The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine

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The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine, Impact Index: 6.38, ISJN: 6642-3194, Imprint: Photon, Category: Peer Reviewed Indexed International Journal


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Mind-altering Plants In Maharashtra (India): Biodiversity And Origin 

Dinkarrao Patil 

Post-Graduate Department of Botany, S.S.V.P.Sanstha’s L.K. Dr.P.R.Ghogrey Science College, Dhule-424005 (M.S.) India 

Keywords: Psychoactive plants, Hallucinogens, Biodiversity, Maharashtra 

Corresponding Author: Dr. Dinkarrao Patil 

Former Professor & Principal 

Abstract 

The plant kingdom is a thesaurus of biodynamic chemical constituents. One such group of plant species yielding biodynamic constituents is psychoactive (mind-altering) plants. “Poor representation of this group of plant from the Old World” is an opinion expressed by LaBare (1970). This made the present author to inventories in the state of Maharashtra (India). Ancient Indian literature and also recent ones are replete with references to mind-altering visà-vis psychoactive plants. The information on this line was needed collating in an inventory. This inventory revealed total 210 psychoactive plant species belonging to angiosperms and few pteridophytes and gymnosperms, of which 59 species are exotic. This part of India has fairly a rich heritage of psychoactive plants. There is still much to be learned from primitive Indian societies and ancient records. 

Citation: Dinkarrao Patil, 2019. Mind-altering Plants In Maharashtra (India): Biodiversity And Origin. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 130, 1510-1515 

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Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D880505102019



Himalayan Stinging Nettle: Rich Source of Protein and Minerals 

Dr. Vasudha Pant Green Hills Trust, Almora, Uttarakhand, India 

Corresponding Author: Dr. Vasudha Pant. 

* Principal Investigator and Secretary 


Keywords: Nettle, protein, amino acids, minerals, health benefits, food supplements, nutraceuticals. 


Abstract 

Realizing the significance of wild growing stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) as a solution to the prevailing malnutrition, this plant was chosen as a subject of study. The experimental material was collected from four different locations in Kumaun region of Uttarakhand and cultivated in 2 replicated plots in the field at Almora. Objective of this study is to explore the nutritional food potential of this wild plant. Nettle has been found to be rich source of protein, calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron. It contained 20 amino acids: arginin, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine, valine, tyrosine, alanine, proline, glycine, tryptophan, aspartic acid and aspargine, Glutamic acid and Glutamine, Cysteine and cystine It means it has all essential amino acids except tryptophan. Other than these, nettle also contained Cu, Mn, Zn and Na. This plant species needs thorough research for its utilization in human health. 


Citation 

Pant V., 2019. Himalayan Stinging Nettle: Rich Source of Protein and Minerals. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 130, 1487-1509 

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Photon Ignitor: ISJN82377516D881131052019




Ethnobotanical Survey of Plants Used For Management of Arthritis In Nyamira North Sub-County of Nyamira County, Kenya 

Wainaina Samuel Murigia,b*, Mbaria James Mucunua , Kanja Laetitia Wakonyua , Onyancha Jared Misongeb 

a Department of Public Health, Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 29053- 00625, Nairobi Kenya 

b Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Mount Kenya University, P.O BOX 01000-342, Thika, Kenya 

Keywords: 

Traditional medical practitioners, Arthritis, Ethnobotanical survey, Nyamira North, Kenya 

Abstract 

Traditional medical practices are common with many Kenyan communities. There is a steady use of herbal remedies to treat arthritis despite increased availability of conventional medicines. Therefore it is of paramount significance to document these plants as a means of preserving cultural knowledge of traditional medicines. This study aimed to identify and document medicinal plants that are used by traditional medical practitioners (TMPs) in Nyamira North Sub-county in Nyamira County. Filed study was carried out in Nyamira North Sub-county. Thirty six TMPs were selected and interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Informational of the plants used was collected and documented. Frequency tables and data triangulation was used to present the collected data. A total of 48 species of medicinal plants belonging to 30 families and covering 38 genera were identified for use in management of arthritis. Thirty plant species were found to have reports of similar use in literature whereas 18 species were being reported for the first time in regard to their use in arthritis. The most common encountered families were Asteraceae (16.67%), Solanaceae (8.33%) and Fabaceae (6.25%). Majority of the growth forms used were shrubs (46%), followed by herbs (31%), trees (15%) and climbers (8%). The root/root backs were the most frequently used plant parts (56%) followed by the leaves (20%), stem bark (14%) and whole plant (8%). The present study identified and documented for the first medicinal plants used to treat arthritis in the study area. It also revealed that eighteen (37.5%) of traditional herbal remedies used to treat arthritis in the study area have not been reported in literature. However, thirty (62.5%) are reported in literature for similar use in other communities. 


Citation 

Wainaina S.M., Mbaria J.M., Kanja L.W., Onyancha J.O., 2019. Ethnobotanical Survey of Plants Used For Management of Arthritis In Nyamira North Sub-County of Nyamira County, Kenya. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 130, 1510-1531 

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Photon Ignitor: ISJN 66423194D895427032019




An Update on Traditional Anticancer Phytochemicals

Seema Kumaria and Nitu Ranib


a Department of Biochemistry and Bioinformatics, Institute of Science, GITAM (Deemed to be University),            Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India 

b UIAS, Chandigarh University, Mohali, Punjab, India


Key Words:

Phytochemicals, anticancer, S-allylcysteine, berberine, diferuloyl methane


Abstract 

Cancer is one of the major cause of mortality every year. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery are most commonly used methods for treatment. There are certain side effects associated with these treatments which include hair loss, suppression of bone marrow, drug resistance, gastrointestinal lesions, neurologic dysfunction and cardiac toxicity. Therefore, the search for new anticancer agents with better efficacy and lesser side effects has been continued. Natural compounds are good sources for the development of new remedies for different diseases. Thus, we have made an approach to discuss certain phytochemicals which may prove as potential anticancer agents with less toxicity and more effectiveness.

Citation:

Kumari S., Rani N., 2019. An Update on Traditional Anticancer Phytochemicals. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 130, 1505-1509

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Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D891206032019






Toxicological and Phytochemical Evaluation of Uvariodendron kirkii

Jacquiline Kisianan Kenanaa*, James Mucunu Mbariaa, Catherine Kaluwa Kaingub, Paul Onyango Okumuc

a Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya

b Department of Veterinary Anatomy and Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya

c Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya

Key Words:

Uvariodendron kirkii, phytochemical screening, acute toxicity, subacute toxicity, LD50, liver and kidney function.

Abbreviations

ALT – alanine aminotransferase

ANOVA – analysis of variance

AST – aspartate aminotransferase

BUN – blood urea and nitrogen

GHS- Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals

H&E – haematoxylin and eosin

MCH – mean corpuscular haemoglobin

MCHC – mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration

MCV – mean corpuscular volume

RBC – red blood cells

WBC – white blood cells


Abstract 

A survey was carried out for the documentation of ethnobotanical uses of sub- tropical medicinal plants occurring wild in Kangra valley of Himachal Pradesh. The indigenous knowledge pertaining to the medicinal use of wild plants was collected through interviewing rural population of study area. A total 27 number of wild plants species were recorded with different use of different plant parts like root, stem, flower, fruits, seeds etc. The paper deals with collection of ethnobotanical information for study area along with collection of specimens for proper identification & preservation. The study will be helpful in the sustainable use and conservation of wild plants besides proving to be a quality tool in plant product based industries. 

Citation:

Kenana J.K., Mbaria J.M., Kaingu C.K., Okumu P.O., 2019. Toxicological and Phytochemical Evaluation of Uvariodendron kirkii. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 130, 1487-1504

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Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D894009012019



Diversity and Utilization Pattern of Economically Important Biodivesity in Great Himalayan National Park of Himachal Pradesh, India

Monika Bodha, S.S. Samanta*, L.M. Tewarib, Vijay Kumara, Om Prakasha

a G.B. Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment & Sustainable Development, Himachal Regional Centre, Mohal – Kullu – 175 126, Himachal Pradesh, India 

b Department of Botany, D. S. B. Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India.

Abbreviations:

IHR: Indian Himalayan Region; N: North; E: East; W: West; S: South, amsl: above mean sea level; m: meter 

Keywords: 

Diversity, distribution, utilization pattern, Great Himalayan National Park, Kullu, Himachal Pradesh, economically important species 

Abstract 

The Indian Himalayan Region, being one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots, is bestowed with rich biodiversity and ethnic communities. Most of the communities of IHR are residing in the remote areas utilize the natural resources to meet their daily requirements. The present paper is an attempt to assess the diversity, distribution and utilization pattern of the economically important species in the Great Himalayan National Park, located in Kullu district of Himachal Pradesh. A total of 432 species of economically important species belonging to 108 families and 280 genera were recorded. Of the total species, 277 species were used as medicine, 103 species wild edible/food, 165 species fodder, 66 species fuel, 11 species fibre, 24 species religious, 11 species timber, 14 species for making agricultural tools and 29 species for miscellaneous purposes. Among the various parts used, leaves of maximum species (158 spp.) were used, followed by whole plant (118 spp.), fruits (57 spp.) and aerial parts (49 spp.). Maximum number of species (262 spp.) were reported in the altitudinal range of, 2500-3500m and decreased with the increasing altitude. Increasing population of human and livestock has posed additional pressure on the forest resources resulting in shortage of resources. Such situation has necessitated to assess the diversity, distribution and status of the economically important species of the area. 

Citation: 

Monika Bodh, S.S. Samant, L.M. Tewari, Vijay Kumar, Om Prakash., 2018. Diversity and Utilization Pattern of Economically Important Biodivesity of Great Himalayan National Park of Himachal Pradesh, India. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 129, 1459-1486

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Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D886918072018



Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used for the treatment of skin diseases by the Tribals of Alirajpur district, Madhya Pradesh, India: A research article

Rajput Nutana Satya Veenab*

a Department of Botany, Government College, Manawar, Dhar, Madhya Pradesh, India.

b Department of Botany, Shaheeed Bheema Nayak Government Post Graduate College, Barwani, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Key Words:

Traditional knowledge; Medicinal Plants; Bhil and Bhilala tribes; Ethnomedicine;

Abstract 

The present paper deals with the medicinal plants used for treating skin diseases by the tribal community of Alirajpur district of Madhya Pradesh in India, a country in South Asia. A total of 26 medicinal plants belonging to 19 families were recorded during the intensive survey and discussion held with the Bhil and Bhilal tribe of the area. 

Citation:

Rajput N., Satya V. 2018. Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used for the treatment of skin diseases by the Tribals of Alirajpur district, Madhya Pradesh, India: A research article. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine, Photon. 129, 1449-1458

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Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D883530042018



EthnobotanicalSurvey of Important Sub-Topical Wild Medicinal Plants of Kangra Valley, Himachal Pradesh

Sonam Kumaria*, Sandeep Sharmab and Shabnamc

a Himalayan Forest Research Institute, Panthaghati, Shimla (Himachal Pradesh) -171013 

b Himalayan Forest Research Institute, Panthaghati, Shimla (Himachal Pradesh) -171013 

c Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla- 171005

Key Words:

Ethnobotanical, Traditional, Medicinal, Wild, Kangra Valley

Abstract 

A survey was carried out for the documentation of ethnobotanical uses of sub- tropical medicinal plants occurring wild in Kangra valley of Himachal Pradesh. The indigenous knowledge pertaining to the medicinal use of wild plants was collected through interviewing rural population of study area. A total 27 number of wild plants species were recorded with different use of different plant parts like root, stem, flower, fruits, seeds etc. The paper deals with collection of ethnobotanical information for study area along with collection of specimens for proper identification & preservation. The study will be helpful in the sustainable use and conservation of wild plants besides proving to be a quality tool in plant product based industries. 

