The Journal of Free Radicals and Antioxidants

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Antioxidant Potential and Total Phenolic Changes in Malawian Herbal Formulations Stored In Clay Pots and Plastic Bottles 


Mtewa A.G. K.*, Biswick T. T., Mwatseteza J. F. 


Chemistry Section, Department of Applied Sciences, Malawi Institute of Technology (MIT), Malawi University of Science and Technology. 

Chemistry Department, Chancellor College, University of Malawi, P.O. Box 280, Zomba. 

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Uganda.


Keywords: 

Reactive oxygen species, Secondary metabolites, Fenton Reaction, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric reducing assay 


Abstract


Introduction: Aqueous herbal formulations in Malawi are stored in various containers for different durations which risk potentially unfavorable variations in their chemical profiles and pharmaceutical activities. This work aimed at evaluating the extent of changes in total phenolic content (TPC) and Antioxidant potential of selected aqueous herbal formulations during storage in plastic bottles and clay pots as done by some practitioners in Malawi. Methods: Stability of antioxidant potential was determined by both electron transfer (ferric reducing assay) and proton donation (hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay). Results: Increases in TPC, antioxidant potential were influenced by storage duration and not container material. This study showed that the monitored aqueous herbal formulations are not stable during storage and that the best combined medicinal effect can be achieved on day four of storage. Clay pots are capable of losing water from their aqueous formulations which limits storage duration and increasing chemical concentrations, a case which can allow overdosing of some chemicals. Conclusion: Storage duration has to be limited to ensure maximum antioxidant potential of formulations. Further studies are in controlled wider environmental conditions of storage than room conditions. Users, practitioners and policy makers can use results from this work to determine best storage practices. 


Citation: 

Mtewa A.G. K., Biswick T. T., Mwatseteza J. F., 2017. Antioxidant Potential and Total Phenolic Changes in Malawian Herbal Formulations Stored In Clay Pots and Plastic Bottles. The Journal of Free Radicals and Antioxidants. 


Photon 144 479-494 

 © All Rights Reserved with Photon. 

Photon Ignitor: ISJN91022347D865127112017





Chapter: Physiological contributions of reactive oxygen species


Md. Torequl Islama,b*, Eunus S. Alic, João Marcelo de Castro e Sousad, Jose Victor de Oliveira Santosb, Márcia Fernanda Correia Jardim Pazb, Rosália Maria Tôrres de Limab, Leonardo da Rocha Sousab, Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros de Alencarb, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcanteb 


a Department of Pharmacy, Southern University Bangladesh, Mehedibag (Chittagong)-4000, 

   Bangladesh 

b Laboratory of Toxicology and Genetics, Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina (Piauí)-64.009-550, Brazil 

c Gaco Pharmaceuticals and Research Laboratory, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh 

d Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Piauí, Picos-64.049-550, Brazil 


All Rights Reserved with Photon. 

Universal Book Number: UBN: 015-A94510112030 November, 2016 Edition: I Impact Index: 3.91


Citation: Md. Torequl Islam, Eunus S. Ali, João Marcelo de Castro e Sousa, Jose Victor de Oliveira Santos, Márcia Fernanda Correia Jardim Paz, Rosália Maria Tôrres de Lima, Leonardo da Rocha Sousa, Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros de Alencar, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante. Physiological contributions of reactive oxygen species. Photon eBooks. UBN: 015-A94510112029





In vitro antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts of 12 plants of Chitrakoot region 


Chinmayi Mishraa*, Dr. Indra Prasad Tripathib 


a Mahatma Gandhi Chitrakoot Gramodaya Vishvavidyalaya, Chitrakoot, Satna, (M.P), India

b Faculty of Science and Environment, Mahatma Gandhi Chitrakoot Gramodaya Vishvavidyalaya, Chitrakoot, Satna, (M.P.), India 


Keywords:

Oxidative stress, free radicals, antioxidants, DPPH, ABTS 


Abbreviations: DPPH: 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryllhydrazyl, ABTS: 2, 2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) 


All Rights Reserved with Photon. Photon Ignitor: ISJN91022347D839812092016 



Citation

Mishra C.*, Tripathi I.P., 2016. In vitro antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts of 12 plants of Chitrakoot region. The Journal of Free Radicals and Antioxidants. Photon 143, 466-478 


