Journal of Parasitology

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Journal of Parasitology, ISJN: 3729-2384, ImpactIndex: 3.56, Language: English,Category: International Journal, Imprint: Photon 

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Assessment of the therapeutic effect of Levamisole and Mebendazole against intestinal parasite infections in children in Kinshasa, (D.R.Congo)

Muziazia Lupemba Jacquesa , Njiri Adhiambo Oliviab , Kahindo A. Kiyongac Lufuluabo Kaswiyid , Jiahui Leie


Helminthes, protozoa, Levamisole, Mebendazole, children


Background: Intestinal parasites pose a major public health problem in developing countries due to high parasite burden and poor sanitary conditions. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficiency of two costeffective anthelmintic drugs, Levamisole and Mebendazole, in the treatment of intestinal heminthiases in children. Material sand Methods: To investigate the intestinal status of parasite infections, a comparative study was undertaken among 170 children (80) pre-school and (90) school children of suburban communities of Kinshasa, DRC. Results: 69.4% (70/118) children were infected with intestinal helminthes and/or protozoa. About 50% of children were infected with Ascaris lumbricoides and/or Trichuris trichiura .The school children constituted the most often and most heavily infected subjects, with egg intensities of 25- 100 nematodes eggs per slide. The most associated intestinal protozoa were Entamoeba coli (48.7% nonpathogenic) followed by Giardia lambia (21.8%), Entamoeba histolytica (14.1%), Trichomonas hominis (7.7%) and Chilomastix mesnili (7.7%). Conclusion: Levamisole and Mebendazole had high efficacy as antinematodals with a high cure rate of 91.7% and 100% clearance rate of the nematode egg burden in the stool samples. This study provided the evidence base for implementing use of the two anthelmintics for the prevention of intestinal helminthes and/or protozoans.


Photon 108, 269-278 © All Rights Reserved with Photon. 

Photon Ignitor: ISJN37292384D892307032019

Seroprevalence and some Associated risk factors with Toxoplasma gondii infection among human populations in Khartoum North, Sudan

Angara T- E.E.a, Ibrahim A.M.b, Eljack M.S.c*, Kafi S.K.c, Ismail A.A.d, Youssif, F.M.e 


Toxoplasm gondii, seroprevalence, suburban community, Khartoum North. 


Background Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease which primarily infects cats. It’s caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Annually30-50% of the human populations in the developed and developing countries are infected. Toxoplasmosis in healthy people is usually asymptomatic. However, it can cause serious pathological effects in congenital cases and immune-compromised individuals. Prevalence of the disease varies among different communities. Few studies were conducted in Sudan, among which is what was reported by Abdel-Hameed AA who found seroprevalence of 41.7%. Amir Elnahas reported relatively lower seroprevalence. This study was done to determine the seroprevalence of the disease among a suburban population in Khartoum north and to identify the risk factor associated with its transmission. In the suburban areas and some urban area of Khartoum, the capital of Sudan families rear domestic animals such as cats and dogs without paying any attention to the health of these animals like vaccination and checkup. Moreover there are considerable numbers of stray cats. These animals being in contact with people may transmit variety of zoonotic disease such as Toxoplasmosis. Deficient information are available regarding these disease prevalence, it therefore this research work was conducted to throw light of on this issue. 

Materials and Methods: This study was conducted during the period between March-June, 2015 at Samrab-umdirawa, Khartoum north. A total of 157 individuals from randomly selected houses were included in this study. From each participant 2-5ml of venous blood were collected into a plain container allowed to clot and after clot retraction centrifuged and the serum separated for testing. Each serum specimen was screened for anti Toxoplama gondii antibodies using latex agglutination test (Toxo-Latex diagnostic kits from Spinreact, S.A/S.A.U, Spain). Specimens reactive for anti-toxplasma antibodies were further tested by ELISA test for specific anti-toxoplasma antibodies IgG and IgM. 

Results: Out of the tested specimens 23.6% were found reactive by latex agglutination test. Among the reactive specimens 15(9.5%) and 10 (6.4%) were positive by ELISA for IgG and IgM respectively. Further one specimen was positive for both IgG and IgM (0.6%). The seroprevalence of Toxoplama gondii obtained in this study was relatively lower than what reported before. This study revealed insignificant association between Toxoplama gondii seropositivity and gender, age, occupation and education level. Eating uncooked meat was found to be risk factor for Toxoplasmosis.

Conclusion: The seroprevalence Toxoplama gondii was lower than the previously reported research, eating raw meat is a significant risk factor. 


Angara T- E.E., Ibrahim A.M., Eljack M.S., Kafi S.K., Ismail A.A., Youssif, F.M., 2018. Seroprevalence and some Associated risk factors with Toxoplasma gondii infection among human populations in Khartoum North, Sudan. The Journal for Endocrinology and Metabolism. Photon 107, 259-268 


All Rights Reserved with Photon. 