Citation:

Kumari S., Sharma S. and Shabnam, 2018. EthnobotanicalSurvey of Important Sub-Topical Wild Medicinal Plants of Kangra Valley, Himachal Pradesh. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 129, 1442-1448

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Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D831029032018


Ethnobotanical Study of Traditional Medicinal Plants used by Banraji Community in Uttarakhand, West Himalaya, India 

Soni Bisht* & Bhupendra S. Adhikari 

Department of Habitat Ecology, Wildlife Institute of India, PO Box # 18, Chandrabani, Dehradun-248001, India

Keywords- 

Ethnobotanical knowledge; Traditional use; Banraji; Kumaon; Use value 


Abbreviations: 

UV: Use Value, Fic: Informant consensus factor, FL: Fidelity Level, KRI: Knowledge Richness Index, DD: Dermatological Disorder, DP: Dental Problem, EP: Ear Problem, F: Fever, GA: Gastrointestinal Ailment, KP: Kidney Problem, LP: Liver Problem, NP: Nasal Problem, OD: Ophthalmic Disease, RSD: Respiratory System Disorder, SSD: Skeletomuscular System Disorder, TP: Throat Problem. 

Abstract 

Ethnobotanical knowledge plays a significant role in curing various ailments by indigenous people of the Indian Himalayan Region. Traditionally different ethnic groups use plants as a source of medicine. The present study documented the indigenous knowledge and use of 70 (41 families and 64 genera) plants for the treatment of 31 human ailments. The information on traditional use was collected through semi-structured questionnaires and personal interviews. The leaves and roots (23%) were most commonly used plant part followed by bark and latex (13%). The family Asteraceae (14%) followed by Euphorbiaceae (9%), Lamiaceae and Urticaceae (6%) were the dominant families of plants utilized by the community. The study is an attempt to understand the ethnic use of plants as medicine in order to conserve the ethnobotanical knowledge of the Banraji community in Kumaun region of Uttarakhand, India. It requires further research to investigate the efficacy and safety of reported ethnomedicinal plants to treat various ailments. 

Citation: 

Bisht, S., Adhikari, B.S., 2018. Ethnobotanical Study of Traditional Medicinal Plants used by Banraji Community in Uttarakhand, West Himalaya, India. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 129, 1426-1441. 

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Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D880626022018



Diversity, distribution, indigenous uses and conservation of medicinal plants in Shikari Devi Wildlife Sanctuary of Himachal Pradesh, India

Monika Bodha, Sher Singh Samant a, Lalit Mohan Tewari b, Vijay Kumar a

a G. B. Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment & Sustainable Development, Himachal Regional Centre, Mohal – Kullu – 175 126, Himachal Pradesh, India

b Deparment of Botany, D. S. B. Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India

Keywords

Diversity, indigenous uses, native, endemic, Shikari Devi, Himachal Pradesh, Conservation

Abbreviations:

IHR: Indian Himlayan Region; N: North; E: East; m: Meter; amsl: above mean sea level

 Abstract 

Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) is the rich repository of the medicinal plants, which has been utilized by the natives since time immemorial to cure various ailments. The present paper is an attempt to assess the medicinal plants diversity of Shikari Devi Wildlife Sanctuary located in Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh of North Western Himalayas. A total of 208 spp. of medicinal value belonging to 78 families and 157 genera were recorded. Different parts of the plants were utilized, of which leaf (79 spp.) was used in the majority of cases. Of the total species, 108 species were native and 95 non-native. Maximum number of native (95), non-native (86) and near-endemic (51) species were found at an altitudinal range of 1800-2800m. 02 species (Pimpinella acuminata and Angelica glauca) was found endemic to the Indian Himalayan Region. Information on indigenous uses was collected and recorded from the local Vaidyas and local knowledgeable people. Of the total plants, maximum number of species was used for skin diseases (36), followed by wounds (30), cough (25), dysentery (22) and fever (23). Increasing reliability, species preference and extraction for trade from wild, due to demand in the national and international markets, has posed high pressure on these species. In view of rapid depletion of population of this valuable wealth, appropriate management options have been suggested.

Citation:

Bodh M., Samant, S. S.*, Tewari L.M., Kumar V., 2018. Diversity, distribution, indigenous uses and conservation of medicinal plants in Shikari Devi Wildlife Sanctuary of Himachal Pradesh, India. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 129, 1399-1425

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Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D883619022018



Exhaustive efficacy of poly herbal formulation on phagocytosing activity in diabetic patient

Nadeem Mohammad Khana*, Suman Guptab, Ragini Gothalwalc

a Department of Biochemistry & Genetics, Barkatullah University ,Bhopal (M.P.)INDIA 462001

b Department Of Biotechnology & Bioinformatics, Barkatullah University ,Bhopal (M.P.) INDIA 46200

Keywords- 

Poly-herbal formulation, PMNL (polymorphonuclear leucocytes), Immunepotentiating, anti-oxidant, 

Abstract

High blood sugar levels also affect the immune system, placing a diabetic patient at the risk for severe infections and illnesses. One of the major complications of diabetes is weakened immune system, which puts the diabetic person at risk for difficult-to-treat and persistent infections and delayed healing of wounds, specially the feet. Phagocytosis by polymorpho nuclear leucocytes (PMNL) is the first line of defense against any infection. Diabetics are more prone to long lasting infections due to several reasons, most important of them being impaired phagocytosis. We evaluated the change in Phagocytosis activity by using of a poly-herbal formulation on diabetic patients, Subjects were divided into four groups, Group I (NH), were normal healthy subjects, Group II (DI), were diabetics, group III (TTD) were tolbutamide treated diabetic patients, group IV (HFTD), were diabetic patients receiving combination herbal formulation in the, dosage of 5 g. /day for 4 weeks. Result were exciting with prescribed formulation since it was found to be effective in the correction of all parameters related to phagocytosis ,which are found to be disturbed in diabetic patients leading to an array of persistent infection . Encouraging result prompt that the present study could be proved an excellent immunopotiator will be boon for diabetic patients in near future for management of diabetic complication.

Citation:

Khan Md.N., Gupta S., Gothalwal R., 2018. Exhaustive efficacy of poly herbal formulation on phagocytosing activity in diabetic patient. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 129, 1388-1398

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 Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D614014022018



Phytochemicals and Positive Growth Inhibitory Activity of Three Bamboo spp.on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 

Petronila E. Florendo*, Marites R. Raboy, Jessy C. Domingo, Carmela M. Florentino, Germana Gloria V. Molina 

University Research Office, University of Northern Philippines

Keywords: 

Traditional and Alternative Medicine (TAM), Schizostachyum diffusum(S. diffusum),Bambusa spinosa (B. spinosa), Bambusa sp.1; Ilocos Sur, Philippines (I. S., Phils) 

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Citation:

Florendo P.E., Raboy M.R., Domingo J.C., Florentino C.M., and Molina, G.V., 2017. Phytochemicals and Positive Growth Inhibitory Activity of Three Bamboo spp.on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 128, 1378-1387

Abstract 

In the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines, traditional healers in folkloric medicine use the leaves of three bamboo species, Schizostachyum diffusum (Blanco) Merr. Bambusa spinosa, and Bambusa sp.1 to cure skin infections and wounds.Since there are no record of laboratory studies on the medical attributes of the plants, this research was conducted using the leaf extract to determine their phytochemicalsfollowing the test methods in Trease and Evans’ Pharmacognocy, and to determinetheirmicrobialgrowth inhibitory activity using disc diffusion method to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans.Results showed that sterols, alkaloids, triterpenes, saponins, and glycosides are present in the leaves. These phytochemicals could have affected the growth of the three bacteria because their growth waspositively inhibited. With the results, these three bamboo species could be good source of raw material bases in the development of safe, effective, quality but low-priced traditional and complementarymedicine, and in the documentation and conservation of traditional medicine. Determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration, minimal bacterial concentration,and isolation and purification of the active compounds of the leaf extracts are recommended as future undertakings.










Clitoria ternatea (L.) family Fabaceae is a miraculous folk herbal medicinal plant native to tropical Asia is a perennial, twining herbal medicinal plant, has a long tradition of use as a memory enhancer and anxiolytic agent. Various constituents are found in different parts of the plant. The active chemical constituents reported from this plant are tannins, resins, starch, taraxerol, taraxerone, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, proteins, anthocyanins and carbohydrates. In traditional medicine, the plant is used in treatment of jaundice, migraine, throat, eye infections, skin diseases, asthma, swollen joints, earache, eruptions, fever, urinary tract infections, constipation, snake-bites, head-ache, indigestion, leprosy and central nervous system disorders. Its various extracts possess reported number of pharmacological activities such as nootropic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative, anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidative, anti-stress, immunomodulatory, larvicidal, proteolytic, antihelmintic, diuretic, anti-microbial and memory enhancing. The present review is therefore, an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature on its pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, and its traditional uses along with special emphasis given on pharmacological activities.










Nagaur district is situated between 260.25” and 270.40” North latitude and 730.10” and 750.15” East longitude. Studies have been done on identification and exploration of the possibilities of ethnomedicinal sacred plant species of Nagaur district. The role of ethnomedicinal sacred plant species in developing a healthy atmosphere is very desirable in the context of deteriorating environment resulting from increased urbanization, Industrialization and improper environmental management. These plant species are used for their potential to improve the design and development of healthy environment. Hence in the present study aims to investigate the presence of ethnomedicinal sacred plant species of Nagaur district of Rajasthan have been observed i.e. Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa, Anthocephalus Cadamba Miq.,Calotropis procera (Ait.) R.Br., Ficus benghalensis L., Ficus religosa Linn., Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn., Lawsonia inermis L., Mangifera indica L., Saccharum officinale L. and Tagetus erecta Linn. etc. The ethnomedicinal sacred value of the listed plant species and their role to create public awareness.












The major aim of this research is inventorization of sacred groves of Alirajpur district of western Madhya Pradesh in India, a country in South Asia and documentation of threatened plants conserved in them on religious ground. An extensive survey with questionnaire method was followed during 2012-2015. I discovered 14 sacred groves from the area. 303 plant species have been collected, out of them 7 species are critically endangered, 11 are endangered, 43 are vulnerable, 97 are near threatened and 145 are found least concerned. The study provides the floristic picture and status of biodiversity in sacred groves of Alirajpur district of western Madhya Pradesh. Floristic analysis of these climax vegetation is very important for developing natural resource management and conservation idea for fast disappearing plants in near future.


 



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Diversity, distribution pattern and indigenous uses of medicinal plants of Cold Desert Biosphere Reserve in Trans Himalaya 


Lipika Sharmaa, Sher Singh Samanta*, Ashish Kumarb, Deepti Negia, Kaushalya Devia, Manohar Lala, Lalit Mohan Tewaric


a G. B. Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment & Sustainable Development, Himachal Unit, Mohal-Kullu, 175 126, Himachal Pradesh, India

b Govt. Sen. Sec. School, Neri, Distt Mandi, H.P., India 

c Department of Botany, D.S.B. Campus, Kumaun University, Naintal, India 


Keywords: 

Cold Desert, Diversity, Distribution, Indigenous uses, Medicinal plants, Tribal communities, Trans Himalaya 


Abbreviations: 

CDBR: Cold Desert Biosphere Reserve, IHR: Indian Himalayan Region, N: North, E: East, m: Meter, ipni: International Plant Name Index, NGOs: Non Government Organisations, MPCAs: Medicinal Plants Conservation Areas


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Citation: 

Sharma L., Samant S.S.*, Kumar A., Negi D., Devi K., Lal M., Tewari, L.M. 2017. Diversity, distribution pattern and indigenous uses of medicinal plants of Cold Desert Biosphere Reserve in Trans Himalaya. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional medicine. Photon 128, 1320-1345 


Abstract 

The Cold Desert Biosphere Reserve representing Trans Himalayan ecosystem, known for unique medicinal plant wealth which is being utilised by tribal communities for curing various ailments. The tribal communities have rich indigenous knowledge base and traditional practices but require proper documentation for their long time conservation. Considering, the importance of invaluable medicinal plant wealth and disappearing traditional knowledge, an attempt has been made to; i) assess the medicinal plant diversity; (ii) analyse nativity and endemism; (iii) document indigenous uses and traditional practices; and (iv) suggest strategy for the conservation and management. Total 331 medicinal plants representing trees, shrubs, herbs and ferns were recorded. Various parts namely, whole plants, aerial parts, leaves, flowers, fruits, roots, etc. were used by tribal communities for curing various ailments. Out of total, 157 species were native to Himalayan region and 9 species were endemic to Indian Himalayan region. Over utilization of these species may result in local extinction, which signifies critical need for their proper utilization and conservation. For the long-term conservation of these species, studies on habitat ecology, development of conventional and in vitro propagation protocols; introduction in the natural habitats; education and awareness programs for the tribal communities have been suggested.





