Pharmaceutical Microbiology Journal

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All India Council for Technical Education
7th Floor, Chander Lok Building, Janpath, New Delhi
All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) established as a statutory body by the
Government of India through Act No.52 of 1987 has been broadly vested with the
responsibility of coordinated and integrated development of technical education in the
The AICTE in fulfillment of its responsibility has prepared a model course
curriculum/syllabus for B.Pharm. after taking suggestions inputs from various eminent
academicians and industry with a view to cater the existing, as well as, growing needs of
the industry profession and to help in producing technical manpower who will be able to
face the global challenges.
I am sure that the academia of different universities will use this structure in framing their
I take this opportunity to express my deep appreciation for the valuable work done by the
various experts and the persons entrusted with the responsibility of coordinating the said
Member Secretary
New Delhi 
Subject Page No.
Semester I
1.1.1. Pharmaceutical Analysis-I ... 1
1.1.2. Remedial Mathematicsl Biology '" 2
1.1.3. Pharmacognosy-I ... 4
1.1.4. Pharmaceutical Chemistry-I
(Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry) ... 5
1.1.5. Basic Electronics &
Computer Applications ... 6
Semester II
1.2.1. Pharmaceutics -I ... 8
(Physical Pharmacy)
1.2.2. Advanced Mathematics '" 10
1.2.3. Pharmaceutical Chemistry -II
(Physical Chemistry) '" 11
1.2.4. Pharmaceutical Chemistry-III ... 12
(Organic Chemistry-I)
1.2.5. Anatomy, Physiology & Health
Education (APHE) -I .... 13
Semester III
2.3.1 Pharmaceutics -II (Unit Operations _ I,
including Engg. Drawing) ... 14
2.32. Pharmaceutical Chemistry-IV
(Organic Chemistry - II) '" 16
2.3.3. Pharmacognosy -II '" 17
2.3.4. Pharmaceutical Analysis - II ............................... ...............18
2.3.5 A P HE-II ............................................................ ...............19
Semester IV
2.4.1. Pharmaceutics - III
(Unit Operations - II) '" 21
2.42. Pharmaceutical Microbiology ............................. ..............23
2.4.3. Pharmacognosy - III ............................................ ..............24
2.4.4. Pathophysiology of Common
Diseases ... ·25
2.4.5. Pharmaceutics -N
(Dispensing & Community Pharmacy) ... 25
Semester V
3.5.1. Pharmaceutical Chemistry - V
(Biochemistry)' ... Tl 
3.5.2. Pharmaceutics - V
(Pharmaceucal Technology I) ............................ ............... 29
3.5.3. Pharmacology - I ................................................ ............... 31
3.5.4. Pharmacognosy -N ............................................. ................32
3.5.5. Pharmaceutics -VI
(Hospital pharmacy) .. 34
Semester VI
3.6.1. Pharmaceutical Chemistry - VI
(Medicinal Chemistry -I) ... 35
3.6.2. Pharmaceutical Jurisprudence
& Ethics ... 37
3.6.3. Pharmaceutics -VII
(Biopharmaceutics &
Pharmacokinetics) .................................................. ............ 38
3.6.4. Pharmacology -II ................................................... ............ 40
3.6.5. Pharmacognosy - V
(Chemistry of Natural Products) ... 41
Semester VII
4.7.1. Pharmaceutical Biotechnology ... 42
4.7.2. Pharmaceutics - VIII
(Pharmaceutical Technology - II) ... 43
4.7.3 Pharmaceutical Industrial
Management ............................................................. ............ 45
4.7.4. Pharmacology -III ................................................... ............ 46
4.7.5. Pharmaceutical Chemistry _ VII
(Medicinal Chemistry - II) ... 48
4.7.6. Elective (Theory) ...
Semester VIII
4.8. 1. Pharmaceutics - IX ... 49
4.8.2. Pharmaceutical Analysis - III ... 50
4.8.3. Pharmaceutical Chemistry - VIII
(Medicinal Chemistry - III) ... 51
8.4. Pharmacognosy - VI ... 53
4.8.5. Pharmacology - IV
(Clinical Pharmacy & Drug
Interactions) ... 54
4.8.6. Project related to
Elective ...
