The Journal of Physics

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The Journal of Physics, Impact Index: 3.74, ISJN: 5218-3718, Category: International, Imprint: Photon, Category: Peer Reviewed Indexed International Journal

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This particular paper gives a brief account of quantum fluids and Super-fluids, their intrinsic connection, the insights they provide regarding completely new structures and the way matter behaves at relatively much lower temperatures. Super-fluids and quantum fluids are compared taking the example of liquid Helium-2 and its isotopes Helium-3 and Helium-4 (Superfluid). The typical behavior of Helium at very low temperatures mainly highlights the viscosity parameter which turns down to zero for a free flow of helium through the holes a little larger than atomic sizes. The same viscosity is much larger for quantum fluids as only a fraction of electrons or protons behave as fluid. Moreover, solid Helium-4 under high pressure behaves as if some part of it was a super-fluid. This indicates that quantum fluids and super-fluids indeed have a distinction in their behavior with respect to temperature and pressure. This means that viscosity is going down when the quantum fluid is having its transition to a super-fluid. This will be dealt a little later. Quantum vortices in super-fluids are also discussed briefly. 

All Rights Reserved with Photon. Photon Ignitor: ISJN52183718D853509022017

ianchi Type III massive string cosmological models with decaying vacuum energy density in presence of bulk viscosity, following the technique used by Letelier, 1983 are investigated. To get deterministic model, we have assumed that shear (s) is proportional to expansion (q),where R is scale factor and zq = constant as considered by Zimdahl, 1996 where z is the coefficient of bulk viscosity. The models have Point Type singularity at T = 0 and t = 0 respectively MacCallum, 1971. In special cases, the vacuum energy density (L) leads to the result as obtained by Beesham, 1993. One of the model represents accelerating phase of universe while the other model represents accelerating and decelerating phases of universe. The state finder parameters {r,s} are in excellent agreement with Planck 2013, results.

Physical properties of Petroleum for characterization and analytical assay of fuel 

Leena Bharadwaj 

Directorate of Hydrocarbon, International Agency for Standards and Ratings, India 


Physical properties of Petroleum, characterization of fuel, analytical assay of fuel, physical parameters 


The paper discusses the physical properties of petroleum. These parameters are basis for separation, filtration, and purification, qualitative and quantitative analysis of crude oil. Fractions of Crude oil can be characterized based on physical and chemical parameters. It provides important primary data for evaluation of adulteration in petroleum products for government regulations and policies. The paper provide reference for the petroleum industry in both processing and production. It emphasis on significance of characterization, property estimation and methods of their development. 


Bharadwaj L., 2016. Physical properties of Petroleum for characterization and analytical assay of fuel. The Journal of Physics. Photon 111, 245-252

© All Rights Reserved with Photon. 

Photon Ignitor: ISJN52183718D882516072017

Low–Cost Holographic Concentrator for Photovoltaic Cells Application 

Adnan Salih Al-Ithawi*, Asmaa Jawad Kadhim Al- Kinani 

Department of Physics/College of Science for Women/Baghdad University, Iraq 

Keywords: Holography, concentrator, Holographic solar concentrator 

All Rights Reserved with Photon. Photon Ignitor: ISJN52183718D698001122016 


Prof. Dr. Al-ithawi. A.S.*, Dr. Al-Kinani. A.J.K., 2016. Low –Cost Holographic Concentrator for Photovoltaic Cells Application. The Journal of Physics. Photon 111, 242-244 


To reduce the cost of solar photovoltaic power generation used of concentrators is an attractive proposition. This scheme replaces costly solar cell area with relatively low cost smaller concentrator area still achieving same out-put power. In present work a holographic optical element has been fabricated to disperse and focus different portion of solar spectrum on laterally arranged solar cells of different band gaps to achieve maximum efficiency operation. Such concentrator is light–weight, low-cost with diffraction efficiency 63%. The hologram was used with dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC), the efficiency of the solar cell increased by 2X.

