from acacia trees. This is used in making candy, medicine, and ink. Lake Chad is an important source of fish. However, the main activity is raising livestock. Most of Chad's more than 4.5 million cattle and 5 million goats and sheep are in this zone.

The livestock farmers live as seminomads. Among the seminomads are the Kreda. Each Kreda encampment, or ferik, is made up of from 5 to 10 movable tents placed in a row. During the dry season, the Kreda stay along the banks of the Bahr el Ghazal, where they use goatskin bags to draw water from wells. When the rains begin in June or July, the people start south. A whole ferik moves together. At about the 13th parallel, the Kreda sow millet, then move farther south with their herds until August. On the return north, the older people tend the millet fields, while the herds are settled once again along the Bahr el Ghazal. In October and November, some of the adults go back to help with the harvest.

The Sahara Zone

The Sahara zone, north of the 15th parallel, has relatively few inhabitants. They live either as farmers in the oasis towns of Ounianga Kebir, Largeau (Faya), and Fada, or as nomadic camel raisers. Some of these nomads have added cattle to their herds. In the past the great camel herders owned the lands around the oases, as well as saltworks, which were operated by slaves. Today the former slaves, who are called the Kamadja, raise date palms. They also extract natron, or carbonate of soda, a mineral salt, for profit. Natron is Chad's principal mineral.

During the brief rains of August and September, the camel raisers gather their herds near ponds and streambeds (wadis). In the dry season, when the surface waters disappear, the herders dig wells to reach the underground water in the wadi beds. From December on, the water supply declines, and the herders must move near sources of water in the Ennedi Plateau. The nomads live by selling the products of their herds and by transporting dates and natron to the market at Abéché.

THE PEOPLE

Chad has a population of around 11.6 million people; its people belong to a number of ethnic groups. More than 50 percent of Chad's people are Muslim. Another 20 percent are Roman Catholic, and some 14 percent are Protestant. In the mainly Muslim north, the major groups include Arabs and Toubou. Groups in the non-Muslim south include the Sara, the largest single group in Chad; the Massa; and the Moudang. Most non-Muslims follow native beliefs; a small percentage are Christian. People in the north speak Arabic dialects, and each of the groups in the south has its own language. French and Arabic are the official languages of the country.

Education

Although six years of primary school are compulsory, many children, especially girls, do not attend school. About one-third of those age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic. Instruction is in French, and the educational system is like the French system: primary school, followed by the lycée (secondary school), technical school, or teacher-training school. Secondary schools in the major cities include an Arab-French lycée in Abéché.

Cities

Chad remains essentially a rural country, with industries just beginning to develop in the cities. The capital and largest city, N'Djamena (formerly called Fort-Lamy), is situated in western Chad at the confluence of the Chari and Logone rivers. Sarh (formerly known as Fort-Archambault) and Moundou are the other main cities.

N'Djamena is a political and administrative center; the great distribution point for Chad's herders, fishermen, and farmers; and an important center of air traffic.

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Cotton traditionally represented more than 90 percent of Chad's export earnings. Cotton is ginned in the country's factories, and the balls of cotton fiber are exported to Europe. Cotton also is woven into cloth, and cottonseed is pressed into oil. Livestock was traditionally the second-largest source of earnings. Today Chad's economy is being transformed by the discovery of what may be the largest oil field in Africa in the southern part of the country. A massive pipeline began transporting the oil from Chad to a terminal off the coast of Cameroon in 2003. In addition, the Aozou Strip, which runs along the northern border with Libya, is thought to contain uranium.

The major handicap to economic development, apart from the civil war that ravaged Chad for much of the post independence period, remains its distance from the sea. The distance from N'Djamena to Douala, Cameroon, the nearest port, is about 1,200 mi. (1,900 km.). Furthermore, Chad has no railroad, and there are few paved roads outside of the towns. The two main supply routes to the country, through Cameroon from Douala and through Nigeria from Port Harcourt, are long and costly. In 2011, Chad concluded an agreement with China for the construction of two rail lines. One will run south from N'Djamena to link with Cameroon's rail network. The other will link to a railhead at the Sudanese border in the east.

The development of Chad's oil resources has proved highly profitable both for the oil companies involved and for the country's government. However, it has done little to benefit most of the population. The World Bank, which helped finance the project originally, withdrew in 2008 because of the government's failure to put its oil earnings into efforts to alleviate poverty.

HISTORY

According to legend, the earliest settlers of the Lake Chad basin were the Sao, who lived in organized towns and were skilled workers in terra-cotta and bronze. In the 7th century A.D., desert nomads known as Zaghawa began to arrive. In the 8th century, one family of Zaghawa founded the state of Kanem.

Traders from North Africa, in search of slaves and gold, first introduced Islam to the area now known as Chad. As long ago as the late 11th or early 12th century, Kanem had a Muslim king. This state was the first of the African kingdoms that were to have power in the region until the 19th century. Bornu, Baguirmi, and Wadai were the others.

In the 1890s, when the first French explorers arrived, they found that the local kingdoms were weak. By 1913, the French had gained control of all of present-day Chad. In 1920, it became a colony of French Equatorial Africa and, in 1946, an overseas territory of the French Republic. Chad proclaimed its independence in 1960, with François Tombalbaye as its president. In 1963, Muslim rebels from the north began a prolonged revolt.