Model Academic Programme ... 56
and Evaluation Scheme
Books Recommended ... 60
Pharmaceutical Analysis - I
1.1.1. Theory 3 hrs. / week
1. Significance of quantitative analysis in quality control, Different techniques of
analysis, Preliminaries and definitions, Significant figures, Rules for retaining
significant digits, Types of errors, Mean deviation, Standard deviation, Statistical
treatment of small data sets, Selection of sample, Precision and accuracy.
Fundamentals of volumetric analysis, methods of expressing concentration,
primary and secondary standards.
2. Acid Base Titrations : Acid base concepts, Role of solvent, Relative strengths of
acids and bases, Ionization, Law of mass action, Commonion effect, Ionic product
of water, pH, Hydrolysis of salts, Henderson-Hessel bach equation, Buffer
solutions, Neutralization curves, Acid-base indicators,·' Theory of indicators,
Choice of indicators, mixed indicators, Polyprotic system, Polyamine and amino
acid systems, Amino acid titration, applications in assay of Hl04,NaOH, CaC03
etc. .
3. Oxidation Reduction Titrations : Concepts of oxidation and reduction, Redox
reactions, Strengths and equivalent weights of oxidizing and reducing agents,
Theory of redox titrations, Redox indicators, Cell representations, Measurement
of electrode potential, Oxidation-reduction curves, Iodimetry and Iodometry,
Titrations involving ceric sulphate, potassium iodate, potassium bromate,
potassium permanganate; titanous chloride and Sodium 2, 6-dichlorophenol
4. Precipitation Titrations: Precipitation reactions, Solubility products, Effect of
acids, temperature and solvent upon the solubility of a precipitate. Argentometric
titrations and titrations involving ammonium or potassium thiocyanate, mercuric
nitrate, and barium sulphate, Indicators, Gaylussac method; Mohrs method,
Volhard's method and Fajan's method.
5. Gravimetric Analysis: Precipitation techniques, Solubility products; The colloidal
state, Supersaturation co-precipitation, Postprecipitation, Digestional washing of
the precipitate, Filtration, Filter papers and crocibles, Ignition, Thermogravimetric
curves, Specific examples like barium sulphate, aluminium as aluminium oxide,
calcium as calcium oxalate and magnesium as magnesium pyrophosphate,
Organic precipitants.
1.1.1. Practicals 4 hrs /week
The students should be introduced to the main analytical tools through
demonstrations. They should have a clear understanding of a typical analytical balance,
the requirements of a good balance, weights, care and use of balance, methods of 
weighing and errors in weighing. The students should also be acquainted with the general
apparatus required in various analytical procedures.
1. Standardization of analytical weights and calibration of volumetric apparatus.
2. Acid Base Titrations : Preparation and standardization of acids and bases; some
exercises related with determination of acids and bases separately or in mixture
form, some official assay procedures e.g. boric acid should also be covered.
3. Oxidation Reduction Tltrations : Preparation and standardization of some redox
titrants e.g. potassium permanganate, potassium dichromate, iodine, sodium
thiosulphate, etc. Some exercises related to determination of oxidizing and
reducing agents in the sample shall be covered. Exercises involving potassium
iodate, potassium bromate, iodine solution, titanous chloride, sodium 2, 6-
dichlorophenol indophenol, and ceric ammonium sulphate.
4. Precipitation titrations : Preparation and standardization of titrants like silver
nitrate and, ammonium thiocyanate, Titrations according to Mohr's, Volhard's and
Fajan's methods.
5. Gravimetric Analysis: Preparation of gooch crucible for filtration and use of
sintered glass crucible, Determination of water of hydration, Some exercises
related to gravimetric analysis should be covered.