Photon Ignitor: ISJN37292384D886807062018

Comparative efficacy of serodiagnostic techniques for detection of Setaria Microfilariosis in Bovine

Jayalakshmi J.*a and UdayaKumar M.b 

a Department of Veterinary Parasitology, Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University,Gannavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India 

b Department of Veterinary Parasitology, PV Narasimharao Veterinary University,Korutla, Telangana, India


Microfilariasis, Setaria cervi, Bovine, ELISA, CIEP 


In the present study Setaria cervi whole cell lysate antigen was utilized to evaluate the efficacy of two serodiagnositic tests i.e., counter immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in detection of microfilaria of Setaria sp. in bovines. A total of 1286 bovine (cattle & buffalo) blood samples were initially screened for the presence of microfilaria by Wet blood film and Knott’s method. Out of these, 35 samples were found positive for microfilaria. All 35 positive samples and samples that were negative for microfilaria by Knott’s method were further evaluated by CIEP and ELISA. The sensitivity and specificity of CIEP and ELISA were 91.4; 77.1 and 97.1; 72.2 percent, respectively. Among the negative samples, higher positivity of 40% was detected in ELISA when compared to CIEP (32%). Better results were obtained with ELISA compared to CIEP, with high sensitivity in samples that were negative in Knott’s method suggesting that ELISA was more sensitive in the diagnosis of microfilaria in bovine blood. Since the S. cervi antigen can able to detect the microfilaria infection randomly, detection of genomic DNA may be essential for the confirmation of species specific microfilaria of Setaria origin. 


Jayalakshmi J. and UdayaKumar M., 2017. Comparative efficacy of serodiagnostic techniques for detection of Setaria Microfilariosis in Bovine. Journal of Parasitology. 

Photon 106, 250-258 © All Rights Reserved with Photon. 

Photon Ignitor: ISJN37292384D871123122017

Parasitic Infections and Malnutrition in Children Aged 1-16 Years in Omu Community via Ijebu- Ode 

Adebusuyi Sunday Adejolaa*, Amoo Abimbola Oladipupo Josephb 

a Department of Medical Laboratory Service, PMB 2023, State Hospital, Ijebu- ode, Ogun State,            Nigeria 

b Deparrment of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology College of Medicine, Olabisi Onabanjo              University Sagamu Ogun State, Nigeria 

Adebusuyi Sunday Adejola and Amoo Abimbola Oladipupo Joseph are conferred with Kirchhoff Research Award-2015 in Parasitology 

Keywords: Smoking, alcohol, diet, lipid profile, myocardial infarction 

Abbreviations: MI: Myocardial Infarction, TC: Total Cholesterol, LDL: Low density lipoprotein, HDL: High density lipoprotein, TG: Triglyceride, IHD: Ischemic heart disease 

Photon Ignitor: ISJN37292384D720621052015 

Citation: Adebusuyi S.A., Amoo A.O.J., 2015. Parasitic Infections and Malnutrition in Children Aged 1-16 Years in Omu Community via Ijebu- Ode. Journal of Parasitology. Photon 105, 244-249. 


The prevalence of parasitic infections and malnutrition are still on a high side in Nigeria. A cross- sectional survey to obtain anthropometric, parasitological and socio- economic data of the children in Omu community of Ogun State, Nigeria was carried-out. Anthropometric data were expressed as weight for age (WAZ), height for age (HAZ), weight for height (WAH) using Z-scores and Gomez method. Parasitological examinations of stool and blood samples were done through wet preparation, formaldehyde-ether concentration and Giemsa staining method. Results of nutritional status and parasitosis of 284 children investigated revealed A. lumbricoides 17.9%, Hookworm 2.1%, Trichuris trichiura 0 .7%, mixed infection 1.1% and malaria parasite 50.7% while percentage underweight was 39.4%, stunting 25.5%, wasting 31.2% using Z- Scores and percentage underweight was 29.6% and stunting 23.2% using Gomez method. Only stunting was associated with gender (x2=7.1, p<0.05) but underweight and wasting were Not (x2=2.27; p>0.05 and x2=0.26; p>0.05). The present study was embarked upon to investigate prevalence of parasitic infections and malnutrition in Omu-ijebu, Nigeria. The study revealed high prevalence of both parasitic infections and malnutrition despite government efforts in combating the menaces. Government needs to do more in the area of provision of social amenities and other infrastructure.o

Different geometrical AgNPs for vector control and their added value of antibacterial activity 

Namita Soni*, Soam Prakash 

Environmental and Advanced Parasitology, Vector Control Biotechnology and biomedical Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra-282 110, India 

Namita Soni and Soam Prakash are conferred with Ronald Ross Award-2014 in Vector Control Biotechnology 

Keywords: Ficus religiosa, Medicinal plant, Nanoparticles, Geometry, Mosquito control, Antimicrobials 

Abbreviations: LC: Lethal Concetration, ppm: Part Per Million, Min: Minute, h: Hour, WHO: World Health Organization 

Photon Ignitor: ISJN37292384D728221042015 

Citation: Soni N., Prakash S., 2015. Different geometrical AgNPs for vector control and their added value of antibacterial activity. Journal of Parasitology. Photon 105, 232-243. 