Abstract

Oxidative stress contributes to induction and progression of many crucial diseases. Overproduction of free radicals via glucose auto oxidation and non-enzymatic protein glycation can be responsible for persistent hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular complications. The damaging effects of free radicals can be prevented by the consumption of various antioxidant substances provided by nature. A variety of fruits and vegetables are reported to have antioxidant properties. This paper reveals the free radical scavenging activities of available parts (leaves, stem and grains) of twelve plants found in the Chitrakoot region of Madhya Pradesh, India. The free radical scavenging studies were conducted by using DPPH and ABTS methods with ascorbic acid standard. Highest DPPH scavenging activity was shown by S. vulgare grain (IC50 value 31.16 ± 0.001 µg/ml) and highest ABTS radical scavenging a activity was observed in P. glaucum grains (IC50 value 81.72 ± 0.002 µg/ml). It is important to note that further in vivo studies are required to confirm the obtained results. Present work can only reveal the free radical scavenging properties of selected herbs, but their use as drugs depends on the involvement of pharmaceutical companies.



Antioxidant and anticancer activities of a mangrove plant Ceriops decandra (Griff.) Ding Hou on DLA cells 


Sithranga Boopathy Natarajana,b*, Kathiresan Kandasamyb 


a Society for Environmental Protection & Biological Conservation (SEPBIOCON) Keerapalayam-608 602, Tamilnadu, India 

b CAS in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangipettai-608 502, Tamilnadu, India 


Keywords: 

DLA cells; Ceriops decandra; Antioxidant; Cytotoxicity 


Abbreviations: 

Ac: Absorbance of control, As: Absorbance of sample BHT Butylated Hydoxytoluene, BHT: Butylated Hydoxytoluene, DLA: Daltons Lymphoma Ascetic, DPPH- 2, 2- diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl GAE: Gallic acid as standard, ND: Not detected, TAC: Total antioxidant 


All Rights Reserved with Photon. Photon Ignitor: ISJN91022347D833910082016 


Citation: 

Natarajan S.B., Kandasamy K., 2016. Antioxidant and anticancer activities of a mangrove plant Ceriops decandra (Griff.)Ding Hou on DLA cells. The Journal of Free Radicals and Antioxidants. Photon 143, 460-465 


Abstract 

We evaluated the antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of various solvent extractions of a mangrove plant Ceriops decandra. The leaves were extracted using different solvents such as aqueous, ethanol and hexane and estimated their antioxidant efficient using different antioxidant parameters such as total phenol, total antioxidant, reducing power, DPPH and nitric oxide radical scavenging activities. The cell viability assay was tested on Daltons Lymphoma Ascetic (DLA) cell using trypan blue exclusion method. Among the extracts tested, the aqueous extract showed significant higher antioxidant and cytotoxicity activities. In addition, it caused higher rate of apoptosis on DLA cell line. Whereas the other extracts were showed less antioxidant activity and caused necrosis. The present result might be attributed to the different class of phytochemicals of plant C. decandra. Among the extracts, aqueous extract might have some specific phytochemicals which responsible to apoptosis. Therefore, the present study concluded that the active principles behind these activities would be elucidated in the future studies and it is highly deserved for anticancer drug discovery.




Rutin rescues cadmium induced oxidative stress mediated myocardial toxicity and dyslipidemia in rats 


Kalist Shagirthaa, Naorem Chanu Sumedhab Selvaraj Miltonprabub


a Department of Biochemistry, St. Joseph College of Arts & Science, Cuddalore – 608002, India 

b Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, Cuddalore - 608 002,Tamil Nadu, India 


Keywords: Cadmium, Rutin, heart, dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, rat 


All Rights Reserved with Photon. Photon Ignitor: ISJN91022347D810408082016 


Citation: 

Shagirtha K., Sumedha N.C., Miltonprabu S.*, 2016. Rutin rescues cadmium induced oxidative stress mediated myocardial toxicity and dyslipidemia in rats. Photon 143, 446-459 