Remedial Mathematics
1.1.2 Theory 4 hrs/ week
1. Algebra : Equations reducible to quadratics, simultaneous equations (linear and
quadratic), Determinants, properties of solution of simultaneous equations by
Cramer's rule, matrices, definition of special kinds of matrices, arithmetic
operations on matrices, inverse of a matrix, solution of simultaneous equations by
matrices, pharmaceutical applications of determinants and matrices. Evaluation of
Enl, En2, and En3, mensuration and its pharmaceutical applications.
2. Measures of Central Value: Objectives and pre-requisites of an ideal, measure,
mean, mode and median.
3. Trigonometry: Measurement of angle, T-ratios, addition, subtraction and
transformation formulae, T -ratios of multiple, submultiple, allied and certain
angles. Application of logarithms in pharmaceutical computations.
4. Analytical Plans Geometry: Certain co-ordinates, distance between two points,
area of triangle, a locus of point, straight line., slope and intercept from, doubleintercept
form, normal (perpendicular form), slope-point and two point form,
general equation of first degree.
5. Calculus :
Differential : Limits and functions, definition of differential coefficient,
differentiation of standard functions, including function of a function (Chain rule).
Differentiation of implicit functions, logarithmic differentiation, parametric 
differentiation, successive differentiation.
Integral : Integration as inverse of differentiation, indefinite integrals of standard
forms, integration by parts, substitution and partial fractions, formal evaluation of definite
Remedial Bioiogy
1.1.2 Theory 3 hrs/ week
1. Methods of classification of plants.
2. Plant Cell: It's structure and non-living inclusions; mitosis and meiosis; different
types of plant tissues and their functions.
3. Morphology and histology of root, stem, bark, wood, leaf, flower fruit and seed.
Modification of root and stem.
4. General Survey of Animal Kingdom; Structure and life history of parasites as
illustrated by amoeba, entamoeba, trypanosoma, plasmodium, taenia, ascaris,
schistosoma, oxyuris, and ancylostoma.
5. General Structure and life history of insects like mosquito, housefly, mites and
1.1.2. Practical (Remedial Biology) 4 hrs/ week
l. Morphology of plant parts indicated in theory.
2 Care, use and type of microscopes.
3. Gross identification of slides of structure and life cycle of lower plants animals
mentioned in theory.
4. Morphology of plant parts indicated in theory
5. preparation, microscopic examination of stem, root and leaf of monocot and dicot
6. structure of human parasites and insects mentioned in theory with the help of
Pharmacognosy – I
1.1.3. Theory 3 hrs/week
1. definition, history, scope and development of Pharmacognosy
2. Sources of drugs : Biological, marine, mineral and plant tissue cultures as
sourcs of drugs
3. Classification of drugs : Alphabetical, morphological, taxonomical, chemical and
pharmacological classification of drugs
4. plant taxonomy : study of the following families with special reference to
medicinally important plants – Apocynacae, Solanaceae, Rutacease,
Umbelliferae, Leguminosae, Rubiaceae, Liliaceae, Graminae, Labiatae, 
Cruciferae, Papaveraceae.
5. Cultivation, Colloection, Processing and storage of crude drugs: Factors
influencing cultivation nof medicinal plants. Types of soils and fertilizers of
common use. Pest management and natural pest control agents. Plant hormones
and their applications. Polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to
medicinal plants.
6. quality control of cr4ude drugs: Adulteration of curde drugs and their detection by
organoleptic, microscopic, physical, chemical and biological methods and
7. An introduction to active constituents of drugs: their isolation, classification and
8. Systematic pharmacognostic study of following
a) Carbohydrates and derived products: agar, guar gumm acacia, Honey, Isabgol,
pectin, Starch, sterculia and Tragacantyh.
b) Lipids: Bees wax, Castor oil, Cocoa butter, Cod~liver oil, Hydnocarpus oil,
Kokum butter, Lard, Linseed oil, Rice, Bran oil, Shark liver oil and Wool fat.
1.1.3. Practicals 4 hours / week
1. Morphological characteristics of plant families mentioned in theory.
2. Microscopic measurements of cells and Cell contents: Starch grains, calcium
oxalate crystals and phloem fibres.
