Note: This report can be downloaded from the bottom of the page
This is a report on the 2010 symposium of the Japan-US
Science, Technology and Space Applications Program (JUSTSAP).
The 2010 symposium, held November
14-18, 2010, was the 20th anniversary meeting of the JUSTSAP
organization. The theme of the
meeting was “The Next Giant Leap:
Building Sustainable Settlements Beyond Low-Earth Orbit.” The symposium was
supported by a grant from NASA Ames to begin discussion of the concept of an
International Lunar Research Park (ILRP).
The agenda and list of attendees are attached.
Established in 1990 under the aegis of the U.S.-Japan
Leadership Council, JUSTSAP is a unique forum of distinguished scientists,
educators, government officials, and business professionals dedicated to
identifying and exploring innovative opportunities for international
collaboration in space exploration.
JUSTSAP activities are coordinated through individual
project teams that focus on the design, development and implementation of
advanced communications, remote sensing, renewable energy, resource
utilization, and other space-based systems. The goal is to network government,
private sector and university-based capabilities and resources in both Japan
and the United States to facilitate innovative and cost-effective earth
orbiting missions and both robotic and manned exploration of the Moon and Mars.
JUSTSAP members convene in Hawai‘i each November to report
on individual team projects and plan for future year activities. The United
States Secretariat for JUSTSAP coordinates this annual symposium and is housed
within the Office of Aerospace Development at the Hawai‘i State Department of
Business, Economic Development & Tourism.
At the final Steering Committee meeting of 2010, a decision
was made to broaden the organization beyond its founders, Japan and the US, and
to include other space-faring nations around the world, emphasizing those on
the Pacific Rim. Consistent with
this change, the committee decided to change the name of the organization to
the Pacific International Space Alliance (PISA).
Plenary sessions included an introductory address by
Governor George Ariyoshi, the keynote by Gary Martin (Director of New Ventures,
NASA Ames), a panel on prospects for sustainable settlements beyond Low Earth
Orbit, a panel on establishing a multinational lunar R&D park and
university as a sustainable robotic/human settlement beyond LEO, a panel on
bringing space settlements down to Earth, a panel on use of “authorities” for
development of settlements beyond LEO and a panel on lunar R&D park and
university conceptualization. The
panelists are listed on the agenda.
The purpose of these presentations and panels was to provide
background and set the stage for the discussion groups that followed. There was no attempt to reach consensus
on any of the items that were brought up.
Individual presentations are posted on the JUSTSAP website (http://justsap.org).
Three discussion groups met for two hours on Tuesday,
November 16, and all day on Wednesday, presenting their summary reports on
Thursday. The discussion group
reports are summarized below:
Discussion Group 1: Developing a Multinational Lunar Settlement.
Question: What would be the
primary benefits (e.g., scientific, educational, humanistic, commercial) for developing
a multinational lunar research park?
- Science: Fundamental new collaborative
understanding of the Moon, and with it the new understanding of the formation
and evolution of the universe and solar system
- Technology: Motivate and provide opportunities
for development of important future technologies, including advanced robotics,
automation, new materials, alternate energy, advanced propulsion, closed loop
life support, and advanced communications
- Exploration: Help establish an affordable
pathway for human exploration beyond the Moon to NEO’s and Mars using knowledge
and capabilities from lunar operations and use of lunar resources
- Inspiration/Education: Engage the next
generation in STEM education and provide a pathway to jobs and careers of the
- Commercial: Help establish a new commercial
space economy for the 21st Century in areas such as extra-terrestrial immersive
environments, media, entertainment and art, extra-terrestrial labs,
extra-terrestrial power, alternate power sources, and sustainable systems
- Security & Earth Observation: Help provide
security from NEO’s and better understanding of Earth’s environment
- International Cooperation: Synergize exploration
efforts of the US and Japan, and other countries
- Cost Sharing: Synergy with other ground and
space assets, both domestic and international, including ISS to maximize
benefits from government investments
Question: How might a lunar
settlement optimally be developed (including timeline), structured, operated
and regulated, and by whom/what?