An Ethnobotanical study and Applications of Medicinal Plants by the Local People of Basukedar Himalaya of Rudrprayag, Uttarakhand, India 


Pradeep Kumar Bhandari*, Akshay Mamgain, P.L. Uniyal 


University of Delhi, Department of Botany, Delhi-110007, India 


Keywords: 

Garhwal, Local knowledge, Ethno-medicines, Medicinal resources and Conservation 


Abbreviations: 

WHO: World Health Organization, BSD: Botanical Survey of India Dehardun, GUH: HNB Garhwal University Srinagar, GPS: Global Positioning System


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Citation: 

Bhandari P.K., Mamgain A., Uniyal P.L., 2017. An Ethnobotanical study and Applications of Medicinal Plants by the Local People of Basukedar Himalaya of Rudrprayag, Uttarakhand, India. Photon 128, 1305-1319


Abstract 

The present study is focused on availability of medicinal plant species and their application by local people. Several ethno-botanical surveys were conducted during 2014-15. Open informal interrogation was conducted with local indigenous people and collected authentic information of local used plants of that region. By reporting 97 plant species that belongs to 54 families, among them, 50 were of angiosperms, gymnosperms (2) and pteridophytes (2). Out of total plant species studied, (65) monocot, (28) dicot and 4 were pteridophytes. Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Rosaceae (6 species) with highest medicinal plant diversity. Life forms of surveyed plant species were of herbs with major used plant (57%), trees (26%), shrubs (12%), climbers (4%) and epiphytes (1%). There were of 19 categories of plant’s part used against various ailments; leaves were frequently used parts (29%), root(11%), seed, stem bark(10%), whole plant, stem(8%), Epicarp (4%), latex, fruit, rhizome(3%), bud, pulp, endocarp, frond, flower, seed pod(2%) and mesocarp, gum, seed pod(1%). Ethno-status of medicinal plants was based on availability of plant species in various localities of study area; Not-concerned plants were most common (81%), rare (10%), least concerned (6%), and threatened, near-threatened, endangered (1%).





Traditional knowledge related to ethnomedicinal plants in human health perspective 


Ramsankar Basu* 


Saltora Netaji Centenary College, Saltora 722158, West Bengal, India 


Keywords: 

Tribe, Traditional knowledge, Conservation, Biodiversity 


All Rights Reserved with Photon. Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D853908042017 


Citation: 

Ramsankar Basu, 2017. Traditional knowledge related to ethnomedicinal plants in human health perspective. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 128, 1297-1304 


Abstract 

Ethnobotanical exploration has done by the author in two westernmost districts, Puruliya and Bankura, of the state of West Bengal in India since 1990. During field study, 200 plants were marked for ethnomedicine, which are traditionally used by the tribe for health care. Whereupon are, herbs uprooted, barks of trees scratched off, mucilage from cortex scooped out, tubers, rootstocks, rhizomes and bulbs delved out regularly by the tribe in exchange of little prices from traders. There must be immediate effort to ensure conservation of these ethnomedicinal heritage resources. Regular field trips were carried out in jungle and forested areas where the tribes live. It has resulted herbs 84, shrubs 27, trees 62, climbers 24, lianas 02 and parasite 01. 20% of them are regularly sold in market for human health medicament. The rich resources are disappearing at an alarming rate due to over exploitation. There is an unregulated trade in medicinal plants. Awareness should be taken on inclusion of medicinal plants as forest resource in forest conservation and utilization programme. This field study produce impact upon tribal and forest interaction on the one hand and tribal and traders’ intellection on the other.





Assessment and Evaluation of Traded Medicinal Plants Sold In Local Market for The Socio Economic Development In District Swat 


A. Ali*, L. Ansari, A. Saleem, R. Qureshi 



L. Ansari, Lecturer in Forestry & Range Management.


R. Qureshi ,  Vice President of Pakistan Botanical Society.




A. AliSub divisional Forest Officer (SDFO).


 


A. Saleem, Assistant Professor.

Medicinal Plants, Swat district, Local community, Diseases, Disorders, Treatment 


All Rights Reserved with Photon. Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D848706042017 


Citation:

A. Ali*, L. Ansari, A. Saleem, R. Qureshi, 2017. Assessment and Evaluation of Traded Medicinal Plants Sold In Local Market for The Socio Economic Development In District Swat. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 128, 1291-1296


Abstract 

The planet earth is full of natural resources gifted by Allah Almighty. Forests comprising of millions of plants and trees are one of such natural resources. Plants dwelling and residing these forests play a great role and have been very useful to human in many aspects. They are used as food, as shelter and also have medicinal value. Their utility and services to man cannot be neglected or ignored. The oxygen we used to inhale each and every moment is the product of these plants. The clean drinking water, improved environment, aesthetic beauty and increase in the life span of our water reservoirs and dams are some of the major services provided to man by the plants. They are edible and are used as food as well as used as or in medicines for various ailments. The diseases go side by side with the human beings and the man is trying every time to find out the methods and sources to cure them. Medicinal plants; A gift of Allah Almighty plays a huge vital role in this regard. The study was conducted with the objectives of to explore, enlist and document the medicinal plants collected, used and sold by the local community; to assess the marketing potential and economic importance of medicinal plants in the area and to evaluate the contribution of medicinal plants in socio economic development of the local community. Data was analyzed statistically by using Statistics version 8.1 and MS Excel.

 




Acute and 28-day repeated oral toxicological evaluation of Kuruthi azhal chooranam a polyherbal Siddha preparation in rodents 


L.K. Thiyagarajana*, V. Gayathrib, M. Sugumarb, V. Ranjub, S. Sathiyab, G. Ramakrishnanb, C.S. Babub


a Department of Maruthuvam, National Institute of Siddha, Chennai-600 047, Tamil Nadu, India 

b Centre for Toxicology and Developmental Research (CEFT), Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai –      600 116, Tamil Nadu, India


Keywords: 

Kuruthi azhal chooranam, hypertension, secondary metabolites, toxicity 


Abbreviations: 

KAC: Kuruthi azhal chooranam, NOAEL: No observed adverse effect level, mg: milligram, kg: kilogram, SD: Sprague dawley


All Rights Reserved with Photon. Photon Ignitor: ISJN166423194D786631032017 


Citation: 

Thiyagarajan L.K., Gayathri V., Sugumar M., Ranju V., Sathiya S., Ramakrishnan G., Babu C.S. 2017. Acute and 28-day repeated oral toxicological evaluation of Kuruthi azhal chooranam a polyherbal Siddha preparation in rodents. The journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 128, 1281-1290 


Abstract 

Purpose: Present study was designed to determine the phytochemical constituents of Kuruthi azhal chooranam (KAC) and its acute and 28-day repeated oral toxicity. Materials/Methods: Phytochemical analysis was carried using standard protocols. Acute toxicity was conducted by administering KAC at 2000mg/kg as per OECD test guideline 423. In 28-day repeated oral toxicity, rats were orally administered with KAC at 3 dose levels (600, 900 and 1200 mg/kg/day) and observed as per OECD test guideline 407. Results: Qualitative analysis reveals the presence of complex phytoconstituents like phenol, tannins, saponins, glycosides, alkaloids, quinines, anthraquinones and flavonoids. Antioxidant vitamins like C and D was also found to be in appreciable quantity. KAC at 2000mg/kg produced no treatment related toxic signs or mortality during the study. In 28-day repeated toxicity, no significant differences in body weight, haematological, electrolyte and biochemical parameters were observed between control and KAC rats. Relative organs weights, gross pathology and histopathological examination revealed no abnormalities with KAC treatment. Conclusion: Results of the present study suggest that LD50 of KAC >2000mg/kg and NOAEL >1200mg/kg/day in rats. The data also provided satisfactory preclinical evidence on its oral safety to support its use as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of hypertension.




Herbal remedies of diabetes and high blood pressure in Thoubal District of Manipur in North East India 


O. Gangarani Devia*, T. Chand Singha, O. Ibeton Devia, E. J. Singhb, L. Dinendra Sharmac, L. Binod Singhd, Kh. Ujala Devie, A. Shyam Singhd 


a Institutional Biotech Hub Waikhom Mani Girls’ College, Thoubal Okram-795138, Manipur, India. b Post graduate Department of Botany, D.M. College of Science, Imphal, Manipur, India

c Biotech-Hub Pravabati college, Mayang Imphal, Manipur, India 

d Bioteh-Hub Mayai Lambi college, Manipur, India 

e Biotech-Hub Presidency college, Senapati, Manipur, India 


Keywords: 

Ethnic communities, traditional knowledge, diabetes 


All Rights Reserved with Photon. Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D825325012017 


Citation: 

Devi O.G., Singh T.C., Devi O.I., Singh E.J., Sharma L.D., Singh L.B., Devi K.U., Singh A.S., 2017. Herbal remedies of diabetes and high blood pressure in Thoubal District of Manipur in North East India. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 128, 1275-1280 


Abstract 

The ethnic communities of Thoubal district in Manipur uses various plants for treating various diseases that are inherited from the forefathers through oral folklores. An attempt has been made to document the precious traditional knowledge about 69 plant species in treating diabetes and high blood pressure by different ethnic communities in the district.




GC- MS Analysis of Croton tiglium L. leaves: A fish poisoning plant Used Among Tribes of Arunachal Pradesh, India 


Temin Payum* 


Jawaharlal Nehru College, Pasighat, Arunachal Pradesh, India 


Keywords: 

Fish, Poison, Tribal People, Phyto-constituents, Tradition 


 Abbreviations: 

GCMS: Gas Chromatography Mass Spectometry, C. tiglium: Croton tiglium 


All Rights Reserved with Photon. Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D848227122016 


Citation: 

Payum T.*, 2016. GC- MS Analysis of Croton tiglium L. leaves: A fish poisoning plant Used Among Tribes of Arunachal Pradesh, India. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 127, 1267-1274 


Abstract 

Fish is an important food for tribal people of Arunachal Pradesh and they practice various traditional techniques and methods to collect fish from river and streams. Diversion of Main River and poisoning of fish by using plant is one of the widely traditional fishing practices. Croton tiglium L. is widely used in fish poisoning by the tribal people of Arunachal Pradesh, India. The study was carried out to find out the phytoconstituents of C. tiglium shoot. Ethanolic extract of C.tiglium was subjected to GC-MS to study the Phyto-constituents. The study shows the presence of 41 compounds. Glycoside, Phenolic, Palmitic acid, Terpene alcohol, Polyenoic fatty acid, Phytol ester and Phytoesterol are the major group of compounds present in the sample. Numbers of compounds present in this herb is antioxidants, anti-tumour and anti-inflammatory. Present work advances the phytoconstituents of this fish poisoning plant. However, as many as ten compounds present in the sample could not be related to any kind of biological activity; there is need of further studies on the isolation of active compounds and extraction dose to water volume studies that may reveal the actual concentration required to poison a fish.