Bulk Viscous Inflationary Universe for Barotropic Fluid Distribution in LRS Bianchi Type I Space-Time

a Professor of Mathematics, CSIR Emeritus Scientist, Department of Mathematics, University of      Rajasthan, Jaipur-302004, India

Keywords: Bulk viscous, Inflationary, Barotropic Fluid – LRS Bianchi I

Bali R., Swati, 2015. Bulk Viscous Inflationary Universe for Barotropic Fluid Distribution in Lrs Bianchi Type I Space-Time. The Journal of Physics. Photon 110, 236-241


Bulk viscous inflationary universe with barotropic fluid distribution for Locally Rotationally Symmetric Bianchi Type I is investigated. To get the deterministic model of the universe, we assume ρ = 3H 2 , ζ α ρ 1/2 , p = ( γ – 1 ) ρ , 1 £ g £ 2, as considered by Barrow, 1988. The model represents decelerating and accelerating phases both. The spatial volume increases with time representing inflationary scenario. In general, the model represents anisotropic universe. However, the model isotropizes for large values of T. We find that the model represents accelerating phase for dust distribution while for stiff and radiation dominated distributions, it represents decelerating phase. The model has Point Type singularity at T = 0.

The author describes some properties of a new nano crystalline ceramic type II superconductor, Gadolinium Barium Calcium Copper Oxide: GdBaCaCuO (GBCCO). Type II superconductors are usually made of metal alloys or complex oxide ceramics. The GBCCO perovskite phase structure was prepared by the solid state reaction technique route. High-temperature superconductivity in ceramic oxides is a new technology in which advances are occurring at a rapid pace. The prepared sample was analyzed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Particle size determination, SEM and EDX. The comparison of XRD results with JCPDS files confirmed the orthorhombic structure of the sample with a≠b≠c and α=β=γ=900. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies revealed that its particle size is in the nanometer range. Particle size calculated from Debye Scherrer’s formula confirmed the value. EDX spectrum shows the elements of the sample. X-ray instrumental peak broadening analysis was used to evaluate the size and lattice strain by the Williamson-Hall Plot method. One Sentence Summary: XRD of GBCCO at different temperatures, structure, particle size analyzed. Confirmed with SEM and EDS.

Tilted bulk viscous fluid cosmological model in the frame work of LRS (Locally Rotationally Symmetric) Bianchi Type II space-time in the context of General Relativity is investigated. To get the deterministic solution in terms of cosmic time t, we assume the barotropic fluid condition p = gÎ, 0 £ g £ 1 and R = Sn, p being isotropoic pressure, Î the matter density, R and S are metric potentials, n is a constant. The ansatz zq = constant is used to get the physically relevant result because it has significant role to connect with occurrence of Little Rip (LR) cosmology using FRW model as given by Brevik et al., 2011. We find that the shear tensor (sij) satisfies the trace free condition sij vj = 0 and heat conduction vector also satisfies the trace free condition qi vi = 0. The spatial volume increases exponentially as time increases indicating inflationary scenario in the models in presence and absence of bulk viscosity. The models have Point type singularity at the initial time. The models in presence and absence of bulk viscosity have no particle horizon i.e. the model has no communicable region.

Photovoltaic and Photo-emissive Properties of InGaN/GaN Multi Quantum Well Structure on Sapphire

Raj Kumar Tyagia, Bhubesh Chander Joshib

H. N. B. Govt. Postgraduate College, Khatima, Uttarakhand India-262308

b Jaypee Institute of information technology, Noida India-201307

Raj Kumar Tyagi, Bhubesh Chander Joshi receive International Oleg Losev Research Award-2014 in Light-emitting Diode Technology


Electroluminescence, Photovoltaic, InGaN, GaN, MOCVD, Sapphire, AM 1.5, Current density

Photon Ignitor: ISJN52183718D750802012015


Tyagi R.K., Joshi B.C., 2014. Photovoltaic and Photo-emissive Properties of InGaN/GaN Multi Quantum Well Structure on Sapphire. The Journal of Physics. Photon 109, 212-219


In this study InGaN/GaN multi quantum wells structures on Sapphire has been studied by simulation. These structures shows sharp Electroluminescence peak ranging from 390-485 nm under different Indium composition, thickness and numbers of quantum wells. Under illumination with AM 1.5 radiations these structure acts as photovoltaic cell and shows open circuit voltage from 1.8V to 2.7 V and short circuit current density from 0.25 to 2.5 mA/cm2. The observed dual phenomena of these structures are experimentally verified on InGaN/GaN structures on c-plane sapphire substrates. The fabricated devices shows sharp electro-luminescence peak at 455 nm at forward biased of 3.5V. The same device shows photovoltaic characteristics, giving open circuit voltage of 2.1 V and short circuit current density of 0.306mA/cm2.

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