3. Determination of leaf constants such as stomatal index, stomatal number, veinislet
number, vein-termination number and palisade ratio.
4. Identification of crude drugs belonging to carbohydrates and lipids.
5. Preparation of herbarium sheets.
Pharmaceutical Chemistry - I
(Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry)
1.1.4. Theory 3 hrs /week
An outline of methods of preparation, uses, sources of impurities, tests for purity and
identity, including limit tests for iron, arsenic, lead, heavy metals, chloride, sulphate and
special tests if any, of the following classes of inorganic pharmaceuticals included in
Indian Pharmacopoeia.
1. Acids and Bases: Buffers, Water.
2. Gastrointestinal Agents : Acidifying agents, Antacids, Protectives and
Adsorbents, Cathartics.
3. Major Intra-and Extra-cellular Electrolytes: Physiological ions. Electrolytes used
for replacement therapy, acid-base balance and combination therapy.
4. Essential and Trace Elements: Transition elements and their compounds of 
pharmaceutical importance : Iron and haematinics, mineral supplements.
5. Cationic and anionic components of inorganic drugs useful for systemic effects.
6. Topical Agents: Protectives, Astringents and Anti-infectives.
7. Gases and Vapours : Oxygen, Anesthetics and Respiratory . stimulants.
8. Dental Products: Dentifrice, Anti-caries agents.
9. Complexing and chelating agents used in therapy
10. Miscellaneous Agents: Sclerosing agents, expectorants, emetics, poisons and
antidotes, sedatives etc. Pharmaceutical Aids Used in Pharmaceutical Industry.
Anti-oxidants, preservatives, filter aids, adsorbents, diluents, excipients,
suspending agents, colorants etc.
11. Inorganic Radio Pharmaceuticals: Nuclear radio pharmaceuticals, Reactions,
Nomenclature, Methods of obtaining their standards and units of activity,
measurement of activity, clinical applications and dosage, hazards and
1.1.4. Practicals 4 hrs / week
The background and systematic qualitative analysis of inorganic mixtures of up to four
radicals. Six Mixtures to be analyzed, preferably by semimicro methods. At identification
tests for pharmacopocial inorganic pharmaceuticals and qualitative tests for cations &
anions should be covered.
Basic Electronics and Computer Applications
1.1.5. Theory 3 hrs/ week
1. Basic Electronics: Semiconductors, p-n function diode, LED, photodiode and its
uses. Rectifiers (half wave, full wave/ with filters) Transistors configurations,
Transistor amplifiers. Introduction to Integrated circuits, photo cells and
photomultiplier tubes.
2. Computers :
2.1 Introduction to Computers.
2. 1. History of Computer development and respective generation: Abacus, Napier'sBones,
Slide rule, Pascal's Calculator. Need to use computers, applications in
pharmacy and in general.
Computer Classification: Mainframe, Mini and Micro Computers, comparison of
Analog & Digital Computers, Hardware and Software. Calculator and Computer.
2.2. Operating Systems: Introduction to types of operating systems, UNIX, MS-DOS,
etc. RAM, ROM, Virtual Memory etc.
2.3. Type of Languages: Conventional languages; their advantages, limitations; C,
Pascal, FORTRAN, Programming of these languages. 
2.4. Introduction to Computer Networks: Architecture of seven layers of
2.5. Introduction to Data Structure: Like Queues, list, trees, Binary trees algorithms,
Flow chart, Structured Systems, Analysis and development, Ingress-SQL,
Gateways etc. Statistics, methodologies.
Basic Language: Constants and Variables: Character set, constants, variables,
Naming the variables getting data into memory, LET, INPUT, READ. DATA,
Print Statement.