- Settlement best accomplished by a stepwise,
evolvable approach, making beneficial use of opportunities:
- International Lunar Research Park (ILRP) will be
on the Moon, at multiple sites.
Will have Earth, Moon, NEO’s and Mars applications.
- Initial occupants will be robotic, funded by
government, university and private companies, with multi-national participation
- ILRP will have analog sites on Earth for
equipment design, development, checkout, testing, and training
- PISCES will serve as LRP designer, developer and
operator, and will mange user needs and requirements for Earth analog and Lunar
- Initially, university of Hawaii will be the
organizational host for PISCES with the Tokyo Institute of Technology a
collaborative partner. Other
international partners will be invited to join.
- JUSTSAP’s continuing role will be as a catalyst
for multinational participation, including assisting with the establishment of
an appropriate authority to support ILRP activities on the Moon. Will also assist PISCES in the
establishment of the ILRP, including working closely with the Hawaii state
Question: What are the viable
approaches (scientific, technological, legal, political, financial) to
realizing this vision, and how could these be implemented?
- Build from things you currently control or count
on: JUSTSAP, PISCES, support from the University of Hawaii, support from the
State of Hawaii, endorsement from JAXA and NASA
- Establish the charter, business type and initial
business plan for Lunar Research Park and University (LRP/U), including the
- Secure sustainable funding for PISCES &
JUSTSAP through state, private, federal and international sources
- Embrace existing lunar robotics programs of US
and international participants as a means of “jump starting” the LRP
infrastructure to minimize costs (likely that several robots will be operating
on the lunar surface within ten years -- use this as the first phase of LRP)
- Make use of the lessons learned from the
International Space Station for international cooperation and operation
- Engage the scientific community through
partnership with the NASA Lunar Science Institute
Question: What terrestrial
precedents/ongoing efforts could help inform and support the development of a
sustainable lunar settlement?
- PISCES, Earth Analog Sites
- NASA Research Park, Lunar Science Institute,
Innovative Lunar Demonstration Data program, COTS/CRS, LRO
- Selene-2, NHK HDTV, International Space Station
Question: How could this effort be
made “participatory” – i.e., inclusive of both professionals and the general
- Develop an outreach program to engage the public
through strategic partnerships with government and private organizations using
internet, media and entertainment venues
- Pursue opportunities for NASA Education/STEM
support (Smithsonian Air & Space Museum)
- Pursue Japanese STEM/Education support (Japan
Science & Technology Museum)
- Investigate engagement/displays with
- Investigate possibility of use of prizes to
engage and publicize LRP/U through NASA Centennial Challenges
Discussion Group II: Lunar-Based Research and Education
Question: What are the opportunities?
- Imaging (e.g., Japan/U.S. Collaboration on GRAIL,
MoonKam, Earth observation w/atmospheric evaluation)
- Robotics (exploration, education, participating,
enabling, controlling, surface & mission operations)
- Resource Utilization (energy, food, fuel,
- Payload Development & Demo Validation (lunar
& planetary, UH-Manoa, other partners, piggyback on Google X prize)
- Access & support at PISCES test sites for
wide range of users (ground-truthing for exploration systems & science
- Integration of existing & future data
- K-12 education (web-based education modules
(e.g., SpaceClass), space camps, etc.
- Life Sciences/Human Factors (e.g., biotech,
GeneSat, agriculture in remote & harsh environments)
- Energy (solar, geothermal, tests & demos)
- Media & Art (space art, science fiction,
culture, “Island Earth”)
- Governance, Political Science, Law
Question: How can it be made massively
- Social Networking (Viralization)
- Media (TV, News, Inreach, Outreach, Education)
- Focus Groups (Kids, Parents, Teachers, Other
- K-12 Educational Outreach (e.g., SpaceClass, “MoonKam”)
- Collaborative Design and Data Analysis
Environments in Virtual Space
- Missions in Virtual Space
- Curricula and Certificate/Degree Programs
- Finding and Recruiting Partners
- Museums, Science Centers & Exploratoriums
- Space, Engineering & Robotics Camps
- Open Educational Forums and Blogs
- Exploration Uplink (e.g., rover control at
PISCES or on Moon)
Question: What are the steps toward
- Identify Stakeholders (now)
and Other Universities (thru USRA)
Legislature and Admin thru OAD
States & Space/Science Related Agencies
JSF, CSA, DLR, ESA and International
DOE & Other Federal Agencies
(Hawaii & Fed?)