Mosquitoes are the vector of many diseases. It is now essential to control mosquito population so that people can be protected from mosquito borne diseases. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been synthesized by using the aqueous extract of leaf and bark of Ficus religiosa. We have also investigated the efficacy of synthesized AgNPs against the Culex quinquefasciatus filariasis, Anopheles stephensi malaria vector and were tested for the antibacterial effect against the gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus thuringiensis. The results were recorded by using the UV-visible spectrophotometry and the geometries of AgNPs were obtained by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The efficacy test was performed at different concentrations for period of different lengths by using the probit analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were of different geometries and size. The first instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus have shown the 100% mortality within 15 min. The pupae of Cx. quinquefasciatus against the AgNPs synthesized by using the aqueous extract of leaves of F. religiosa (LC50 15, LC90 90, LC99 110 ppm) after 3 h and for the adults (LC50 0.12, LC90 0.99, LC99 2.83 μL/cm2) after 1:15 min. The zone of inhibition occurred at the concentration level of 50 μl. We can conclude here, that different geometrical AgNPs would be a strategy for developing a Nano biomaterial for vector control and their added value of antibacterial activity.

Contamination of soil with parasitic forms in urban and rural areas of Andhra Pradesh, India 

V.G. Charithaa*, V.C. Rayulua, P.M. Kondaiahb  

a Department of Veterinary Parasitology, College of Veterinary Science, Proddatur-516360, Andhra            Pradesh, India affiliated with Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University 

b Department of Veterinary Parasitology NTR Veterinary College Gannavaram – 521 102, India                    affiliated with Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University    

V.G. Charitha, V.C. Rayulu and P.M. Kondaiah receive Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Research Award-2015 in Parasitology

Keywords: Soil contamination, zoonotic parasites, urbanization effect  

Photon Ignitor: ISJN37292384D754517032015

Citation: Charitha V.G., Rayulu V.C., Kondaiah P.M., 2015. Contamination of soil with parasitic forms in urban and rural areas of Andhra Pradesh, India. Journal of Parasitology. Photon 105, 227-231.


The study was conducted to determine the presence of parasitic forms in the soil samples from urban and rural localities of Andhra Pradesh, India. Thirteen parasitic species including seven nematodes viz., Ancylostoma spp., Ascaris spp., Capillaria spp., Oxyuroidea, Toxocara spp., Trichuris spp. and Strongyloides spp., two cestodes viz., Hymenolepis spp. and Taeniidae and four protozoans viz., Balantidium spp., Entamoeba spp., Eimeria spp. and Isospora spp. were isolated from 507 soil samples. Prevalence of Toxocara was highest with 9.07 percent. Significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher prevalence of soil transmitted parasites was observed in urban (31.78%) soil than in rural areas (22.53%). The study reveals that humans residing both in urban and rural areas are at risk of getting parasitic infections from contaminated soil. Urban localities were more contaminated with zoonotic parasites like Toxocara spp. and Ancylostoma spp. responsible for causing VLM and CLM in humans. Higher prevalence of parasitic elements in urban localities highlights the need of initiating necessary control strategies. The implementation of fences to prevent pet/ stray animal access and defection in public places, educating children on hygienic habits, and creating public awareness regarding spread of zoonoses may help to reduce the contamination of soil and thereby reduce the infections. 

K. Vijaya Kumara*, A.S. Priyadarsinib   

a Department of Zoology, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India 530003 

b Department of Zoology, St Joseph’s College For women (A), Gnanapuram, Visakhapatnam, India 


K. Vijaya Kumar and A.S. Priyadarsini receive William Harvey Research Award- 2015 in Parasitology 

Keywords: Cercaria, Digestive gland, Lymnaea luteola, Mollusca, Protein, Parasitism 

Photon Ignitor: ISJN37292384D760811032015 

Citation: Kumar K.V., Priyadarsini A.S., 2015. Effect of the Parasitism on Protein Content in the Digestive Gland of the Freshwater Snail Lymnaea luteola (Lamarck); Mollusca: Gastropoda  Journal of Parasitology. Photon 105, 224-226. 