Expressions: Arithmetic expression, Hierarchy of operations, Rules of Arithmetic,
Evaluation of expressions, Relational expressions, Logical operations, Library
Printer Control: Comma and semicolon control, the TAB function, PRINT,
Functions and Subroutines: User defined functions, subroutines, subscripted
2.6. Computer Graphics:
2.7. Computer applications in pharmaceutical and clinical studies.
1.1.5. Practicals 4 hrs/ week
Exercises based on the following are to be dealt:
1. Computer operating systems like Unix, MS DOS, etc.
2. Simple program in BASIC
3. Study of soft-ware packages like WORD-STAR, LOTUS-123 etc.
Pharmaceutics - I
(Physical Pharmacy)
1.2.1 Theory 3 hrs / week
1. Matter, Properties of Matter : State of matter, change in the state of matter, latent
heats and vapor pressure, sublimation-critical point, Eutectic mixtures, gases,
aerosols-inhalers, relative humidity, liquid. complexes, liquid crystals, glassy
state, solids-crystalline, amorphous and polymorphism.
2. Micromeretic and Powder Rheology: Particle size and distribution, average
particle size, number and weight distribution, particle number, methods for
determining particle volume, optical microscopy, Asieving, sedimentation,
measurement, particle shape, specific surface, methods for determining surface
area; permeability, adsorption, derived properties of powders, porosity, packing
arrangement, densities, bulkiness & flow properties.
3. Surface and Interfacial Phenomenon: Liquid interface, surface and interfacial
tensions, surface free energy, measurement of surface and interfacial tensions, 
spreading coefficient, adsorption at liquid interfaces, surface active agents, HLB
classification, solubilization, detergency, adsorption at solid interfaces, solid-gas
and solid-liquid interfaces, complex films, electrical properties 0 mter ace.
4. Viscosity and Rheology: Newtonian systems, Law of flow, kinematic viscosity,
effect of temperature, non-Newtonian systems, pseudoplastic, dilatant, plastic,
thixotropy, thixotropy in formulation, determination of viscosity, capillary, falling
ball, rotational viscometers.
5. Dispersion Systems: Colloidal Dispersions: Definition, types, properties of
colloids, protective colloids, applications of colloids in pharmacy; Suspensions
and Emulsions: Interfacial properties of suspended particles, settling in
suspensions, theory of sedimentation, effect of Brownian movement"
sedimentation of flocculated articles, sedimentation parameters, wetting of
particles, controlled flocculation, flocculation in structured vehicles, rheological
considerations; Emulsions-types, theories, physical stability.
6. Complexation: Classification of complexes, methods of preparation and analysis,
7. Kinetics and Drug Stability: General considerations & concepts, half-life
determination, Influence of temperature, light, solvent, catalytic species and other
factors, Accelerated stability study, expiration dating.
8. Buffers: Buffer equations and buffer capacity in general, buffers in
pharmaceutical systems, preparation, stability, buffered isotonic solutions,
measurements of tonicity, calculations and methods of adjusting isotonicity.
1.2.1. Practicals 4 hrs /week
1. Determination of latent heat, vapor pressure, critical point.
2. Studies on polymorphs, their identification and properties.
3. Determination of particle size, particle size distribution and surface area using
various methods of particle size analysis.
4. Determination of derived properties of powders like density, porosity,
compressibility, angle of repose etc.
5. Determination of surface/interfacial tension, HLB value and critical micellar
concentration of surfactants.
6. Study of rheological properties of various types of systems using different
7. Studies of different types of colloids and their properties.
8. Preparation of various types of suspensions and determination of their
sedimentation parameters.
9. Preparation and stability studies of emulsions.
10. Studies on different types of complexes and determination of their stability
11. Determination of half-life, rate constant and order of reaction. 
12. To study the influence of various factors on the rate of reaction.
13. Accelerated stability testing, shelf-life determination and expiration dating of
14. Preparation of pharmaceutical buffers and determination of buffer capacity.
15. Experiments involving tonicity adjustments.
Advanced Mathematics
1.2.2. Theory 4 hrs/ week
1. Differential equations: Revision of integral calculus, definition and formation of
differential equations, equations of first order and first degree, variable separable,
homogeneous and linear differential equations and equations reducible to such
types, linear differential equations of order greater than one with constant
coefficients, complementary function and particular integral, simultaneous linear
differential equations, pharmaceutical applications.