Abstract 

At present, there has been an increased interest globally to identify antioxidant compounds that are pharmacologically potent and have low or no side effects for use in oxidative cardiotoxicity and dyslipidemia. This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of Rutin (RT) on cardiac marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation products, lipid profile; membrane bound ATPases and antioxidant status in cadmium (Cd)-intoxicated rats. Male albino wistar rats were treated with RT (50 mg/kg) along with Cd (5 mg/kg) daily for a period of 28 days. Cd-induced cardiotoxicity and dyslipidemia was indicated by increased activities of marker enzymes such as creatine kinase-MB, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase in serum. In addition to these diagnostic markers, the levels of lipid peroxidation products and protein carbonyl contents in heart were significantly (P < 0.05) increased and the activities of enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase in the heart and non-enzymic antioxidants such as glutathione, vitamin C and E in the heart were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in Cd-inintoxicated rats. The levels TC, TG, PL, FFA, LDL and VLDL were significantly (P < 0.05) increased and the level of HDL was significantly decreased in the serum of Cd-treated rats. Cd intoxication also increased the levels of TC, TG and FFA and decreased the level of PL in the heart tissue. Further Cd treatment significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the levels of membrane bound ATP ases in heart. RT treatment along with Cd showed significant protective effect on all the biochemical parameters studied. Histopathological findings of RT and Cd treated heart confirmed the biochemical findings of this study. Thus, RT protects the myocardium against Cd-induced oxidative stress and dyslipidemia in rats.




Effect of solvents on phytochemicals, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Grape Seed Extract (Vitis vinifera). 


Madhavan. Va*, Jennifer Emelda. Eb, Santhanakrishnan. T


a PG and Research Department of Zoology and Biochemistry, Government Arts College (Autonomous) Kumbakonam -612001, Tamilnadu, India 

b Department of Bio-Medical Science, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli –620024, Tamilnadu, India 

c Department of Marine science, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli –620024, Tamilnadu, India 


Keywords: 

Vitis vinifera, phytochemicals, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity 


Photon Ignitor: ISJN91022347D833601072016 


Citation:

Madhavan.V*, Jennifer E.E., Santhana K.T., 2016. Effect of solvents on phytochemicals, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Grape Seed Extract (Vitis vinifera). The Journal of Free Radicals and Antioxidants. Photon 143, 440-445


Abstract 

The grape seed extract (GSE) is an important source of polyphenolic content with different functional effects like antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The present study strongly describes the antioxidant properties of eco-friendly effective solvent of ethanol and hexane extract from grape seed of Vitis vinifera (V.vinifera) was estimated. The assays like ferrous chelating assay, total phenolic content (TPC) and radical scavenging activity (DPPH) were used to determine antioxidant potential of grape seed extract. The antioxidant activity results of grape seed extract are high due to the higher concentration of phenolic compound. The IC50 values showed minimum amount can inhibit the toxic radicals with high antioxidant activity. The antimicrobial activity against different bacterial and fungal strains was performed by agar well diffusion method. Grape seed extracts show the maximum inhibitory zone against the bacterial strains and fungal strains of Pseudomonas aeroginosa (19+0.8mm), Bacillus subtilis (17+2.1mm), Candida albicans (16+0.8mm), and Rhizopus arrhizus (16+0.6mm). Whereas the minimum activity was recorded against Staphylococcus aureus (10+1.3mm), Klebsiella pneumoniae (11+0.9mm), Mucor racemosus (11+1.2mm) and Aspergillus niger (12+1.6mm).





Protective effects of urine from Malnad gidda an indigenous cow breed, on paracetamol treated wistar rats


Rachana Ba*, K.S. Sreepadaa, Karunakar Hegdeb 


a Department of Applied Zoology Mangalore University Mangala Gangothri - 574199, Karnataka, 

   India 

b Department of Pharmacology, Srinivas College of Pharmacy Valachil, Parangepete, Mangalore-

    574143, Karnataka, India 



Keywords: 

Cow urine, Malnad gidda, Paracetamol,Antioxidant enzymes Abbreviations: PRCU: Pregnant Raw Cow Urine, PDCU: Pregnant Distilled Cow Urine, LRCU: Lactating Raw Cow Urine, LDCU: Lactating Distilled Cow Urine, CRCU: Calf Raw Cow Urine, CDCU: Calf Distilled Cow Urine, PCM: Paracetamol, SGOT: Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase, SGPT: Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase, SALP: Serum Alkaline Phosphatase, LPO: Lipid Peroxidation, GSH: reduced glutathione, SOD: Super Oxide Dismutase 