 


Comparative Haematopoietic Effect of Ascorbic Acid and Aqueous Extract of Psidium Guajava Leaves in Male Rats 


Friday E. Uboh*, Saviour Ufot, Eve Mboso 


Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, P.M.B.1115, Calabar, Nigeria 


Keywords: 

Psidium guajava, ascorbic acid, haematopoietic potential, phytochemicals Abbreviations: Hb: Haemoglobin, PCV: packed cell volume, RBC: red blood cell, WBC: white blood cell 


All Rights Reserved with Photon. Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D660319122016 


Citation: 

Uboh F.E.*, Ufot S., Mboso E., 2016. Comparative Haematopoietic Effect of Ascorbic Acid and Aqueous Extract of Psidium Guajava Leaves in Male Rats. Photon 127, 1261-1266 


Abstract

The comparative haematopoietic potential of vitamin C and aqueous extract of P. guajava leaves (AEPGL) was investigated in rats. The study was carried out in Biochemistry Department, University of Calabar, Nigeria. Twenty one rats used in this study were randomly divided into three groups, with seven rats each. The rats in Group1 (i.e., control) received distilled water as placebo, while the remaining 2 experimental groups were respectively gavaged with 200 and 600mg/kg body weight of vitamin C and AEPGL, respectively, daily for 30 days. Phytochemical analysis of the extract indicated the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, reducing compounds. The results showed that both vit C and AEPGL produced a significant increase (p<0.05) in PCV, Hb concentration, RBC and WBC counts, as well as neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes differential counts, compared respectively with the control. These results support the haematopoietic potentials of vitamin C and the extract, and that the haematopoietic potential of AEPGL is higher than that of vitamin C. The results of this study therefore give credence to the traditional use of P. guajava leaves in the treatment of anaemia



Life style of Lepcha tribe in Sikkim: Case Study 


Bishnu K Sharmaa, Meena Sharmab


a School of Studies in Botany, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, 474011, India 

b KRG Autonomous Girls College, Gwalior, (M.P.), 474011, India 


Keywords: 

Lepcha, Population, Sikkim and Tribes 



Citation: 

Sharma M.*, Sharma B.K., 2016. Life style of Lepcha tribe in Sikkim: Case Study. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 127, 1255-1260 


Abstract 

Sikkim, the 22nd state of the India located in the Southern Mountain Range of eastern Himalayas between Northern latitudes 27°04′45″ to 28°07′45 ″ N and 88° 00′ 45″ E to 88 ° 35′ 15″ E longitudes. This paper discussed the life style of Lepcha tribe in Sikkim with the relation of their traditional belief. They are of native since have no recorded history of migration. The language of Lepcha belongs to the Himalayan group of the Tibeto-Burman language family. Lepcha villagers consider the Buddhist religion to be an important element of their religious identity; there are voiced concerns that Buddhism is eroding aspects of the Lepcha cultural heritage. The number of Lepcha ritual specialists (mun and bongthing) is decreasing and there is a strong belief among the community that this is connected to Buddhist beliefs.




Nutritional and therapeutic efficacy of Stinging Nettle- A review 


Vasudha Panta, R.C. Sundriyalb


a Kranti Kutir, Poorvi Pokharkhali, Almora-263643, Uttarakhand, India 

b G.B. Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment & Sustainable Development, Kosi-Kataramal, Almora- 263643, Uttarakhand, India 


Keywords: 

Nutrients, minerals, vitamins, food and nutritional supplement, health benefits, future applications 


All Rights Reserved with Photon. Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D841314092016 


Citation: 

Pant V., Sundriyal R.C.*, 2016. Nutritional and therapeutic efficacy of Stinging Nettle- A review. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 126, 1240-1254 


Abstract 

Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.; family Urticaceae) is widely used species by traditional societies in temperate and tropical Asia, Europe, northern America and northern Africa. Based on literature search this paper aims to evaluate efficacy of stinging nettle concerning to ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology and other ethnobotanical uses. As food the species has nutritional and immunity modulating benefits. It has shown positive applicability for treating various ailments, such as BPH, diabetes, anemia, asthma, blood pressure, kidney problem, cancer, etc.; although these claims are based on different doses, nettle type and duration of intervention, and at times results have some inconsistency. As future prospects there is a need to take-up more coordinated researches and validation studies so that applicability of nettle could be established properly against various diseases. Also, proper quality control as well as toxicological investigations is required to guarantee the stability and safety of the clinical uses. The study however highlights that stinging nettle is characterized by considerable dietary and health-maintaining qualities and has strong potential for food and therapeutic purposes.




Traditional Medicinal Flora and Traditional Trust of Herbal Therapy in Pipalkhunt Forest Range of Southern Rajasthan (India) 


Choudhary Lalita, Bharadwaj Seemab*


a Leo College Dangpada, Banswara 327001, Rajasthan, India 

b HDJ Govt. Girls P.G College, Banswara 327001, Rajasthan, India 


Keywords: 

Phytotherapy, Ethnic, Ethnomedicinal plants, Traditional knowledge 


All Rights Reserved with Photon. Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D796423082016 


Citation: 

Choudhary L., Bharadwaj S.*, 2016. Traditional Medicinal Flora and Traditional Trust of Herbal Therapy in Pipalkhunt Forest Range of Southern Rajasthan (India). The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 126, 1231-1239 


Abstract 

Present study was conducted to find out some phytotherapy practices in tribal villages of Pipalkhunt forest range on hills of Aravali in Southern Rajasthan (India). Bheel, Meena, Garasia and Damor are the main tribes of this ethnic belt. Informations were collected through field observations, structured interviews and discussions with herbal healers, knowledgeable elders and some patients. For this quantitative study of 20 field trips were conducted in ethnic villages of Pipalkhunt forest range during June 2014 to June 2015. Present study highlights 50 traditional medicinal flora and its related ethnomedicinal informations of this tribal belt. An abundance traditional medicinal flora and its informations are also present in the study area therefore molecular and analytical studies of ethnomedicinal plants are needful for future planning. There is a need of proper documentation of medicinal plants in these tribal villages because no proper documentation has been done till now in these study villages.



Documentation of Ethnoveterinary Plants for the Treatment of Different Cattle and Buffalo Ailments in Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan 


Dr. Amjad Hussain Mirania, Nasreen Akhtara, Mohammad Ghiasuddin Shaha, Akeel Ahmed Memona, Ahmed Sultan Jatoib 


a Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan 

b Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University of Vet. & Animal Sciences, Sakrand, Pakistan 


Keywords: Ethnoveterinary, medicinal plants, cattle buffaloes, Tharparkar 


All Rights Reserved with Photon. Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D835419072016 


Citation: Dr. Mirani A.H., Akhtar N., Shah M.G., Memon A.A., Jatoi A.S., 2016. Documentation of Ethnoveterinary Plants for the Treatment of Different Cattle and Buffalo Ailments in Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 120, 1219-1230 


Abstract Background: People of Tharparkar (part of desert in Sindh Province) have rich heritage of indigenous knowledge and often relies on traditional methods to manage health problems of their animals. Therefore present study was conducted to document the usage of medicinal plants, their preparation and application methods for the treatment of different ailments in this area. Methods: Semi-structural interviews, observations and focus group discussions were used to generate ethnoveterinary data. Observations were made to document the type of herb used against particular disease, dosage, route of drug administration and drug preparation. Results: A total of 35 plants species of veterinary importance (representing 24 botanical families) were recorded against 15 common ailments/conditions. The most frequently conveyed plants in the study area were Brassica campestris, Capparis deciduas, Trachyspermum ammi, Plantago lanceolata, Capsicum annuum, Phoenix dactylifera, Nicotiana tabacum and Azadirachta indica. Apiaceae followed by Fabaceae were the widely used botanical family of the plants. Seeds, leaves, fruits, rhizomes, bulbs, latex and husk were reported as frequently used plant parts. The common route of drug administration was oral followed by topical application. Pulverization and decoctions were reported as common methods of drug preparation. Conclusion: Plants are the frequently used ingredients in the preparation of traditional remedies. Farmers in the study area used the reported medicinal plants in different health problems of cattle and buffaloes for treatment. Study suggests that the reported plant species may be subjected to scientific validation in order to recommend effective preparations and treatments.






Evaluation of teratogenic effects of orally administered Fenugreek aqueous extract in pregnant rats 


Hind Brogi, Najat EL Amrani, Siham Amsaguine, Driss Radallah* 


Laboratory of Biology and health, Research Unit Associate CNRST - URAC 34, Faculty of Sciences Ben M’Sik, Hassan II-Casablanca University, Casablanca, Morocco 


Keywords: Fenugreek seeds, gestation, teratogenic effects, weight gain, hydrocephalus


All Rights Reserved with Photon. Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D838109072016 


Citation: 

Brogi H., Najat EL A., Amsaguine S., Driss R.*, 2016. Evaluation of teratogenic effects of orally administered Fenugreek aqueous extract in pregnant rats. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 126, 1210-1218 


Abstract 

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L) plays a very important role in the culinary and healing traditions among the majority of people in developing countries, such as Morocco. However, health risks due to ignorance of this plant and the lack of mastery of a defined dosage encourage awareness of the dangers to the consumption of seeds of this plant, especially in pregnant women. The aim of our study was to assess the teratogenic effect of the aqueous extract of fenugreek seeds used in traditional Moroccan pharmacopoeia in two groups of female Wistar rats receiving 450 and 900 mg/kg/day, respectively until parturition. Our results showed that the aqueous extract of fenugreek seeds increased the body weight of pregnant rats and the neonatal mortality rates among their offspring. An interesting fact was observed among newborns exposed daily to the aqueous extract of fenugreek, it is a case of hydrocephalus characterized by a large head and an abundant amount of cerebrospinal fluid. This is the first time such a birth defect is reported by animal testing, in conjunction with the ingestion of fenugreek seeds. Thus, our results highlight the consumption risk of fenugreek seeds during pregnancy and the importance of advocacy for the benefit of young mothers into the excessive use of the seeds of this plant in the Moroccan traditional medicines.








Medicinal Uses of Formononetin- A review 


Mr. Vaithiyalingam Jagannathan Vishnuvathan*a, Dr. Karunanidhi. Santhana Lakshmia, Dr. Ammayappan Rajam Srividyab 


a Department of Pharmacy, SRM college of Pharmacy SRM University Kattankulathur campus Kanchipuram 603203 Tamilnadu India 

b Department of pharmaceutical biotechnology JSS college of Pharmacy, Rocklands Ooty Tamilnadu 643001 


Keywords: 

Formononetin, antimicrobial, antioxidant, Alzheimer’s disease, antilipidemic, antidiabetic, antitumor Abbreviations: AP-1 DNA - AP-1 transcription factor- DNA binding site, HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line, PPAR-α - Peroxisome Proliferator—Activated Receptor, AST - Aspartate aminotransferase, Bcl-2 and Bcl-x B-cell lymphoma-extra large proteins, NAG-1 - Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1, ER-α – Estrogen receptor alpha, GPER - G protein coupled estrogen receptor, PI3K/Akt serine/threonine kinase Akt (also known as protein kinase B or PKB), cAMP/PKA.CREB Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) element-binding protein, CREB, LNCaP- human prostatic adenocarcinoma cell line, MAPK to mitogen activated protein kinase, NSCLC- non- small cell lung cancer, bFGF- basic fibroblast growth factors, TGF-β- transforming growth factors- β, PDGF- platelets derived growth factors. APOA5 gene region on plasma HDL-C, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) ACO - acyl-CoA oxidase. CPT-1- Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I . Fas- an important cell surface receptor protein of the TNF receptor family known also as CD95, that induces apoptosis on binding Fas ligand. (SREBF1) - Sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1


All Rights Reserved with Photon. 

