JUSTSAP 2010 Report

Note:  This report can be downloaded from the bottom of the page


This is a report on the 2010 symposium of the Japan-US Science, Technology and Space Applications Program (JUSTSAP). 

The 2010 symposium, held November 14-18, 2010, was the 20th anniversary meeting of the JUSTSAP organization.  The theme of the meeting was  “The Next Giant Leap: Building Sustainable Settlements Beyond Low-Earth Orbit.” The symposium was supported by a grant from NASA Ames to begin discussion of the concept of an International Lunar Research Park (ILRP).  The agenda and list of attendees are attached.


Established in 1990 under the aegis of the U.S.-Japan Leadership Council, JUSTSAP is a unique forum of distinguished scientists, educators, government officials, and business professionals dedicated to identifying and exploring innovative opportunities for international collaboration in space exploration.

JUSTSAP activities are coordinated through individual project teams that focus on the design, development and implementation of advanced communications, remote sensing, renewable energy, resource utilization, and other space-based systems. The goal is to network government, private sector and university-based capabilities and resources in both Japan and the United States to facilitate innovative and cost-effective earth orbiting missions and both robotic and manned exploration of the Moon and Mars.

JUSTSAP members convene in Hawai‘i each November to report on individual team projects and plan for future year activities. The United States Secretariat for JUSTSAP coordinates this annual symposium and is housed within the Office of Aerospace Development at the Hawai‘i State Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism.

At the final Steering Committee meeting of 2010, a decision was made to broaden the organization beyond its founders, Japan and the US, and to include other space-faring nations around the world, emphasizing those on the Pacific Rim.  Consistent with this change, the committee decided to change the name of the organization to the Pacific International Space Alliance (PISA).

Opening Plenary Sessions

 Plenary sessions included an introductory address by Governor George Ariyoshi, the keynote by Gary Martin (Director of New Ventures, NASA Ames), a panel on prospects for sustainable settlements beyond Low Earth Orbit, a panel on establishing a multinational lunar R&D park and university as a sustainable robotic/human settlement beyond LEO, a panel on bringing space settlements down to Earth, a panel on use of “authorities” for development of settlements beyond LEO and a panel on lunar R&D park and university conceptualization.  The panelists are listed on the agenda.

The purpose of these presentations and panels was to provide background and set the stage for the discussion groups that followed.  There was no attempt to reach consensus on any of the items that were brought up.  Individual presentations are posted on the JUSTSAP website (http://justsap.org). 

Discussion Groups

Three discussion groups met for two hours on Tuesday, November 16, and all day on Wednesday, presenting their summary reports on Thursday.  The discussion group reports are summarized below:

Discussion Group 1:  Developing a Multinational Lunar Settlement.

Question: What would be the primary benefits (e.g., scientific, educational, humanistic, commercial) for developing a multinational lunar research park?

  • Science: Fundamental new collaborative understanding of the Moon, and with it the new understanding of the formation and evolution of the universe and solar system
  • Technology: Motivate and provide opportunities for development of important future technologies, including advanced robotics, automation, new materials, alternate energy, advanced propulsion, closed loop life support, and advanced communications
  • Exploration: Help establish an affordable pathway for human exploration beyond the Moon to NEO’s and Mars using knowledge and capabilities from lunar operations and use of lunar resources
  • Inspiration/Education: Engage the next generation in STEM education and provide a pathway to jobs and careers of the future
  • Commercial: Help establish a new commercial space economy for the 21st Century in areas such as extra-terrestrial immersive environments, media, entertainment and art, extra-terrestrial labs, extra-terrestrial power, alternate power sources, and sustainable systems
  • Security & Earth Observation: Help provide security from NEO’s and better understanding of Earth’s environment
  • International Cooperation: Synergize exploration efforts of the US and Japan, and other countries
  • Cost Sharing: Synergy with other ground and space assets, both domestic and international, including ISS to maximize benefits from government investments

 Question: How might a lunar settlement optimally be developed (including timeline), structured, operated and regulated, and by whom/what?