2. Laplace transforms : Definition, transforms of elementary functions, properties
of linearity and shifting, inverse laplace transforms, transforms of derivatives,
solution of ordinary and simultaneous differential equations.
3. Biometrics: Significant digits bend rounding of numbers, data collection, random
and non-random sampling methods, sample size, data organization, diagrammatic
representation of data, bar, pie, 2-D and 3-D diagrams, measures of central
tendency, measures of dispersion, Standard Deviation and standard error of
means, coefficient of variation, confidence (fiducial) limits, probability and
events, Bayes' theorem, probability theorems, probability distributions, elements
of binomial and Poisson distribution, normal Histribution curve & properties,
kurtosis and skewness, correlation and regression analysis, method of least
squares, statistical inference, Student's and paired t-test, F-test and elements of
ANOVA, applications of statistical concepts in Pharmaceutical Sciences.
Pharmaceutical Chemistry - II
(Physical Chemistry)
1.2.3. Theory 3 hrs/ week
1. Behaviour of Gases: Kinetic theory of gases, deviation from behaviours and
2. The Liquid State: Physical properties (surface tension, parachor, viscosity,
refractive index, optical rotation, dipole moments and chemical constituents).
3. Solutions: Ideal and real solutions, solutions of gases in liquids, colligative
properties, partition coefficient, conductance and its measurement, Debye Huckel
4. There dynamics: First, second and third laws, Zeroth law, absolute temperature
scale, thermochemical equations, phase equilibria and phase rule.
5. Adsorption: Freudlich and Gibbs adsorption, isotherms, Langmuir theory of
6. Photochemistry: Consequences of light absorption, Jablenski diagram, LambertBeer
Law, Quantum efficiency.
7. Chemical Kincties: Zero, first and second order reactions, complex reactions,
theories of reaction kinetics, characteristics of homogeneous and heterogeneous
catalysis, acid base and enzyme catalysis.
8. Quantum Mechanics : Postulates of quantum mechanics, operators in quantum
mechanics, the schrodinger wave equation.
1.2.3. Practicals 4 hrs / week
1. To determine molar mass by Rast method and cryoscopic method.
2 To determine refractive index of given liquids and find out the contribution of
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in molar refraction of a compourld.
3. To determine molar mass of volatile liquids by Victor-Meyer method.
4. To determine the specific rotation of sucrose at various concentrations and
determine the intrinsic rotation.
5. To determine the heat of solution, heat of hydration and heat of neutralization.
6. To determine the cell constant, verify Ostwald dilution law and perform
conductometric titration,.
7. To determine rate constant of simple reaction.
Pharmaceutical Chemistry - III
(Organic Chemistry)
1.2.4. Theory 4 hrs / week
The subject of organic chemistry will be treated in its modem perspective keeping for the
sake of convenience, the usual classification of 'organic compounds.:
1. Structure and Properties : Atomic structure, Atomic orbitals, Molecular orbital
theory, wave equation, Molecular orbitals, Bonding and Antibonding orbitals,
Covalent bond, Hybrid orbitals, Intramolecular forces, Bond dissociation energy,
Polarity of bonds, Polarity of molecules, structure and physical properties,
Intermolecular forces, Acids and bases.
2. Stereochemistry : Isomerism and nomenclature and associated physicochemical
properties, optical activity, stereoisomerism, specification of configuration,
Reactions involving stereoisomers, chirality, chiral reagents conformations. 