Photon Ignitor: ISJN 66423194D836001072016 


Citation: 

Vishnuvathan V.J.*, Lakshmi K.S., Srividya A.R., 2016. Medicinal Uses of Formononetin- A review. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 126, 1197-1209 


Abstract 

Formononetin is a naturally occurring isoflavone, which can be found in low concentrations in many dietary products, which belongs to the family Fabaceae. Chemical name of formononetin is Biochanin B; and its IUPAC name is 7-Hydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone; 7-hydroxy-3-(4- methoxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one. Its molecular formula is C16H12O4. Its molecular weight is 268.26408 g/mol. Formononetin has been proven to show antimicrobial activity towards Giardia lamblia. It acts as an antioxidant and as a neuroprotective agent in Alzheimer’s disease. It also possess early fracture healing potential, cardio protective activity, antilipidemic properties, antidiabetic, antitumor and Neuroprotective activity, It possess anticancer activity in lung cancer, colorectal cancer and prostate cancer. Even though formononetin shows different pharmacological actions, for many studies, mechanism of action has not yet been established. Especially in case of different anticancer activity. Mechanism of action of formononetin in various diseased conditions will help us to find the drug target which in turn helps us to design the formulations to reach the target effectively.



 

J.D. Hooker Research Award-2016 in Traditional Medicine






Ethnic differences in use, phytochemical screening and non-poisonous leaves of Phyllanthus amarus (Schum & Thonn.) in North of Benin 


Yves Yatindo Boko-Hayaa*, Christine Ouinsavia, Alban Houngbemeb, Fernand Gbaguidib



a Forestries Research and Studies Laboratory, Agronomy Faculty of Parakou University, BP 123 Parakou/ Benin

b Pharmacognosy Laboratory/ Traditional Pharmacopeia and Medicinal Testing Research Institute / Technical and Scientific Research Beninese Center, 01 BP 06 Oganla, Porto-Novo/Benin 


Keywords: Ethnobotanical, phytochemical screening, toxicity, Phyllanthus amarus, North of Benin 


Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D835911062016 


Citation: Boko-Haya Y.Y., Ouinsavi A.I.N. Christine., Houngbeme A. Gbaguidi A.F., 2016. Ethnic differences in use, phytochemical screening and non-poisonous leaves of Phyllanthus amarus (Schum & Thonn.) in North of Benin. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 126, 1185-1196 


Abstract 

This study was to evaluate the traditional medicinal use of Phyllanthus amarus in Northern of Benin among three majority ethnic groups and process to phytochemical and toxicological analyses of leaves from three provenances. A semi structured questionnaire was addressed to the questioned people. Accompanied with a translator, the questions are individuals after having presented if necessary a sample of the species. Collected data are ethnobotanical regarding inner knowledge of different sociocultural groups of the study zone on what they use Phyllanthus amarus organs for. Ethnobanical surveys reveal that the IE values indicate the knowledge about Phyllanthus amarus are distributed in a uniform way among Bariba and Otamari. Peulh use Phyllanthus amarus for its food and veterinary properties, the Bariba for esoteric and fertilizing properties and the Otamari for its medicinal properties. The watery extract of Phyllanthus amarus leaves contains big families of chemical groups (alkaloids, tannins, anthocyanin, mucilage, heterosids, etc.) whose number and nature vary according ecological stations. As far as the toxicity study based on larvas survival is concerned, the watery and ethanolic extract of the leaves present a LC50 superior to 0.1 mg/ml no matter what the provenance of the plant is, they are non-toxic on the human cells.

 



Search for Cheaper Treatment of Typhoidal and Non Typhoidal Salmonella Infections from Abutilon hirtum (Florida keys) Crude Extract and Fractions


Dawang Noel Denaana*, Onwuliri Festusa, Lar Patriciab


a Department of Plant Science and Technology, Applied Microbiology Unit, University of Jos, Nigeria 

b Department of Microbiology, University of Jos, Nigeria 


Keywords: Typhoidal, non typhoidal Salmonella, cheaper treatment, Abutilon hirtum 


Abbreviations: AF2: Abutilon hirtum fraction 2, AF9: Abutilon hirtum fraction 9, EtoAC: Ethyl acetate, MeOH-Methanol, DMSO: Dimethyl sulphuoxide


Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D828311052016 


Citation: 

Dawang D.N.*, Festus O., Patricia L., 2016. Search for Cheaper Treatment of Typhoidal and Non Typhoidal Salmonella Infections from Abutilon hirtum (Florida keys) Crude Extract and Fractions. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 126, 1176-1184 



Abstract 

A typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella infection is a worldwide issue and a challenge in medical delivery system making treatment costly. Therefore, the aim of this research is to screen the anti-salmonella activity of Abutilon hirtum. Serotyped clinical Salmonella isolates were screened for their susceptibility to Abutilon hirtum crude extract by Agar Well Diffusion Method. Twelve (93%) isolates were susceptible at the concentration of 200mg/ml while 9(69%) at 100mg/ml. The Micro Well Dilution Method was used to determine the MICs of the plant fractions. The both fractions AF2 and AF9 had MICs within the range of 75µg/ml and 300µg/ml and 150µg/ml and 300µg/ml respectively. The MBC of the two fractions, AF2 and AF9 was between 300µg/ml and 600µg/ml and showed bactericidal effect against most of the Salmonella isolates comparably with Pefloxacin. Thus, the use of this plant in treatment of typhoidal and non-typhoidal infections is justified and it can be cost effective.









This paper highlights Sanskrit plant names analysed on philological and ethnobiological grounds. It includes 40 plant species belonging to 40 genera under 31 families. Sanskrit names are coined on different bases such as colour of flowers, fruits and seeds, size of fruits, length and number of plant parts, shape of leaves, odour, smell and taste of plant parts, certain morphological features, animal organs, medicinal utility and edibility, inconvenience to mankind, phylogeny, phenology, habitat, mode of plant life and symbiotic association of insects with plants, similar plant parts, plant behavior, religious uses and utility to wild animals. Sanskrit is not used largely in scientific literature, except Ayurveda. It is a pristine language. This attempt showed that the language has good potentiality for its employability in scientific endeavor. It is hoped that philological studies in future will certainly divulge many other aspects of science and life of mankind in ancient past. 







Traditional knowledge on antimalarial plants having analgesic properties, used in Togo Maritime Region 


A. Dénoua*, K. Koudouvob, A. Togolaa, K.Y. Aziatib, J. Essehb, C.A. Ajavonb, K. Essienb, K. Aklikokoub, R. Sanogoa, D. Dialloa, M. Gbeassorb 


a Department of Traditional Medicine, University of Bamako, Mali 

b Faculty of Sciences, University of Lome, Togo 



Keywords: 

Traditional knowledge, antimalarial plants, analgesic properties, ATRM method, Togo 


Abbreviations: 

ATRM: Achat en Triplet de Recettes Medicinales (Triplicate Purchase of Medicinal Recipes) SSI: Semi-Structured Interviews WHO: World Health Organization AUF: Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie (Universal Agency of Francophony) 


Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D821406042016 


Citation: Dénou A.*, Koudouvo K., Togola A., Aziati K.Y., Esseh J., Ajavon C.A., Essien K., Aklikokou K., Sanogo R., Diallo D., Gbeassor M., 2016. Traditional knowledge on antimalarial plants having analgesic properties, used in Togo Maritime Region. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 126, 1160-1170


Abstract 

In Togo, malaria remains a major public health preoccupation. Togo Maritime Region possesses an important floristic biodiversity and indigenous people have an old tradition of using antimalarial plants. This has been handed from generation to generation. Nowadays a new ethnobotanical method called «Achat en Triplet de Recettes Médicinales: ATRM» (Triplicate Purchase of Medicinal Recipes) was also established there. Data were collected by using ATRM and semi-structured interviews (SSI) methods. Sixty six traditional medicine practitioners were interviewed. A total of 86 plant species belonging to 72 genera and 37 families were recorded. The most represented families were Fabaceae, Malvaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Rutaceae. Cymbopogon citratus, Hibiscus surattensis and Dichapetalum madagascariense were the most cited plants. Allium sativum, Allium cepa, Manihot glasiovii, Musa acuminata and Vitellaria paradoxa were cited for the first time as antimalarial plant in Togo. The main mode of preparation of plant recipes was decoction (77, 29%) and administration was essentially by oral route (89%). Some species were threatened in their biotope due to traditional medicine over-use.This study revealed that Togo Maritime Region traditional medicine practitioners have a good knowledge of antimalarial plants having analgesic properties. Some of these plants could be tested for in vitro analgesic activity.





Traditional Use of Weeds of Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir State, India


Sonam Wangmoa*, S.C. Garkoti


School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi- 110067, India 



Keywords: 

Ladakh, Traditional knowledge, ethnobotanical, weeds, conservation 


Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D829211032016 


Citation: 

Wangmo S.*, Garkoti S.C., 2016. Traditional Use of Weeds of Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir State, India. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 126, 1148-1159 


Abstract 

Since centuries local communities around the globe are known to survive on the basis of their traditional wisdom or knowledge. The traditional communities have eco-centric views which gets reflected the way they deal with nature and their attitude towards nature. Their knowledge of utilization of natural resources including plants meets their daily requirements including healthcare system. Ladakh has the tradition to live in harmony with nature sustaining their livelihood giving example of man–nature ethical relationship which seems to be degraded slowly. This paper aims to document the traditional indigenous knowledge regarding use of weeds emphasizing their role in the livelihoods of the traditional community. To fulfil the aim of the study two villages namely Khardong and Tia located at different altitudes in the Leh district of the Ladakh region were chosen. The field was visited monthly during the summer time of 2014-2015. Semi-structured interviews were conducted monthly during the field visits. Structured questions were included using standard methods (Martin, 1995). The investigation reported total of 52 weed species. This is inventory study, as no such work has been carried out earlier in this region. This kind of study will provide baseline information for future research. In the recent decades traditional ways of living are eroded by the abrupt forces called development and progress. It is important to document the rich ethnobotanical knowledge and raise the subject to preserve and conserve the traditional wisdom of the native community which can provide a long term scope for a sustainable economy and food security. (Fig. 1 Graphical abstract).

 



Documentation and Phytochemical Analysis of Ethnomedicinal Solutions for Gynecological Problems from Thane District, Maharashtra, India 


Chachad Devangi* 


Botany Department, Jai Hind College, Churchgate, Mumbai–400020, India 



Keywords: 

Ethnobotany; Gynecology solutions, tribals, phytochemical screening 


Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D808103022016 


Citation:

Chachad D.*, 2016. Documentation and Phytochemical Analysis of Ethnomedicinal Solutions for Gynecological Problems from Thane District, Maharashtra, India. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 126, 1136-1147 


Abstract 

Apart from utilizing plant resources as food, shelter, clothing and many other material needs, man must have used plants to cure disease conditions – initially instinctively as other animals do & later in a deliberate and a systematic way. With the growth of experience from repeated experiments, therapeutics with herbs attained standardization and grew in a cumulative way, generation to generations. For the present study Thane, a small district in Maharashtra is taken up. Thane district comprises of 13 talukas and the tribal area of the district is about 9,558 sq. km. The inhabitants, mainly the tribals rely on rich plant wealth for their food; medicine etc. The present study has been carried out to compile the information about the herbal preparations recommended against the gynecological disorders, used by the tribal women. Also during the study, samples were collected and were subjected to phytochemical screening to find out possible active secondary metabolite.