The digestive gland of L. luteola was shown to be composed of two main cell type, the digestive cells and secretory cells. An intracellar vascular digestive system containing lysosomal enzymes appears to operate in the digestive cells. Parasitization by cercaria evokes considerable changes in the digestive gland. Histochemistry of the normal digestive gland shows the presence of tyrosine and amino acids. Basing on the qualitative analysis it has been observed that snails infected with Amphistome and Furcocercus cercariae contained 12 and 10% less proteins respectively. The overall effect appears to be an increase in intracellular digestive processes, including autolysis, and it is suggested that this may be consequence of the host attempting to maintain its nutritional requirement under parasitic stress. Relatively very little information is available on the protein reserves change in the digestive gland associated with larval trematode infection.

Citation: Gupta B.K., Rajvanshi S., 2015. Two new species of the genus Tetracotyle (Order: Strigeatoidea La Rue, 1926) strigeid metacercariae, parasitizing freshwater food fishes from North India. Journal of Parasitology. Photon 105, 219-223.


Helminths are a serious threat to their hosts causing loss to the fish-based economy. A large number of fishborne infections, caused by fishborne zoonotic trematodes because freshwater fishes serve as the second intermediate host in the life cycle of many helminths. There is limited information available on this aspect in Indian perspective. The present communication attempts to provide a detail description about two strigeids species viz. Tetracotyle multilobulata n. sp. and Tetracotyle madhubanensis n. sp. parasitizing freshwater fishes, collected from Eastern U.P., India. The species are characterized on the basis of shape, structure, place and position of oesophagus, intestinal caeca, holdfast organ, hold fast gland and number of genital rudiments.


Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important zoonotic diseases in the Middle East, is acquiring a public health problem in areas where the losses can take the form of a reduction in weight gain; yield of milk, fertility rate and in the value of wool or other products. So we initiated this research to evaluate two type of Hydatid antigens (PSCAg and HCFAg) by several techniques (ELISA, SDS- Page and Immuoblotting technique) for its using in diagnosis of CE. The incidence of Cystic echinococcosis (CE) was 7.5% among examined camels in Egypt during the period from January to December 2012. Out of 33 infected camels 87.9% were found to have the infection in their lungs and liver. The collected HC were divided into small (26.60%), medium (44.70%) and large (28.70%). Medium sized cysts were the most prevalent in the infected lungs (45.60%) while hepatic cysts were mostly of large size (50%). Out of 94 examined cysts, 69 (73.4 %) were fertile and 66 (70.21%) were viable. The viability of protoscolices of liver and lung fertile cysts was 50% and 71.11% respectively In ELISA, the sensitivity of Protoscolces antigen (PSCAg) was higher than that of purified Hydatid cyst fluid antigen (HCFAg), while specificity and diagnostic efficacy of purified HCFAg was higher than that of PSCAg. The SDS-PAGE analysis of camels purified HCF Ag indicated that 7 specific-protein bands were detected at molecular weight 174.3, 99.0, 70.0, 65.6, 48.0, 26.0 and 18.5 KDa. While the PSCAg showed 4 specific protein bands at molecular weight 181.8, 92.5, 62.3 and 16.6 KDa. The ELTB analysis showed presence of 4 protein bands corresponding to molecular weight standard at 22, 26, 31 and 51 KDa react specifically against sera positive.

BARRISTER KUMAR GUPTA is recipient of International Parasitological Research Award -2014 for outstanding scientific contributions in Parasitology 

BARRISTER KUMAR GUPTA is recipient of Doctorate Research Award-2014 for outstanding scientific contributions in Parasitology 

Falcaustra heosemydis (Nematoda: Kathlaniidae) From Glemmys caspica Turtles at Basrah City/ Southern Iraq

Al-Emarah Ghazi Yaquop Azal

Falcaustra heosemydis, Turtles, Glemmys caspica , Basrah City

Photon Ignitor: 


Journal of Parasitology


Al-Emarah G.Y.A., 2014. Falcaustra heosemydis (Nematoda: Kathlaniidae) From Glemmys caspica Turtles At Basrah City/ Southern Iraq. Journal of Parasitology. Photon 105, 207-211


Many different animals and amphibians play an important role in the life cycle of different species of nematode parasites as a paratenic or intermediate or final hosts. This study was design to identification the intestinal nematode that found in fresh water turtles Glemmys caspica  in Basrah city. A total of ten fresh water turtles G caspica were captured from Shatt Alarab river at Basrah city/ southern Iraq and a total number of isolated nematodes 26 divided into 16 male and 10 female and after make a full description it is found to be Falcaustra heosemydis (Kathlanidae). This study revealed as a few studies on fresh water turtles in Basrah city and this nematoda found to be as a first record, some worms samples put in British Natural History Museum   as a voucher specimens. In r conclusion the result of  this research showed  that the turtles have different parasites and one of them the nematode Falcaustra heosemydis with percentage infection 90% and intensity of infection 2.8 and the best way is lactophenol to clarification the nematode.