  • Settlement best accomplished by a stepwise, evolvable approach, making beneficial use of opportunities:
  • International Lunar Research Park (ILRP) will be on the Moon, at multiple sites.  Will have Earth, Moon, NEO’s and Mars applications.
  • Initial occupants will be robotic, funded by government, university and private companies, with multi-national participation
  • ILRP will have analog sites on Earth for equipment design, development, checkout, testing, and training
  • PISCES will serve as LRP designer, developer and operator, and will mange user needs and requirements for Earth analog and Lunar activities
  • Initially, university of Hawaii will be the organizational host for PISCES with the Tokyo Institute of Technology a collaborative partner.  Other international partners will be invited to join.
  • JUSTSAP’s continuing role will be as a catalyst for multinational participation, including assisting with the establishment of an appropriate authority to support ILRP activities on the Moon.  Will also assist PISCES in the establishment of the ILRP, including working closely with the Hawaii state government.

Question: What are the viable approaches (scientific, technological, legal, political, financial) to realizing this vision, and how could these be implemented?

  • Build from things you currently control or count on: JUSTSAP, PISCES, support from the University of Hawaii, support from the State of Hawaii, endorsement from JAXA and NASA
  • Establish the charter, business type and initial business plan for Lunar Research Park and University (LRP/U), including the founding organization
  • Secure sustainable funding for PISCES & JUSTSAP through state, private, federal and international sources
  • Embrace existing lunar robotics programs of US and international participants as a means of “jump starting” the LRP infrastructure to minimize costs (likely that several robots will be operating on the lunar surface within ten years -- use this as the first phase of LRP)
  • Make use of the lessons learned from the International Space Station for international cooperation and operation
  • Engage the scientific community through partnership with the NASA Lunar Science Institute

Question: What terrestrial precedents/ongoing efforts could help inform and support the development of a sustainable lunar settlement?


  • PISCES, Earth Analog Sites
  • Google Lunar X-prize
  • NASA Research Park, Lunar Science Institute, Innovative Lunar Demonstration Data program, COTS/CRS, LRO
  • Selene-2, NHK HDTV, International Space Station


Question: How could this effort be made “participatory” – i.e., inclusive of both professionals and the general public worldwide?


  • Develop an outreach program to engage the public through strategic partnerships with government and private organizations using internet, media and entertainment venues
  • Pursue opportunities for NASA Education/STEM support (Smithsonian Air & Space Museum)
  • Pursue Japanese STEM/Education support (Japan Science & Technology Museum)
  • Investigate engagement/displays with Disney/EPCOT, etc.
  • Investigate possibility of use of prizes to engage and publicize LRP/U through NASA Centennial Challenges


Discussion Group II:  Lunar-Based Research and Education


Question:  What are the opportunities?


  • Imaging (e.g., Japan/U.S. Collaboration on GRAIL, MoonKam, Earth observation w/atmospheric evaluation)
  • Robotics (exploration, education, participating, enabling, controlling, surface & mission operations)
  • Resource Utilization (energy, food, fuel, materials)
  • Payload Development & Demo Validation (lunar & planetary, UH-Manoa, other partners, piggyback on Google X prize)
  • Access & support at PISCES test sites for wide range of users (ground-truthing for exploration systems & science payloads)
  • Integration of existing & future data sources
  • K-12 education (web-based education modules (e.g., SpaceClass), space camps, etc.
  • Life Sciences/Human Factors (e.g., biotech, GeneSat, agriculture in remote & harsh environments)
  • Energy (solar, geothermal, tests & demos)
  • Media & Art (space art, science fiction, culture, “Island Earth”)
  • Governance, Political Science, Law

Question:  How can it be made massively participatory?


  • Competitions
  • Social Networking (Viralization)
  • Media (TV, News, Inreach, Outreach, Education)
  • Focus Groups (Kids, Parents, Teachers, Other Stakeholders)
  • Cultural Advisory Board
  • K-12 Educational Outreach (e.g., SpaceClass, “MoonKam”)
  • Collaborative Design and Data Analysis Environments in Virtual Space
  • Missions in Virtual Space
  • Curricula and Certificate/Degree Programs
  • Finding and Recruiting Partners
  • Museums, Science Centers & Exploratoriums
  • Space, Engineering & Robotics Camps
  • Open Educational Forums and Blogs
  • Exploration Uplink (e.g., rover control at PISCES or on Moon)
  • MoonZoo.org


Question:  What are the steps toward implementation?