Ethnobotanical knowledge and traditional management of african mesquite (Prosopis africana Guill., Perrot. et Rich.) populations in Benin, West Africa 


T. Houètchégnona*, D.S.J.C. Gbèmavob, C. Ouinsavia, N. Sokpona 


a Faculty of Agronomy, Laboratory of Forestry Studies and Research, University of Parakou, Benin 

b Laboratoire de Biomath´ematiques et d’Estimations Foresti`eres, Facult´e des Sciences Agronomiques, Universit´e d’Abomey-Calavi, 04 BP 1525 Cotonou, Benin 



Keywords: Ethnobotanical knowledge, Management, vulnerability, P. africana, Benin, West Africa 


Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D780129122015 


Citation: Houètchégnon T., Gbèmavo D.S.J.C., Ouinsavi C., Sokpon N., 2015. Ethnobotanical knowledge and traditional management of african mesquite (Prosopis africana Guill., Perrot. et Rich.) populations in Benin, West Africa. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 125, 1124-1135 


Abstract Ethnobotanical knowledge of science Prosopis africana are very few or nonexistent in Benin in West Africa. EthnobotanAical knowledge of this indigenous species have been studied based on survey administered to 960 people.The collected data related to the use and management of the species based on different major socio-cultural groups of Benin, taking into account differences gender and ages. Ethnobotanical clues namely total diversity Index (ID), total Fairness Index (EI) and Virtues Index related bodies (IVO) were calculated and interpreted. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to relate the age-gender categories and uses values ​​of P. africana one hand, socio-linguistic differences and use of values ​​of P. africana on the other hand. P. africana is solicited food perspective, craft, cultural, phytosanitary inspection, magical and medicinal therapist and above. All his organs are used by local people. Knowledge about the use of P. africana are not well distributed among the respondents. They vary significantly according to age and sex categories and sociolinguistic groups (P <0.01) of the respondents. Despite the importance of the species very little conservation practices are observed in local populations. It is under pressure and making it vulnerable in its natural habitat.



Traditional Medicinal Plants of Gujjar Community in Dhela Range of Corbett National Park (Uttarakhand, India) 


Kailash Chandra Pandeya, Neeta Pandeb 


a Department of Botany P.N.G. Govt P.G. College, Ramnagar, Uttrakhand, India 

b Department of Botany, M.B.P.G. College, Haldwani, Uttrakhand, India 



Keywords: 

Traditional Medicine, Gujjars, Corbett Tiger Reserve, Ethnobotany, Dhela 


Abbreviations: 

CTR: Corbett Tiger Reserve 


Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D768826122015 


Citation: 

Pandey K.C., Pande N., 2015. Traditional Medicinal Plants of Gujjar Community in Dhela Range of Corbett National Park (Uttarakhand, India). The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 125, 1113-1123 


Abstract 

India is very rich in phytodiversity which is an integral part of our daily lives. Almost all the tribes of India obtain their daily needs from the wild plants. Uttarakhand, a hilly state of India, is very rich in tribal communities. Tharu, Bhotia, Jaunsar, Raji and Gujjar are prominent tribes of this state. The present study mainly focus on Gujjars, a semi-nomadic community, totally dependent on the wild plants. The main aim of present study is to register and document all the information about the traditional uses of medicinal plants by Gujjars. The indigenous knowledge of Gujjar’s was recorded through personal interviews and audio video documentation. A total of 54 medicinal plant species distributed in 34 families were collected during the survey between 2012 to 2014.











Erratum:

Ethnobotanical studies of some medicinal and cosmetic plants used in the province of Sefrou, Middle Atlas of Morocco


Smahane Boukhira, Latifa EL Mansouri, Dalila Bousta* 


Abstract The aim of the present survey is to identify and document about the medicinal and cosmetic plants used in treating dermatological diseases by the local population of the province of Sefrou in Middle Atlas of Morocco. The ethnobotanical investigations, carried out with the local population and field surveys, 87 plant species used locally in traditional medicine have been identified. They belong to 44 botanical families and were collected essentially in the study area. Most remedies are prepared as powder (32%) or with decoction (18%) and poultice (13%). External methods of administration, such as topical application or bathing were more common (89.8%) than internal methods (10.2%). These medicinal and cosmetic plants may serve to discover new natural drugs and may also be incorporated in the health care system of Morocco.





Ancient Texts of India relevant to Traditional Ecological Knowledge 


Dr. Baisakhi Bandyopadhyay 


Ministry of Culture, Government of India. Host Institution, The Asiatic Society Kolkata 700016, India 



Keywords: 

Traditional Ecological Knowledge, religious and nonreligious texts, sustainable resource management, environmental protection 


Photon Ignitor: ISJN66724384D790830112015 


Citation: 

Bandyopadhyay B., 2015. Ancient Texts of India relevant to Traditional Ecological Knowledge. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 125, 1091-1112 


Abstract 

An assessment of TEK in India shows that it encompasses several fields, namely, sustainable forest management, biodiversity conservation by sacred groves, sacred landscape and sacred plant species, crop management, farm management, animal management and therapeutic role of Ayurveda. There is a rich trove of religious and nonreligious texts available in different centres in India that deal with these aspects of TEK and these include Kautilya’s Artha-sastra (321-296 BC), Mahabharata (c.3000 BC), Ramayana (c.5000 BC), Rigveda (c. 8000BC), Krishi-Parashara (c.400 BC), Kashyapiyakrishisukti (800 AD), Vrikshayurveda (c.1000 AD), Krishi Gita (c.1500 AD).The prediction of rainfall & agricultural practices of ploughing, sowing and harvesting as mentioned in some of these ancient texts are of astounding value and can rival modern scientific systems. Ancient forest management and Ayurvedic practices (such as materials recommended by Surapala – author of Vrikshyayurveda - to control the disorder of trees & their currently known practices) are still relevant today.TEK is important for its own sake and for its social and cultural values.TEK systems provide models for sustainable resource management. It may be possible to underline the need to culture and propagate some of these practices for better environmental protection in modern times.




Ethnobotanical Studies Related to Women Health Care among the Malaiyalis of Pacchaimalai Hills, Eastern Ghats of Tamilnadu 


P. Ananthia, S. Soosairajb*, M. Sasikumar


a Department of Botany, National College, Tiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu, India

b Department of Botany, St. Joseph’s College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu, India


P.Ananthi, S. Soosairaj and M. Sasikumar  are conferred with Amedeo Avogadro Research Award in Ethnobiology


Keywords: Ethnobotany, Eastern ghats, medicinal plants, herbal practitioners, tribal people 



Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D804517102015 


Citation: 

Ananthi P., Soosairaj S., Sasikumar M., 2015. Ethnobotanical Studies Related to Women Health Care among the Malaiyalis of Pacchaimalai Hills, Eastern Ghats of Tamilnadu. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 125, 1085-1090 


Abstract 

The indigenous information on medicinal value of plants especially those that are associated with women health care among the tribal people, village herbal practitioners of Pacchaimalai hills, Eastern ghats of Tamilnadu were collected through personal interviews and with the help of questionnaire. Thirty two practices associated with health needs of women have been recorded. The mode of administration has been either in single or in combination with some other ingredients. The exploration revealed some unknown medical uses of medicinal plants. This article presents the information of correct botanical identities of plants with family, vernacular name (Tamil), part used and mode of administration. The most striking observation in the present study is that the commonly available spices, condiments are being used in the treatments. Among the various plant parts used the leaves have been used in twenty one formulations while the usage of other parts meager. The present study concluded that the abundance of natural ethno medicinal information of medicinal plants may also points to an excellent potential for investigation in the discovery new medicines to cater the wellbeing of women.




Ethanobotaical Information on Entada Species in India: A Review 


Mrs. Deepa Ca*, Dr. Nanda. W. Shindeb 


a Dept. of Environmental Studies, NES Ratnam College of Arts, Science Commerce, Bhandup Mumbai, Maharashtra, India 


b Dept. of Botany, K.V Pendharkar College, Dombivli,Thane Dt, Maharashtra, India 



Keywords: Tribal people, medicinal value, Entada


Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D804906102015 


Citation: Deepa C., Shinde N.W., 2015. Ethanobotaical Information on Entada Species in India: A Review. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 125, 1081-1084 



Abstract Tribal populations comprise a considerable indigenous minority of the population of India. They have intimate relationship with nature. The interaction has enabled to evolve a unique system of knowledge on the utilization and conservation of plant genetic resources. The tribal people are the real custodians of medicinal plants. The aim of this review paper is to put light on the knowledge of tribal people on traditional use of an endangered medicinal plant Entada. Through the centuries tribal people of India are using Entada seeds, leaves and bark for many medicinal purposes. Active constituents of Entada plants are proven to be active as therapeutic agents in curing many ailments. In this paper we have compiled ethanobotanical information available on this plant in India. This paper can be helpful in developing the modern medicines out of entada species from the information collected from the different tribes.


Walter Ndam Tachama, Beatrice Ambo Fongeb, Theophile Fonkouc 


b Department of Botany and Plant Physiology, University of Buea, P.O. Box 63, Buea, 

   Cameroon

c Department of Plant Biology, University of Dschang, P.O. Box 67, Dschang, Cameroon



Keywords: Ethnobotany, traditional medicine, Mundani, Lebialem highlands, ailments, treasures 


Abbreviations: DS: Dschang, CNHY: Cameroon National Herbarium-Yaounde, IUCN: International Union for Conservation of Nature 


Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D790023092015 


Citation: Tacham W.N., Fonge B.A., Fonkou T., 2015. Traditional Medicine and Ethnobotanical Use of Wild Plants by the Mundani People of Wabane, South West Region, Cameroon. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 125, 1060-1080 


Abstract 

This study is to document and evaluate the traditional medicinal use of wild plants and other ethnobotanical application of these resources by the Mundani people of Wabane Subdivision, Lebialem Division, Cameroon. Extensive ethnobotanical field investigations were conducted across the villages inhabited by the Mundani communities.in the lebialem highlands. Through the use of semi-structured questionnaires and personal interviews during field trips, information on the different medicinal uses of plants was recorded. The investigation revealed that the indigenous people and traditional healers used 128 plant species distributed in 119 genera belonging to 53 families to treat various diseases. The documented medicinal plants were mostly used to treat digestive ailments, female infertility/ gynecology, urinary tract infections, malaria, typhoid fever, male sexual dysfunctions, liver problems and diabetes. It was also found that 40 species had other ethnobotanical applications mostly for house construction, craft and arts, household utensils, bridge construction and fencing. The research thus stresses the importance for the documentation of the traditional medicinal use of plants by the Mundani people in order to uncover some of the hidden treasures of the forest that can serve as a potential source of new plant drug for mankind. The indigenous people should be educated on the importance of conservation of traditional knowledge and biodiversity.


 




An Ethnobotanical Use of Mikania cordata (Burm.f.) B.L. Rob for The Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease  

Swapan Kr Ghosh*, Sujoy Pal, Sumit Mitra, Subhankar Banerjee 

Molecular Mycopathology Lab. PG Deptt of Botany Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda Centenary College, Rahara, Kolkata-118, West Bengal, India

Swapan Kr Ghosh, Sujoy Pal, Sumit Mitra and Subhankar Banerjee are conferred with James Chadwick Research Award-2015 in Ethnobotany     

Keywords:

Mikania cordata, heart disorder, recovery, ethnomedicine.

Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D741209092015

Citation:

Ghosh S.K., Pal S., Mitra S., Banerjee S., 2015. An Ethnobotanical Use of Mikania cordata (Burm.f.) B.L. Rob for The Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 125, 1055-1059  

Abstract

The aim of this ethnobotanical survey was to collect information about medicinal plants used for the treatment of coronary heart disease and associated complications by village/sub-urban peoples of Rahara, (N) 24 Parganas  District, West Bengal, India. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and native plants used for the treatment of heart related health disorders were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews. A total of 10 informants within the age group of 50 to 68 were interviewed, among them one was ayurvede practitioners. The investigation revealed that, the traditional healers and the inhabitants use Mikania cordata (Burm.f.) B.L.Rob.belonging to the family Asteraceae to treat heart and related complications. Results depict that fresh three leaves of this plant in morning and night were taken by some people of this locality for the treatment of coronary heart disease particularly heart block. They feel very good by this treatment and even better than allopathic modern treatment. 