Photon Ignitor: ISJN91022347D812022032016 


Citation:

Rachana B.*, Sreepada K.S., Hegde K., 2016. Protective effects of urine from Malnad gidda an indigenous cow breed, on paracetamol treated wistar rats. The Journal of Free Radicals and Antioxidants. Photon 143, 426-435 


Abstract 

Medicinal value of cow urine has been mentioned in the ancient Indian literature but there are less scientific evidences which supports this. Hence, the present study was designed to unfold the protective role of urine from Malnad gidda an indigenous cow breed from Karnataka against paracetamol induced liver damage in Wistar rats. The raw and distilled cow urine samples (3ml/kg and 6ml/kg ,p.o.) from pregnant, lactating and calf were administered orally to rats prior to paracetamol (2g/kg ,p.o.) treatment . A standard drug Silymarin (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was used to evaluate the potency of cow urine.The paracetamol administration significantly elevated the SGOT, SGPT, SALP, LPO, total Bilirubin and reduced the GSH, total protein, and SOD. The pretreatment with cow urine samples has significantly decreased the elevated levels of serum marker enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, SALP), LPO and increasedthe total protein, GSH and SOD in a dose dependant manner.Cow urine also protected the liver histology and normalized liver function as observed by histomorphological study. Therefore, it can be concluded that cow urine possess significant hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced liver damage. The study supports treaditional use of cow urine as an effective remedy for human diseases.




Evaluation of phytochemical composition and In-Vitro antioxidant potential of Ethanolic Extracts of Casuarina littorea L.


Tanay Kumar Saha, Sharif Md. Anisuzzaman*, Md. NurAlam


Department of Pharmacy, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka-1342, Bangladesh 



Photon Ignitor: ISJN91022347D762314032016 


Citation: 

Saha T.K., Anisuzzaman S.M., Alam M.N., 2016. Evaluation of phytochemical composition and In-Vitro antioxidant potential of Ethanolic Extracts of Casuarina littorea L. The Journal of Free Radicals and Antioxidants. Photon 143, 420-425 


Abstract 

The link between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress in the living body is now well known. Besides the endogenous immunity of the body, the exogenous antioxidant supply also helps to boost up the system when imbalance occurs. The aspiration of the present study was therefore to identify the phytochemical constituents and analyze the antioxidant potential of Casuarina littorea L., that is a coastal area plant also cultivated in the inland of Bangladesh. Among the ethanolic extracts, bark extract showed better DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity than root bark extract and leaf extract while the total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic contents and total flavonoid content of the root bark extract were always higher than the other extracts. The results from this study indicate that the root bark and bark extracts of Casuarina littorea L. possesses antioxidant properties and could serve as free radical inhibitors. However, further studies are needed to confirm these extracts as new source of natural antioxidants.


Anam Noor Khan, Poonam Prakash, Mohammad Sikander Dar* 



Department of Chemistry, School of Basic Sciences, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, (Deemed –to be-University) Allahabad-211007, India 



Keywords: Soxhlet extraction, Soaking extraction, leaf extracts, Antioxidant activity, zone of inhibition 


Photon Ignitor: ISJN91022347D804402102015 


Citation: Khan A.N., Prakash P., Dar M.S., 2015. Evaluation of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Chrysanthemum coronarium leaves extract using different extraction methods. The Journal of Free Radicals and Antioxidants. Photon 142, 415-419 


Abstract The present research was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of crude extracts (methanol, acetone and aqueous) of medicinal plant Chrysanthemum coronarium leaves prepared by using different extraction methods. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were determined by using DPPH (1, 1-Diphenyl -2-picryl hydroxyl) radical scavenging method. It was found that the crude extract of aqueous solvent of Chrysanthemum coronarium leaves had significantly highest antioxidant activity as compare to all other crude extracts. All extracts showed lower antioxidant activity compared to ascorbic acid which was used as reference. It was found that the bacteria (S.aureus and P.aeruginosa) were largely inhibited by methanol and acetone extracts where as aqueous extract of Chrysanthemum coronarium showed less inhibition using reference antibacterial drug ampicilin, by agar well diffusion method. The results also showed that the hot (soxhlet) extraction is better than the cold (soaking) extraction method. The present study thus suggested that the use of this medicinal plant may be exploited for health supplement.