  •  Identify Stakeholders (now)


o   UH and Other Universities (thru USRA)

o   Hawaii Legislature and Admin thru OAD

o   Other States & Space/Science Related Agencies

o   NASA

o   JAXA, JSF, CSA, DLR, ESA and International

o   NSF, DOE & Other Federal Agencies

o   DoEd (Hawaii & Fed?)

o   Space Industry (Primes & NewSpace)

o   Other Key Partners (Caterpillar, Battelle, ASTEC, FREDNET, individual entrepreneurs)

  • Form Steering Committee (December)
  • Develop Strategic Plan & Timeline

o   Executive Summary to Legislature by January 2011

  • Secure Funding

o   State: 7/2011, NASA SAA: 10/201l, Philanthropic Individuals and Organizations: 2012-2014)

  • Start First Programs (2011-12)


Discussion Group III:  Lunar Resource Utilization and Commerce


Question: What participants/business sectors should be attracted?


  • Energy (Clean, permanent, reduced/no CO2)
  • Power beaming/space solar power,
  • Alternative energy/Waste/bio,
  • Fuel cells
  • Geo-thermal
  • Solar thermal
  • Construction – material processing; autonomous construction robots
  • Communication.
  • Robotics and robotic systems (including control and automation)
  • Education.  Re-grow lunar science community (tie to NLSI???) but from education vs. research and ties to Education agencies
  • Lunar activities:  From (astrophysics/radio astronomy), to ISRU (incorporates Energy, Construction, Robotics, Water/Fuel), about (evolutionary, tie to volcanism?) Moon
  • Water & air processing/life support/Food
  • Entertainment industry (software, tourism)
  • Legislative for Space Resources and Exploitation
  • Microgravity research and payloads; Tie to Hawaii launch site and rocket development effort
  • Standards, interoperability, interfaces


Question:  What are the benefits?


  • Park can facilitate joint efforts through hardware integration.  Use to understand collaborative needs
  • Each partner does not have to develop complete systems themselves
  • Local Infrastructure provided by research park could reduce transportation costs, especially for analogue testing
  • Central infrastructure controlled by experts on infrastructure hardware so that testers can focus on their hardware and not worry about infrastructure operations; similar to field test ‘hosting’ approach in last two field tests.
  • Enables centralized integration
  • Opportunistic research based on other things going on around


Question:  What are the desired attributes?


  • Focus on near term
  • Need to support education; best in the world
  • University component is key.  University collaboration can start bigger partnerships; grants are important funding sources to leverage
  • Should not have “Lunar” in name.  “Space” or other more generic title like “Planetary surface”.
  • Use to entice standards across multiple partners.
  • Needs to be a “Center of Excellence” for X?  Need access.
  • Research Park trains people that can eventually have higher paid jobs
  • Add niches to long-term strategy.  Need true business plan.  Leverage Business school of University of Hawaii. 
  • Need experts in operating infrastructure that is their primary job; current approach was to utilize professors that were available with restricted resources
  • Yearly review of target lists for logistics; build up infrastructure slowly.
  • Benchmark to other analogue test sites and other research parks
  • Work agreements with customers to ‘leave’ hardware for further research or to build infrastructure incrementally.


Question:  How to increase customer base?


  • Industry involvement if closely tied to goals for advancing technology; example CRC in Australia for mining which Cat. And others co-fund
  • Provide low cost Infrastructure that can be ‘rented’ to multiple users thereby reducing cost to user and supplier.  Promotes collaboration and entrepreneurial spirit.
  • Tie to local DOE/Energy lab
  •  Lower cost thru student involvement and tourism
  • Local agreements for better lodging, food, transportation, shipping, storage, etc.  Local experts and coordination.  Services within ‘acceptable’ cost.  Compare to ‘cost avoidance’.
  • Solve terrestrial problems that support lunar exploration:  Energy, Environment (water, power beaming, trash), security
  • Need access to decision makers
  • Need to help reduce risk (overrides cost); to get product to market
  • Provide ‘core’ facilities/research to grow/bootstrap other involvement.  Example, crew habitat food study
  • Tax breaks, incentives.
  • Incentives for International collaborators, customers, participants; pay down infrastructure, and return on investment in the future


Question:  What are the advantages of Hawai`i as a location for the terrestrial prototype of the ILRP?


  • Year round availability
  • Central location for several partners, International collaboration (tie to other nodes on other continents?)
  • Multiple terrains for different planetary surfaces and research objectives
  • Geology, large quantity of simulants available
  • Infrastructure/logistics with staff to make life easy.  Cheap facilities provide access and co-locates entrepreneurs. Pockets of excellence due to networks of people. (Cheap facilities and access to talent)
  • Pooling of resources
  • Public relations
  • Need geologically diverse site(s) for science interest
  • Adequate communication capability is critical
  • Access to Radiation testing
  • Access to High altitude
  • Dry air/static energy
  • Particles and geological
  • Ocean based research for NEEMO and NEO mission analogue


Question:  What are the next steps in implementation?