3. Structure; Nomenclature; Prepanition and Reactions of: Alkanes, Alkenes,
Alkynes; Cycloalkanes, Dienes, Benzene, Polynuclear aromatic compounds,
Arenes, Alkyl halides, Alcohols, Ethers, Epoxides, Amines, Phenols, Aldeh¥des
and ketones, Carboxylic acids, Functional derivatives of' carboxylic acids,
Reactive intermediates - carbocations, carbanions, carbenes, nitrene and nitrenium
1.2.4. Practicals 6 hrs / week
1. The student should be introduced to the various laboratory techniques through
demonstrations involving synthesis of selected organic compounds (e.g. aspirin,
p-bromoacetanilide, anthraquinone from anthracine, reduction of nitrobenzene
2. Identification of organic compounds and their derivatisation.
3. Introduction to the use of stereomodels.
Anatomy, Physiology & Health Education
1.2.5. Theory 3 hrs /week
1. Scope of anatomy and physiology and basic terminology used these subjects.
2. Structure of cell, its components and their functions.
3. Elementary Tissues of the Human Body: Epithelial, connective, muscular and
nervous tissues, their sub-types and their characteristics.
4. Osseous System : Structure, composition and functions of skeleton Classification
of joints, types of movements of joints, Disorders of joints.
5. Skeletal Muscles : Gross anatomy; physiology of muscle contraction,
physiological properties of skeletal muscles and their disorders.
6. Haemopoietic System : Composition and functions of blood and its elements,
their disorders, blood groups and their significance, mechanism of coagulation,
disorders of platelets and coagulation.
7. Lymph and Lymphatic System : Composition, formulation and circulation of
lymph; disorders of lymph and lymphatic system. Basic physiology and functions
of spleen.
8. Cardiovascular System: Basic anatomy of the heart, Physiology of heart, blood
vessels and circulation. Basic understanding of Cardiac cycle, heart sounds and
understanding of Cardiac cycle, heart sounds and electrocardiogram. Blood
pressure and its regulation. Brief outline of cardiovascular disorder like
hypertension, hypotension, arteriosclerosis, angina, myocardial infarction,
congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias. 
1.2.5. Practicals 4 hrs /week
1. Study of human skeleton.
2. Study of different systems with the help of charts and models.
3. Microscopic study of different tissues.
4. Estimation of haemoglobin in blood. Determination of bleeding time, clotting
time, R.B.C. Count, Total leucocyte count, D.L.C. and E.S.R.
5 Recording of body temperature, pulse rate and blood pressure, basic
understanding of Electrocardiogram-PQRST waves and their significance.
Pharmaceutics - II
(Unit Operations I)
2.3.1. Theory 3 hrs week
1. Unit Operations: Introduction, basic laws.
2. Fluid Flow: Types of flow, Reynold's number, Viscosity, Concept of boundary
layer, basic equations of fluid flow, valves, flow meters, manometers and
measurement of flow and pressure.
3. Material Handling Systems:
a. Liquid handling - Different types of pumps.
b. Gas handling-Various types offans, blowers and compressors.
c. Solid handling-Bins, Bunkers, Conveyers, Air transport.
4. Filtration and Centrifugation: Theory of filtration, filter aids, filter media,
industrial filters including filter press, rotary filter, edge filter, etc. Factors
affecting filtration, mathematical problems on filtration, optimum cleaning cycle in
batch filters. Principles of centrifugation, industrial centrifugal filters, and
centrifugal sedimenters.
5. Crystallization: Characteristics of crystals like-purity, size, shape, geometry, habit,
forms size and factors affecting them, Solubility curves and calculation of yields.
Material and heat balances around Swenson Walker Crystallizer. Supersaturation
theory and its limitations, Nucleation mechanisms, crystal growth. Study of
various types of Crystallizer, tanks, agitated batch, Swenson Walker, Single
vacuum, ciralating magma and crystal Crystallizer, Caking of crystals and its
prevention. Numerical problems on yields.
6. Dehumidification and Humidity Control: Basic concepts and definition, wet bulb
and adiabatic saturation temperatures, Psychrometric chart and measurement of
humidity, application of humidity measurement in pharmacy, equipments for
dehumidificat4ion operations.
7. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning: Principal and applications of refrigeration and
air conditioning.
8. Material of Construction : General study of composition, <corrosion, resistance,
Properties and applications of the materials of construction with special reference 
to stainless steel and glass.
