There have been numerous studies of human settlements on the Moon, both permanent and temporary. The range of feasible options proposed makes it clear that ... .
There are a number of different successful ways of establishing the ILRP using today's technology. Development can begin now.
What is presented below is feasible but notional.
Participants are not only encouraged but challenged to propose better ideas.
An excellent starting point for considering how core elements of an International Lunar Research Park might be implemented can be found in "Mission and Implementation of an Affordable Lunar Return" by Paul D. Spudis (Lunar and Planetary Institute) and Tony Lavoie (NASA Marshall Space Flight Center). The authors provide an excellent starting point for ILRP development concepts. This paper was submitted to Space Manufacturing 19 December 2010 and can be downloaded from the attachments at the bottom of this page. (Note: When the website goes widely public, we will need permission for reprint)
In each case below, the possible approaches to development are based on current NASA policies and approaches for procurements of this type. The COTS-Style development approach, which heavily leverages commercial space entrepreneurship, is applicable to all the elements below. Other development options, especially contributions from other countries, are also possible as was done so effectively in constructing the International Space Station.
In summary, the International Lunar Research Park, including the Lunar University will require these general capabilities:
The Delta IV Heavy, Atlas V, Falcon 9, and a suite of international launch vehicles are immediately available. The Falcon 9 Heavy test flight is planned for 2012. It would be possible to use excess international launch capacity, including the unused mass and volume in flights with primary payloads, to launch ILRP construction elements. (see Depot and Reusable In-Space Transport discussion below)
Use today’s excess launch capability (available now) on all appropriate launch vehicles with
today’s virtual presence (available now) to deliver useful materials to a Resource
Depot in Low Earth Orbit (new development needed).
In most concepts we reviewed, a Space Tug (new development needed)
would be required to make this happen, but it could also be built with today's technologies.
A Resource Depot allows development of the ILRP to begin while a heavy lift vehicle is under construction.
When a heavy lift vehicle becomes available, it can play an important role in the expansion of capabilities of the ILRP as well as support other human exploration scenarios, including to asteroids, the moons of Mars, and the Mars surface.
The Resource Depot and Space Tug could be
developed via a COTS-style approach.
This approach enables commercial ownership of the Depot and Tug with NASA as a customer and
the owners able to pursue additional markets.
(Other benefits – technologies developed for the Resource Depot and Space Tug could also enable satellite servicing, orbital debris removal, and human explorations beyond the Moon). For only one of the several feasible concepts on how an orbiting resource depot could be implemented, Click here.
Possible Approach to Development: This is new, but can be built now with existing technologies.
Use today’s best solar
power technologies (available no), satellite station keeping technologies (available now)
and automated assembly (new) and power
beaming techniques (new) to create a solar power station in Lunar Orbit
(new) that beams power to the Moon to provide power for the Lunar Research
Park/University. This potentially
could be developed via a COTS-style approach.
In addition, the platform could also be used for communication and navigation.
(Other benefits – provides a testbed for solar power beaming to Earth) See: Ad Astra Lunar Power Beaming pdf downloadable below and http://www.nasa.gov/centers/dryden/news/FactSheets/FS-087-DFRC.html
Possible Approach to Development: These are commercially available items.
This is new, but can be built now with existing technologies. This capability has existed since Apollo.
Possible Approach to Development: Adapt and use previously developed Space Tug (New) technologies to allow flights between Low Earth Orbit and Lunar Orbit (or Earth-Moon L1) every 8 or so days to transfer cargo and crew. See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991sfm..proc..163U
Possible Approach to Development: This capability was demonstrated 40 years ago in the Apollo program and is being developed by Project Morpheus at the NASA Johnson Space Center. There are several development approaches that could be appropriate for this today. It is a critical function and worthy of government investment. Success would promote the return of samples from extraterrestrial bodies that would be of interest to the science community, a near term benefit. But this might also be a worthy subject for Centennial Challenges, X-prizes, and others. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunar_Lander_Challenge
On November 5, 2009, the X PRIZE Foundation along with NASA hosted the NGLLXPC 2009 awards ceremony in Washington D.C.
Masten Space Systems, led by David Masten, was awarded the top $1 million prize.
Armadillo Aerospace, led by id Software founder John Carmack took home the second place prize of $500,000.
The $2 million prize purse, with part of it already awarded to Armadillo Aerospace in 2008, is the largest incentivized prize awarded by the X PRIZE Foundation since the winning of the $10M Ansari X PRIZE in 2004. Click here for more info.
8. Construct ILRP. Teleoperated and Robotic Construction via Terrestrial Demonstrations (Lunar Robotic Village)
This is new, but can be built now with existing technologies.
Possible Approach to Development: Using today’s technologies and ground based analogs,
demonstrate teleoperated and autonomous ground-prep, habitat construction,
landing site construction, etc.
(current). See: PISCES, Desert Rats, http://regolith.csewi.org/
This is new, but can be built now with existing technologies.
Inflatable habitats are pressurized modules for use in an outer space environment to support human life. They have frequently been proposed for use in space applications to provide a greater volume of living space for a given mass. The first serious design and manufacture of an inflatable space habitat was in 1961 with a space station design produced by Goodyear (although this design was never flown). A proposal released in 1989 by Johnson Space Center's Man Systems Division outlined a 16 metres (52 ft) diameter spherical habitat lunar outpost which was partially buried in the lunar surface.
An inflatable module called TransHab (a portmanteau of Trans Habitation) was proposed for the International Space Station, and later the private company Bigelow Aerospace revived the design for its own use as a private space hotel.
There are numerous possible approaches to this development and most are commercially available.