  • Year 1


o   Produce White Paper

o   Consolidate involved parties (University of Hawaii-system; multiple depts. /disciplines), PISCES, State Gov, NASA

o   Market study (understand customers and their needs); Why Hawaii? (Need customers to state); court parties to be involved in year 2; Select Research Park focus

o   Understand infrastructure need of customers for research and analogue testing (identify cost avoidance/savings)

o   Identify/capture communication needs and restrictions imposed by analogue test site.

o   Lodging/food

o   Transportation/storage

o   Marketing Plan-Virtual image/movie of what the Research Park and Analog testing entails (like Cat video; virtual world)

o   Establish Education program/roadmap in UH system leading to diplomas (new degree types related to Space); also other disciplines like space medicine, food, etc.

o   Start process for UH-Manoa and other professorship available at UH-Hilo for year 3

o   Establish professor steering committee

o   How do we leverage off of Habitat/food study?

o   Identify small funding sources to begin small projects that are doable quickly

o   NASA education program



o   Identify revenue streams for longer-range, larger projects

o   Begin working ideas/partners to leverage CSA-NASA analogue test planned in Year 2

o   Submit proposal to host ISU

o   Seek out partnership advisory group among successful Research Dev Park and Business Incubation centers; mentor

o   Talk to Gov/Military for excess/obsolete computers and hardware for infrastructure

o   End of year 1 have a strategic plan



  • Year 2


o   Begin Staffing up with knowledgeable people and experts.

o   Begin/negotiate State and local government provide tax breaks/incentives

o   Begin negotiation with future participants on leaving hardware/infrastructure for future use

o   Work local businesses for infrastructure/logistics to reduce costs and make life for researchers/testers easier

o   Begin ties to entertainment/outreach/tourism

o   Establish communication architecture/infrastructure to support tele-operation, analog tests, and future activities

o   Pull off fantastic field test. 

o   Make NASA/CSA participants happy

o   Tie to Education, outreach, entertainment, tourism; put into Blue Mars/Planet;

o   Tie research from local schools (high school and universities to be involved); e.g., example trash processing

o   Tie in telerobotics (from ISS?)

o   University competition tied to analog site (repeat both when field test occurs and at other times)

o   Education; coordinate and submit grant/research proposals across UH (as many as possible)

o   Tele-operation/virtual involvement

o   Habitat in-place.  Start to leverage

o   Plan ISU activity for Year 3

o   Establish visiting professor research program

o   Investigate existing Centennial and Grand challenges.  Identify new or ones that can be hosted.


  • Year 3

o   Make UH-Manoa and other professorship available at UH-Hilo

o   Host ISU, Delft Univ. student

o   Host visiting professor research

o   Competition at analog site; win prize.  Host Centennial Challenge (similar to California Space Authority)

o   Begin developing business Incubation, work IP and Licensing; utilize students and capabilities for business and market strategy, cheap labor, etc.; establish leads for niches/coordination; benchmark incubator approaches


  • Years 4-7

o   Host another Space Agency field demo in partnership with university researchers

o   Alternative energy demonstration (power beaming from space or other island?)

o   Begin research and partnerships with Google-X prize-winner landers



Closing Plenary Session


Following the discussion group reports and their integration, the participants met in plenary session to discuss the next steps toward building a sustainable settlement beyond low-Earth orbit. 

There was much discussion about compatibility with NASA’s new direction, organizational structure, potential international partners, analogies with international organizations such as the 1962 Antarctica Treaty, CERN, Intelsat, etc., funding sources and legal issues. 

There was general agreement on the following conclusions:

  • The group should press forward to establish the International Lunar Research Park.
  • The ILRP should start with a terrestrial prototype at PISCES, migrating to the Moon in the next decade and eventually preparing the way for a permanent human settlement on the Moon.
  • The base facilities for the terrestrial prototype would be built on or adjacent to the UH-Hilo campus, most likely in the existing UHH Science and Technology Park.
  • The migration to the Moon would occur in stages, utilizing the ISS, planned NASA robotic precursor missions, planned robotic landers from other space-faring nations, missions to be carried out by private-sector companies such as the Google Lunar X-Prize contestants and other commercial launch opportunities.
  • An ILRP Steering Committee will be formed as a first step toward implementation.
  • JUSTSAP, now PISA, will act as an independent catalyst to promote the concept of the ILRP.