Thymoquinone ameliorate testicular toxicity induced by acrylamide in rats


Hossam M. Omara*, Sarry Kh Abdel-Ghafarb,  Imhemed O. Fiedana, Emad A. Ahmeda   


a Physiology Lab., Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt  

b Department of Pathology and Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University,            Assiut, Egypt     


Hossam M. Omar, Sarry Kh Abdel-Ghafar,  Imhemed O. Fiedan and Emad A. Ahmed are conferred with Charles Darwin Research Award-2015 in Free Radicals and Antioxidants by IASR


Keywords: Acrylamide, thymoquinone, rats, testis, testosterone, oxidative stress    


Abbreviations:  ACR: acrylamide, TQ: thymoquinone, SOD: superoxide dismutase, CAT: catalase, NO: nitric oxide, LPO: lipid peroxidation,  MDA: malondialdehyde, GSH: glutathione


Photon Ignitor: ISJN91022347D751427032015


Citation: Omar H.M., Abd-Elghaffar S.Kh., Fiedan I.O., Ahmed E.A., 2015. Thymoquinone ameliorate testicular toxicity induced by acrylamide in rats. The Journal of Free Radicals and Antioxidants. Photon 142, 407-414.


Abstract 

The present study aims to evaluate the role of TQ on the oxidative damage induced by ACR in rat testes. Forty eight adult male albino rats (120-140 g) were divided into four groups (16 rats/ group). Group I, negative control, was drink tape water for 28 days. Group II, positive control, was drink tape water contains ACR (25 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days. Group III, was drink tape water contains ACR (25 mg/kg body weight) and orally administrated with TQ (10 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days. The administration of ACR resulted in elevation in testes MDA and NO levels and significant reduction in the level of GSH and the activity of SOD and CAT. Also, plasma testosterone was significantly elevated in ACR-treated rats as compared with negative control. These biochemical changes were associated with congestion and interstitial edema, necrosis, calcification and degeneration of spermatogenic cells and formation of spermatid gaint cells. Co-treatment with TQ ameliorates these biochemical and histological changes. In conclusion, supplementation with TQ as antioxidant may offer protection against ACR induced testicular toxicity.




Co–Adminisration of Ascorbic acid and Alpha-Tocopherol Ameliorate Oxidative Stress Parameters of Rams Transported by Road for Eight Hours


Adenkola Adeshina Yahaya*, Onyeberechi A.S.   


Department of Physiology Pharmacology and Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria     


Adenkola Adeshina Yahaya and Onyeberechi A.S. receive Hans Adolf Krebs Research Award-2015 in Biochemistry


Keywords: Ascorbic acid, Alpha-Tocopherol, Oxidative Parameters, Rams, Road transportation


Photon Ignitor: ISJN91022347D743217032015


Citation: Yahaya A.A., Onyeberechi A.S, 2015. Co – Adminisration of Ascorbic acid and Alpha - Tocopherol Ameliorate Oxidative Stress Parameters of Rams Transported by Road for Eight Hours. The Journal of Free Radicals and Antioxidants. Photon 142, 399-406.


Abstract 

Road transportation exposes animals to unfamiliar environment with concurrent environmental stress, which elicit a stress response and cause increase in free radicals generation. This study was designed to investigate the effect of administration of combination of ascorbic acid + alpha- tocopherol and ascorbic acid alone on oxidative stress parameters of rams transported by road for eight hours. On the day of transportation, 7 rams (Group 1) were individually administered with ascorbic acid at the dose of 250 mg/kg dissolved in 10 ml of water and also alpha-tocopherol at the dose of 75 mg/kg, per os while another 7 rams (Group 2) was administered individually with ascorbic acid (250 mg/kg) only. The 3rd group (7 rams) was the control, and they were administered with only 10 ml of sterile water. Blood samples (5 ml) were taken in the morning a day before transportation, I h, 8 h journey time and 3 days post-transportation for full blood count and the harvested serum for analysis of oxidative parameters. In conclusion this study indicated that eight hours road transportation of ram is a source of stress and co-administration of ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol ameliorate oxidative stress parameters due to synergistic effect.



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