Modern Times.   In 1975, Chad's 1962 constitution was suspended when the government was overthrown in a coup and President Tombalbaye was killed. Military rule followed until 1979, when the first of several coalition governments was set up. But civil war continued.

Late in 1980, Libya sent troops and tanks to Chad to aid then-President Goukouni Oueddei. After the Libyans withdrew in 1981 at the president's request, Oueddei was overthrown by his rival, Hissène Habré. Libya backed Habré's opponents, while France supported Habré with weapons and troops. The Libyans were eventually expelled from Chad—except for the disputed, mineral-rich area called the Aozou Strip—in 1987. Libya and Chad signed a peace accord in 1989, and the International Court of Justice ultimately awarded the Aozou Strip to Chad in 1994. Habré, elected president under a new constitution in 1989, was overthrown in 1990 by his former ally, Idriss Déby. Déby was elected president in 1996 under a new multiparty constitution. He was reelected in 2001 and again in 2006 after a referendum in 2005 eliminated the two-term limit.

After his overthrow Habré took up residence in Senegal. There, in July 2013, he was arrested and charged with war crimes, crimes against humanity, and torture committed during his time in office. He will be tried by a special tribunal created by the African Union and Senegal.

Despite Chad's many difficulties, the launching of oil exports in 2003 raised the country's economic hopes. Sporadic civil strife continued, however, with Chad and Sudan accusing each other of aiding rebel movements that staged cross-border attacks. A rebel invasion of the capital nearly toppled the Chadian government in February 2008. Déby survived, winning a fourth term as president in 2011. The opposition boycotted the polls to protest the lack of electoral reforms.

Early in 2013, troops from Chad took part in the French-led effort to defeat the Islamic militants who threatened to take over Mali. The Chadian government also deployed soldiers to the Central African Republic in December 2012 to aid embattled President François Bozizé against rebel forces. The rebels overthrew Bozizé in March, and in April 2013, Chad agreed to send more troops to the Central African Republic to help stabilize the country.

Déby won a fifth term as president in elections held in April 2016.


Jean Cabot

Département de Géographie, Université de Paris-Vincennes




‎03/‎02/‎2018

Background:

Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of civil warfare, as well as invasions by Libya, before peace was restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which has sporadically flared up despite several peace agreements between the government and insurgents. In June 2005, President Idriss DEBY held a referendum successfully removing constitutional term limits and won another controversial election in 2006. Sporadic rebel campaigns continued throughout 2006 and 2007. The capital experienced a significant insurrection in early 2008, but has had no significant rebel threats since then, in part due to Chad's 2010 rapprochement with Sudan, which previously used Chadian rebels as proxies. In late 2015, the government imposed a state of emergency in the Lake Chad region following multiple attacks by the terrorist group Boko Haram throughout the year; Boko Haram also launched several bombings in N'Djamena in mid-2015. DEBY in 2016 was reelected to his fifth term in an election that was peaceful but flawed. In December 2015, Chad completed a two-year rotation on the UN Security Council. In January 2017, DEBY completed a one-year term as President of the African Union.

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Idriss DEBY Itno, Lt. Gen. (since 4 December 1990);

head of government: Prime Minister Albert Pahimi PADACKE (since 15 February 2016);

cabinet: Council of Ministers; members appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister;

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 10 April 2016 (next to be held in April 2021); prime minister appointed by the president;

election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (MPS) 61.6%, Saleh KEBZABO (UNDR) 12.8%, Laokein Kourayo MEDAR (CTPD) 10.7%, Djimrangar DADNADJI (CAP-SUR) 5.1%, other 9.8%

Economy - overview:

Chad’s landlocked location results in high transportation costs for imported goods and dependence on neighboring countries. Oil and agriculture are mainstays of Chad’s economy. Oil provides about 60% of export revenues, while cotton, cattle, livestock, and gum arabic provide the bulk of Chad's non-oil export earnings. The services sector contributes less than one-third of GDP and has attracted foreign investment mostly through telecommunications and banking.

Nearly all of Chad’s fuel is provided by one domestic refinery, and unanticipated shutdowns occasionally result in shortages. The country regulates the price of domestic fuel, providing an incentive for black market sales.

Although high oil prices and strong local harvests supported the economy in the past, low oil prices now stress Chad’s fiscal position. Chad relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital for most of its public and private sector investment. Investment in Chad is difficult due to its limited infrastructure, lack of trained workers, extensive government bureaucracy, and corruption. Chad obtained a three-year extended credit facility from the IMF in 2014 and was granted debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative in April 2015.

In 2018, economic policy will be driven by efforts that started in 2016 to reverse the recession and to repair damage to public finances and exports. The government is implementing an emergency action plan to counterbalance the drop in oil revenue and to diversify the economy. Multinational partners, such as the African Development Bank, the EU, and the World Bank are likely to continue budget support in 2018, but Chad will remain at high debt risk, given its dependence on oil revenue and pressure to spend on subsidies and security.

Disputes - international:

since 2003, ad hoc armed militia groups and the Sudanese military have driven hundreds of thousands of Darfur residents into Chad; Chad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries;

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees (country of origin): 324,327 (Sudan); 76,653 (Central African Republic); 9,541 (Nigeria) (2017);

IDPs: 147,032 (majority are in the east) (2017).


 
 
 
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