Ethno-medicinal Uses of weeds of Guru Ghasidas Central University, Bilaspur, (CG) India


Ashwini Kumar Dixita*, Bhaskar Chaurasiab 


a Department of Botany, Guru Ghasidas Central University, Bilaspur-495009, Chattishgarh, India 

b Department of Rural Technology and Social Development, GGCU, Bilaspur-495009, Chattishgarh,        India 



KeywordsWeeds, Ethnomedicinal uses, India 




Abstract:

An ethnobotanical exploration was undertaken with the aim of identification and documentation of ethnomedicinally important weeds growing in Guru Ghasidas Central University campus, situated in Bilaspur district of Chhattishgarh in India. A total of 84 weed species belonging to 27 families were identified and found to be present within the study area. The family Asteraceae and Fabaceae found to have the highest number of weed species (10 each) available within the area. These weeds have been revealed to be useful, against the mindset of the unacquainted that they are useless, unwanted plants. The present study revealed that the University sites are not only rich in plant biodiversity, but that the plants are also very rich in socioeconomic values. It is therefore advisable that these plants should be protected from going into extinction so that all would not be lost due to developmental activities. The periodic collection of these medicinal weeds will be welcomed additional income. 







Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D745920062015


Abstract: 

Background: Herbal medicines containing H. triquetrifolium which have been used in traditional Arab herbal medicine to treat various diseases; however, only few studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of plant on inflammation, but the probable anti-inflammatory effect of H. triquetrifolium in a rat model of carrageenan induced inflammation was explored. Methods: Total and absolute counts of leukocytes was determined in albino males mice after interactions between the plant extract and cyclophosphoamide, in addition to assessment of anti-inflammatory activity in a mouse model of carrageenan induced inflammation. Results: Compared to vehicle groups, the extract was able to normalize total and absolute counts of leukocytes and had strong anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusion: The plant extract can be considered as an immune modulator agent with anti-inflammatory activity.

 





Religious and Spiritual Plants Utilized by Ethnic Societies of Uttarkashi District of Uttarakhand 


Arun K. Agrawala*, Madhur Agarwalb 


a Department of Botany, Government Post Graduate College, Uttarkashi – 249 193 

   Uttarakhand, India 

b Shoolini University, Solan, H.P., India 


Arun K. Agrawal and Madhur Agarwal are conferred with International Ayurveda Research Award-2015 in Ehthnobiology 


Keywords: Religious, spiritual, plants, Uttarakhand, ethnic, societies 


Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D777126052015 


Citation: Agrawal A.K., Agrawal M., 2015. Religious and Spiritual Plants Utilized by Ethnic Societies of Uttarkashi District of Uttarakhand. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 125, 1033-1038. 


Abstract 

Plants provide food, medicine, energy, shelter, wood and non-wood products to sustain life on earth. Uttarakhand also known as Devbhoomi, one of the Himalayan states of India is richest in resources with respect to the occurrence of religious and spiritual plants. These plants are utilized by ethnic societies of Uttarkashi district to their religious activities and are also important as food, fodder and medicine. We have identified a total of 38 plant species belonging to 26 families utilized traditionally by ethnic societies of Uttarkashi district during various religious and spiritual ceremonies.




Palynotaxonomical significance of ethnomedicinal plants of Mancherial division in Adilabad district, Telangana State, India 



Palaeobotany & Palynology Research Lab, Dept.of Botany, University College of Science, Saifabad, Osmania University, Hyderabad, (T.S)-500004, India 


Prabhakar R., Ramakrishna H., Ganga Kailas J. and Devender R. are conferred with International Carolus Linnaeus Research Award-2014 


Keywords: Pollen diversity, Ethnomedicinal plants, Mancherial division, Adilabad district  


Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D766318052015 


Citation: Prabhakar R., Ramakrishna H., Ganga Kailas J., Devender R., 2015. Palynotaxonomical significance of ethnomedicinal plants of Mancherial division in Adilabad district, Telangana State, India. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 125, 1024-1032. 


Abstract 

The present study deals with the study of pollen diversity of 30 important ethnomedicinal plants of Mancherial division of Adilabad district in Telangana State. These 30 taxa belong to various families viz., Amaranthaceae, Apocynaceae, Arecaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Capparidaceae, Cleomaceae, Combritaceae, Convolvulaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Dioscoriaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Gentianaceae, Lauraceae, Liliaceae, Loganiaceae, Lythraceae, Meliaceae, Mimosaceae Moraceae, Plumbaginaceae, Rubiaceae, Solanaceae and Tiliaceae (Gamble 1935). These plants have been used by the inhabitant tribes for medicinal purpose to cure various ailments. The pollen of these plants have diversity of morphological characters viz., symmetry, shape, polarity, apertural pattern and sculpture. This diversity may help in authentic identification of various taxa and thus may be useful in taxonomy.



Phytochemical Analysis and Antibacterial Efficacy of Morus alba L. 


Vikas Bhagata, Showkat A. Ganieb*, Gunjan Dhakareya, Rajneesh K. Agnihotria, Rajendra Sharmaa 


a Department of Botany, School of Life Sciences, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar University, Agra, India 

b Department of Botany, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana, India 


Vikas Bhagat, Showkat A. Ganie, Gunjan Dhakarey, Rajneesh K. Agnihotri and Rajendra Sharma are conferred with Hermann von Fehling Research Award- 2015 in Phytochemistry 


Keywords: Antibacterial activity, Disc diffusion, Indigenous medicine, Morus alba, Phytochemistry 


Abbreviations: M. alba: Morus alba 


Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D774229042015 


Citation: Ganie S.A., Bhagat V., Dhakarey G., Agnihotri R.K., Sharma R., 2015. Phytochemical Analysis and Antibacterial Efficacy of Morus alba L.. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 124, 1018-1023. 


Abstract 

Objective: To explore the in vitro antibacterial potential of Morus alba against human pathogenic bacteria and qualitative phytochemical analysis to determine the nature of phytoconstituents responsible for the bioactivity. Methods: Aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of Morus alba were screened for phytochemical analysis and in vitro antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia. The activity was analyzed by disc diffusion method using cefotaxime as positive control. Results: Both aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts efficiently repressed the growth of the test pathogens. Methanolic leaf extract showed better activity than aqueous against both the test organisms. Dose dependent antibacterial activity was observed in both the extracts. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, steroids, flavonoids and phenolic compounds, which might have a functional role in antibacterial activity. Conclusions: Based on the finding it could be inferred that M. alba would be a reliable source for the treatment of some common diseases caused by resistant pathogens. However, work should be done on the toxicity of crude extracts and isolated compounds from the plant species, to ensure their eligibility for the source of indigenous medicine in future.


Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effect of triterpene fraction isolated from Euphorbia neriifolia L. leaf 


Papiya Bigoniya*, Faraz Siddique 


Department of Pharmacology, Radharaman College of Pharmacy, Ratibad, Bhopal-02, M.P., India 


Papiya Bigoniya and Faraz Siddique are conferred with Hugo de Vries Research Award-2015 in Traditional Medicine 


Keywords: Euphorbia neriifolia, Triterpene, Anti-inflammatory, Antiarthritic, Complete Freund’s Adjuvant, Arthritis 


Abbreviations: AIA: Adjuvant Induced Arthritis, CFA: Complete Freund’s Adjuvant, CPCSEA: Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals, DPPH: 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl, HPLC: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, LD50: Lethal dose 50%, OECD: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, PDE: Permitted Daily Exposure, RA: Rheumatoid Arthritis, SEM: Stand Error of Mean, TFEN: Triterpenoidal Fraction of E. neriifolia, TLC: Thin Layer Chromatography, TNFα: Tumor Necrosis Factor-α 


Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D769727042015 


Citation: Bigoniya P., Siddique F., 2015. Anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic effect of triterpene fraction isolated from Euphorbia neriifolia L. leaf. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 124, 1007-1017. 


Abstract 

Euphorbia neriifolia Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) is a abundantly growing spurge in the dry hilly and rocky areas which has been reported to have rich presence of triterpenes. The present study aimed at evaluation and phytopharmacological correlation of E. neriifolia leaf anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic activity targeting triterpenoidal fraction (TFEN). Enrichment, isolation and characterization of TFEN was carried out by TLC, column and HPLC analysis. Paw volume, arthritic index and TNFα level in serum was determined along with histopathology of tibiotarsal joint after carrageenan and adjuvant arthritis induced inflammation on rat. Enriched E. neriifolia leaf triterpene fraction showed presence of eupha-7,24-dienol and cycloartenol in HPLC. Pre-treatment with TFEN significantly reduced paw oedema (P<0.001), arthritis index (P<0.05) and cytokine TNFα (P<0.001) level in CFA induced arthritic animals upon 28 days of treatment. Positive results of this study indicate that E. neriifolia triterpene has potent anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effect. Maintenance of synovial functional ability and decrease in inflammatory process may be through inhibiting cytokines and leukotrienes infiltration as evidenced by decrease in TNFα and arthritic index. Positive results of this study indicate potent antiarthritic effect of E. neriifolia though detailed future studies are required to assess the effect on inflammatory mediators like leukotrienes, phospholipase A2, prostaglandins and antioxidant enzymes in joint tissue.


Traditional practices of native communities and their ethnobotanical knowledge: A trivia in Wayanad, India


Pradheeps M.a*, Chella Perumal A.b, Poyyamoli G.c  


a Department of Ecology & Environmental Sciences Pondicherry University, Puducherry – 605014, India b Department of Anthropology Pondicherry University, Puducherry – 605 014, India 

c Department of Ecology & Environmental sciences Pondicherry University, Puducherry – 605014, India      

Pradheeps M., Chella Perumal A. and Poyyamoli G. are conferred with International Ayurveda Research Award-2015 in Natural Medicine by IASR


Keywords: Conservation, Tribal communities, traditional knowledge,  culture, ethnobotany, medicinal plants


Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D715526032015


Citation: Pradheeps M., Chella P.A., Poyyamoli G., 2015. Traditional practices of native communities and their ethnobotanical knowledge: A trivia in Wayanad, India. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 124, 993-1006.


Abstract 

The present study aims at documenting the indigenous traditional knowledge and the practices related to health care system among the different tribal groups in Wayanad. Kurichiyans, Kurumans and Kaatunaikens are among the predominant tribal groups dwells in the hills of Wayanad. In this study 127 species from 55 families and the indigenous know-how about their utilization were recorded. The study reveals that the herbs collected from forests and farmlands are used to cure the common ailments. Documentation of botanical name, vernacular name, family and the mode of treatments are included. We tested the consensus analysis which is used to test the reliability of the traditional knowledge within one ancient culture. Throughout history aboriginal people have been the custodians of forests and have sustained healthy life-styles in an eco-friendly manner. Numerous scientific studies have highlighted the significance and the contribution of plant families such as Convolvulaceae, Asteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Caesalpinnaceae, Fabaceae and Acanthaceae are used as medicinal plants. In the recent decades the region has suffered population migration towards neighboring towns and states which has led to ageing population and decreasing demographic density led to the importance of preservation of much of its indigenous knowledge.