Industry (Primes & NewSpace)
Key Partners (Caterpillar, Battelle, ASTEC, FREDNET, individual entrepreneurs)
- Form Steering Committee (December)
- Develop Strategic Plan & Timeline
Summary to Legislature by January 2011
7/2011, NASA SAA: 10/201l, Philanthropic Individuals and Organizations:
- Start First Programs (2011-12)
Discussion Group III: Lunar Resource Utilization and Commerce
Question: What participants/business
sectors should be attracted?
- Energy (Clean, permanent, reduced/no CO2)
- Power beaming/space solar power,
- Alternative energy/Waste/bio,
- Construction – material processing; autonomous
- Robotics and robotic systems (including control
Re-grow lunar science community (tie to NLSI???) but from education vs.
research and ties to Education agencies
- Lunar activities: From (astrophysics/radio astronomy), to ISRU (incorporates
Energy, Construction, Robotics, Water/Fuel), about (evolutionary, tie to
- Water & air processing/life support/Food
- Entertainment industry (software, tourism)
- Legislative for Space Resources and Exploitation
- Microgravity research and payloads; Tie to
Hawaii launch site and rocket development effort
- Standards, interoperability, interfaces
Question: What are the benefits?
- Park can facilitate joint efforts through
hardware integration. Use to
understand collaborative needs
- Each partner does not have to develop complete
- Local Infrastructure provided by research park
could reduce transportation costs, especially for analogue testing
- Central infrastructure controlled by experts on
infrastructure hardware so that testers can focus on their hardware and not
worry about infrastructure operations; similar to field test ‘hosting’ approach
in last two field tests.
- Enables centralized integration
- Opportunistic research based on other things
going on around
Question: What are the desired attributes?
- Need to support education; best in the world
- University component is key. University collaboration can start
bigger partnerships; grants are important funding sources to leverage
- Should not have “Lunar” in name. “Space” or other more generic title
like “Planetary surface”.
- Use to entice standards across multiple
- Needs to be a “Center of Excellence” for X? Need access.
- Research Park trains people that can eventually
have higher paid jobs
- Add niches to long-term strategy. Need true business plan. Leverage Business school of University
- Need experts in operating infrastructure that is
their primary job; current approach was to utilize professors that were
available with restricted resources
- Yearly review of target lists for logistics; build
up infrastructure slowly.
- Benchmark to other analogue test sites and other
- Work agreements with customers to ‘leave’
hardware for further research or to build infrastructure incrementally.
Question: How to increase customer base?
- Industry involvement if closely tied to goals
for advancing technology; example CRC in Australia for mining which Cat. And
- Provide low cost Infrastructure that can be
‘rented’ to multiple users thereby reducing cost to user and supplier. Promotes collaboration and entrepreneurial
- Tie to local DOE/Energy lab
- Lower cost thru student involvement and tourism
- Local agreements for better lodging, food,
transportation, shipping, storage, etc.
Local experts and coordination.
Services within ‘acceptable’ cost.
Compare to ‘cost avoidance’.
- Solve terrestrial problems that support lunar
exploration: Energy, Environment
(water, power beaming, trash), security
- Need access to decision makers
- Need to help reduce risk (overrides cost); to
get product to market
- Provide ‘core’ facilities/research to
grow/bootstrap other involvement.
Example, crew habitat food study
- Incentives for International collaborators,
customers, participants; pay down infrastructure, and return on investment in
Question: What are the advantages of Hawai`i as a
location for the terrestrial prototype of the ILRP?
- Central location for several partners,
International collaboration (tie to other nodes on other continents?)
- Multiple terrains for different planetary
surfaces and research objectives
- Geology, large quantity of simulants available
- Infrastructure/logistics with staff to make life
easy. Cheap facilities provide
access and co-locates entrepreneurs. Pockets of excellence due to networks of
people. (Cheap facilities and access to talent)
- Need geologically diverse site(s) for science
- Adequate communication capability is critical
- Access to Radiation testing
- Ocean based research for NEEMO and NEO mission
Question: What are the next steps in
involved parties (University of Hawaii-system; multiple depts. /disciplines),
PISCES, State Gov, NASA
study (understand customers and their needs); Why Hawaii? (Need customers to
state); court parties to be involved in year 2; Select Research Park focus
infrastructure need of customers for research and analogue testing (identify
communication needs and restrictions imposed by analogue test site.
Plan-Virtual image/movie of what the Research Park and Analog testing entails
(like Cat video; virtual world)
Education program/roadmap in UH system leading to diplomas (new degree types
related to Space); also other disciplines like space medicine, food, etc.
process for UH-Manoa and other professorship available at UH-Hilo for year 3
professor steering committee
do we leverage off of Habitat/food study?
small funding sources to begin small projects that are doable quickly
revenue streams for longer-range, larger projects
working ideas/partners to leverage CSA-NASA analogue test planned in Year 2
proposal to host ISU
out partnership advisory group among successful Research Dev Park and Business
Incubation centers; mentor
to Gov/Military for excess/obsolete computers and hardware for infrastructure
of year 1 have a strategic plan
Staffing up with knowledgeable people and experts.
State and local government provide tax breaks/incentives
negotiation with future participants on leaving hardware/infrastructure for
local businesses for infrastructure/logistics to reduce costs and make life for
ties to entertainment/outreach/tourism
communication architecture/infrastructure to support tele-operation, analog
tests, and future activities
off fantastic field test.
NASA/CSA participants happy
to Education, outreach, entertainment, tourism; put into Blue Mars/Planet;
research from local schools (high school and universities to be involved);
e.g., example trash processing
in telerobotics (from ISS?)
competition tied to analog site (repeat both when field test occurs and at
coordinate and submit grant/research proposals across UH (as many as possible)
in-place. Start to leverage
ISU activity for Year 3
visiting professor research program
existing Centennial and Grand challenges.
Identify new or ones that can be hosted.
UH-Manoa and other professorship available at UH-Hilo
ISU, Delft Univ. student
visiting professor research
at analog site; win prize. Host
Centennial Challenge (similar to California Space Authority)
developing business Incubation, work IP and Licensing; utilize students and
capabilities for business and market strategy, cheap labor, etc.; establish
leads for niches/coordination; benchmark incubator approaches
another Space Agency field demo in partnership with university researchers
energy demonstration (power beaming from space or other island?)
research and partnerships with Google-X prize-winner landers
Following the discussion group reports and their integration,
the participants met in plenary session to discuss the next steps toward
building a sustainable settlement beyond low-Earth orbit.
There was much discussion about compatibility
with NASA’s new direction, organizational structure, potential international
partners, analogies with international organizations such as the 1962
Antarctica Treaty, CERN, Intelsat, etc., funding sources and legal issues.
There was general agreement on the
- The group should press forward to establish the
International Lunar Research Park.
- The ILRP should start with a terrestrial
prototype at PISCES, migrating to the Moon in the next decade and eventually
preparing the way for a permanent human settlement on the Moon.
- The base facilities for the terrestrial
prototype would be built on or adjacent to the UH-Hilo campus, most likely in
the existing UHH Science and Technology Park.
- The migration to the Moon would occur in stages,
utilizing the ISS, planned NASA robotic precursor missions, planned robotic
landers from other space-faring nations, missions to be carried out by private-sector
companies such as the Google Lunar X-Prize contestants and other commercial
- An ILRP Steering Committee will be formed as a
first step toward implementation.
- JUSTSAP, now PISA, will act as an independent
catalyst to promote the concept of the ILRP.