Medicinal Plants Sector in Northern India: An Ethno-Medicinal Appraisal


Tariq Ahmad Bhata*, Aijaz Ahmad Wanib,  M. Gulfishanc  


a Govt. Higher Secondary School Aishmuqam, Department of School Education, Govt. of Jammu and        Kashmir, 192129, India 

b Cytogenetics and Reproductive Biology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Kashmir 190      006, Srinagar, J & K, India 

c Post Doctoral Fellow, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202 002, India    


Tariq Ahmad Bhat, Aijaz Ahmad Wani and M. Gulfishan are honoured with James Watson Research Award-2015 in Ethnobiology by IASR


Keywords: Medicinal plants, Northern Himalayas, genetic diversity, traditional knowledge, ethnic communities


Abbreviations:  AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, MAPS: Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, WHO: World Health Organisation, US: United States, NMPB: National Medicinal Plants Board, NABARD: National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development, HPLC: High Performance Liquid Chromatography


Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D719125032015


Citation: Bhat T.A., Wani A.A., Gulfishan M., 2015. Medicinal Plants Sector in Northern India: An Ethno-Medicinal Appraisal. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 124, 978-992.


Abstract 

India is one of the world's top 12 mega biodiversity countries with 10 bio-geographic regions and two biodiversity hotspots. The climatic and altitudinal variations, coupled with varied ecological habitats of the country, have contributed to the development of immensely rich vegetation with a unique diversity in medicinal plants. The medicinal plant species have made an outstanding contribution in treatment of several disorders like memory loss, osteoporosis, immune and age-related problems, and even some deadly diseases like AIDS and cancer. In recent past, the traditional knowledge based treatment has gained a wide recognition worldwide due to an increased faith in herbal medicine in view of its lesser side effects compared to allopathic medicine. The main objectives of present study were to explore the potential in medicinal plant resources, to understand the challenges and opportunities within the medicinal plant sector, and also to suggest recommendations based upon the present state of knowledge for the establishment and smooth functioning of the medicinal plants sector besides improving the living standards of the underprivileged communities.




Documentation of Some Ethnoveterinary Practices at Gwalior District, Madhya Pradesh in India


Sushmita Shrivastavaa*, Ashok K. Jainb, R. Mathurc  


a BIMR College of Professional Studies, Gwalior, India 

b Institute of Ethnobiology, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, India 

c SOS Zoology, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, India    


Sushmita Shrivastava, Ashok K. Jain and R. Mathur receive Abraham Lincoln Research Award-2015 in Ethnoveterinary


Abbreviations:  K. pneumoniae: Klebsiella pneumoniae, ESBL: Extended-spectrum β-lactamase  


Keywords: Ethnoveterinary, cattle, ailments, traditional  knowledge


Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D72682020032015


Citation: Shrivastava S., Jain A.K., Mathur R., 2015. Documentation of Some Ethnoveterinary Practices at Gwalior District, Madhya Pradesh in India. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 124, 974-977.


Abstract 

Ethnoveterinary deals with traditional knowledge used for the treatment of animals. This knowledge now prevails very few practioners, which need to be explored in our society. Present paper deals with ethnoveterinary practices recorded from folk people at Gwalior district, Madhya Pradesh used for the treatment of cattle, specially buffaloes, cows and goats. A total of 27 species were recorded to be used in curing various ailments of domestic animals.




GCMS analysis of a Traditional Medicinal Plant Ficus bengalensis L. – A fast analytical approach for identification of phytoconstituents


Rupali Subhashrao Kaikade  and Shubhangi Nagorao Ingole*  


Dept of Botany, Bar. R.D.I.K. and N.K.D. College, Badnera, Amravati (M.S.) India    


Rupali Subhashrao Kaikade and Shubhangi Nagorao Ingole receive Niels Bohr Research Award-2015 in Ethnobiology


Keywords: GCMS analysis, Ficus bengalensis, Atharvaveda, Squalene, Lupeol GCMS- Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectroscopy


Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D768619032015


Citation: Kaikade R.S., Ingole S.N., 2015. GCMS analysis of a Traditional Medicinal Plant Ficus bengalensis L. – A fast analytical approach for identification of  phytoconstituents. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional medicine. Photon 124, 970-973.


Abstract 

GCMS is normally used for direct analysis of component existing in traditional medicines and medicinal plants. A knowledge of the chemical constituents of plants is desirable not only for the discovery of therapeutic agents, but also because such information may be of great value in disclosing new sources of economic phytocompounds for the synthesis of complex chemical substances and for discovering the actual significance of folkloric remedies. Hence in the present study we selected a traditional medicinal plant Ficus bengalensis. Traditionally the bark is used in the treatment of diabetes, dysentery and diarrhea but scientific relevance behind this is still unknown. Thus further studies can be conducted to investigate the unexploited potential of Ficus bengalensis. Twelve compounds were identified and they were reported as dibutyl phthalate, Phthalic acid, 1,2- benzenedicarboxylic acid, Bis (2- methyl propyl) ester, butyl 2-pentyl ester, Diisooctyl phthalate, Squalene, Trans-Geranylgeraniol, á-Amyrin, á-Amyrin  trimethylsilyl ether, Lup-20(29)-en-3-one and Lupeol. As Ficus bengalensis can grow and spread easily and because of its higher biomass availability, it can prove as an effective and cheaper drug for various human diseases.














There is a need for current traditional medicinal practices data on women health conditions by region level or ethnic group level for future conservation, sustainable maintenance of the valuable and rare medicinal plants and discoverer new drugs. We are investigated on ethno medicinal plants used by Jatapu women for their diseases along with practices. The Jatapu Tribes are living in the Srikakulam and Vizianagaram districts in Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, India, Asian Continent. The two district are located between latitudes 170 - 15' and 190 - 12' North and longitudes in between 830 - 17' and 840 - 47' East. During the period of 2010 - 2013 studies were conducted, information was gathered with selected questionnaires and field visits to interior forest with the Jatapu Tribe. A total of 63 traditional medicinal plants belonging to 40 families included 6 red lists medicinal plants with their practices were reported. There is a need for awareness on traditional medicinal practices by younger generations of tribes to conserve valuable traditional medicines from regional level. It will be helpful for the future generations and conservation of the medicinal plants.










A quantitative ethnomedical study wasconductedamong the Malayalitribal communities of PachamalaiHills to document traditional knowledge of the tribes with respect to the medicinal plants and their potential medicinal uses. The study explored the traditional usage of 190 medicinal plant species in 158 genera belonging to 67 families (87.6% dicotyledons, 10.7% monocotyledons and 1.5% gymnosperm). Out of the 190 species employed to treat various ailments, there were 62 trees (32.63%), 43 herbs (22.6%), 25 shrubs (13.2%), 19 vines (10%), 14 sub-shrubs (7.3%), 10 stragglers (5.26%), 8 lianas (4.21%), 5 twiners (2.65%) and 4 climbers (2.61%). The majority of the Malayali tribals of Pachamalai Hills are highly dependent on local plants as their primary source of medicines. However, results from this study show that these communities are quite close-knit and share their knowledge only within the family or amongst their own. Furthermore, they are highly dependent on these plants, which will cause depletion of this medicinal plant wealth. The data documented in this study shows the social importance and may serve as a basis for further studies.



Ethnobotanical Knowledge and Usage of Wild Plants in Theog Forest Division, Himachal Pradesh, North Western Himalaya 



a Department of Forest Products, College of Forestry, Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of               

   Horticulture & Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173 230, Himachal Pradesh, India 

b Wildlife Institute of India, P.O. Box #18, Chandrabani, Dehradun-    248001, Uttarakhand, India 

c Botanical Survey of India, Eastern Regional Centre, Shillong-793    003, Meghalaya, India 


Pal Dinesh Kumar, Kumar Amit, Dr. Dutt Bhupender and Sharma Sachin receive George Bentham Research Award-2015 in Ethnobotany


Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey, Traditional use, Indigenous knowledge, Himachal Himalaya 


Abbreviations: HP- Himachal Pradesh, IHR- Indian Himalayan Region, TFD- Theog Forest Division, WHO- World Health organization


Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D757128022015


Citation: Pal D. K., Kumar A., Dutt B., Sharma S., 2015. Ethnobotanical Knowledge and Usage of Wild Plants in Theog Forest Division, Himachal Pradesh, North Western Himalaya. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 124, 922-935.


Abstract 

Himalayan forests are the repository of large number of medicinal plants valuable for the local people. These plants hold a great importance in traditional healthcare systems thereby providing clues to new areas of research in human wellbeing and biodiversity conservation. The present study documented the indigenous knowledge and usage of 98 plants belonging to 61 families and 95 genera in Theog Forest Division of Himachal Pradesh, North Western Himalaya. The information on traditional use was collected through semi-structured questionnaires and personal interviews. The highest number of species (38) were reported to be utilized as edibles followed by medicinal and aromatic (30), fodder (23), fuelwood (16), veterinary medicine (12) and agricultural implements (8). The leaves (43 species) were most commonly used plant part followed by wood (30), fruits (21) and whole plant (10). The family Fabaceae (7 species) followed by Lamiaceae (5), Rosaceae (5) and Asteraceae (4) were the dominant families of plants utilized by the locals. Plants studied were used as medicine, food, fuelwood, fodder and in socio-religious ceremonies. The study aimed at gathering knowledge pertaining to ethnic uses of plants in order to conserve the ethnobotanical wisdom of people in the study area.





Worku Abebe


Department of Oral Biology/Pharmacology, College of Dental Medicine, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA 30912-1128, USA


Keywords:
Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D706808112014

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Citation:

Abebe W., 2014. Khat chewing among high school and college students in Ethiopia: prevalence and associated factors of relevance for intervention measures. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 123, 906-916.

Abstract 

The use of the stimulant plant, khat, has become a growing problem in Ethiopia, particularly among the younger generation. There have been recent efforts to collect information on its use among various groups of the Ethiopian population, but this information is scattered and largely unnoticed. This paper is a review of the literature on khat chewing among high school and college students in Ethiopia during the past 20 years, with emphasis on prevalence and associated factors. Khat has been reported to be commonly chewed by both high school and college students in Ethiopia in widely- spread geographic locations. The prevalence of khat chewing was higher in male, Muslim and older/senior students. However, no clear-cut patterns were detected regarding some other factors considered. Students indicated various reasons for chewing khat, while mentioning a number of associated health risks. The responses on health effects of khat are largely supported by scientific evidence in the literature. Despite shortcomings of the studies reviewed, this review paper provides useful information on various factors associated with khat chewing among high school and college students in Ethiopia, and can contribute to measures taken for prevention/mitigation of the adverse consequences of khat chewing and for designing future research directions.



Plants based drugs used for diabetes by the people of Himachal Pradesh (India) 




Department of Botany Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014, India 


Richa, Nitin Kumar Sharma, Shikha Sharma* receive Photon Young Scientist Award-2014 in Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine by Photon Foundation

Keywords: Diabetes, Himachal Pradesh, Traditional knowledge 

Photon Ignitor: ISJN66423194D723411112014 

Citation: Richa, Sharma N.K., Sharma S., 2014. Plants based drugs used for diabetes by the people of Himachal Pradesh (India). The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 123, 917-921.

Abstract

Traditional medicine is the synthesis of therapeutic experience of generations of practicing physicians of indigenous systems of medicine. Throughout the history of mankind, many infectious diseases have been treated with herbals. The traditional medicine is increasingly solicited through the tradipractitioners and herbalists in the treatment of infectious diseases. The present study is based on the survey work conducted on medicinal flora of Himachal Pradesh (India). The study focused on the documentation of traditional knowledge of local persons regarding the use of native plants for prevalent lifestyle disease, Diabetes. Interviews of local residents and herbal doctors, who are the main users of these medicinal plants, were conducted and recorded. A total of 41 plants species belonging to 25 families were found to be used by local people for diabetes. The locals use these plants in different ways to get relief from the disease. An interesting finding is the use of wood of Ficus lacor for diabetes. Pickled of fruits of Moringa oleifera and ripened fruits of Solanum nigrum are believed to be effective remedies for the disease. 

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