9. Industrial Hazards and Safety Precautions : Mechanical, Chemical, Electrical, fire
and dust hazards. Industrial dermatitis, Accident records etc.
2.3.1. Practicals 4 hrs / week
1. Measurement of flow of fluids and their pressure, determination Reynold's
number and calculation of Frictional losses.
2. Evaluation of filter media, determination of rate of filtration and study of factors
affecting filtration.
3. Experiments to demonstrate applications of centrifugation.
4. Thermometers and Psychrometric charts.
5. Determination of humidity - use of Dry Bulb and Wet Bulb.
6. Elementary Knowledge of Engineering Drawing - Concept of orthographic and
isometric views of elevation and third angle projection. Notation and abbreviation
used in Engineering drawing.
7. Basic Engineering Drawing Practice - Bolts, nuts, rivetted fronts, screws, worn
screws as per specification.
8. Drawing of simple pharmaceutical machinery parts.
Pharmaceutical Chemistry - IV
(Organic Chemistry - II)
2.3.2. Theory 3 hrs / week
Nucleophillic aromatic substitutions; α β unsaturated carbonyl compounds; Conservation
of orbital symmetry and rules., Electrocyclic, Cycloaddition and sigmatropic reactions;
Neighbouring group effects; Catalysis by transition metal complexes, Stereoselective and
sterospecific reactions; New organic reagents used in drug synthesis.
Heterocyclic Compounds: Chemistry, preparations and properties of some important
heterocyclis containing 3, 4,5,6 & 7 atoms with one or two heteroatoms like 0, N, S.
Chemistry oflipids, Carbohydrates, Proteins and Nucleic acids.
2.3.2. Practicals 4 hrs / week
At least five exercises in synthesis involving various heterocyclic ring systems. An
exercise involving stereoselective synthesis of a compound. Resolution of racemic DLalanine
or any other example. Workshop on molecular modelling of primary, secondary
and tertiary structures of proteins, molecular modelling on double helical structure of
nucleic acid showing hydrogen bonding. 
Pharmacognosy - II
2.3.3. Theory 3 hrs / week
1. Resins: Study of Drugs Containing Resins and Resin Combination like
Colophony, podophyllum, jalap, cannabis, capsicum, myrrh, asafoetida, balsam of
tolu, balsam of peru, benzoin, turmeric, ginger.
2. Tannis : Study of tannins and tannin containing drugs like Gambir, black catechu,
gall and myrobalan.
3. Volatile Oils : General methods of obtaining volatile oils from plants, Study of
volatile oils of Mentha, Coriander, Cinnamon, Cassia, Lemon peel, Orange peel,
Lemon grass, Citronella, Caraway, Dill, Spearmint, Clove, Fennel, Nutmeg,
Eucalyptus, Chenopodium, Cardamom, Valerian, Musk, Palmarosa, Gaultheria,
Sandal wood.
4. Phytochemical Screening:
a. Preparation of extracts.
b. Screening of alkaloids, saponins, cardenolides and bufadienolides, flavonoids
and leucoanthocyanidins, tannins and polyphenols, anthraquinones,
cynogenetic glycosides, amino acids in plant extracts.
5. Fibres: Study of fibres used in pharmacy such as c0tton, silk, wool, nylon, glasswool,
polyester and asbestos.
6. Pharmaceutical aids: Study of pharmaceutical aids like talc, diatomite, kaolin,
bentonite, gelatin and natural colors.
2.3.3. Practicals 4 hrs / week
1. Identification of crude drugs mentioned in theory.
2. Study of fibres and pharmaceutical aids.
3. Microscopic studies of seven-selected crude drugs and their powders mentioned
under the category of volatile oils in theory and their chemical tests,
4. General chemical tests for alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, flavonoids and tannins.
Pharmaceutical Analysis - II
2.3.4. Theory 3 hrs / week
Theoretical considerations, and application in drug analysis and quality control of
the following analytical techniques
1. Non-aqueous titrations
2. Complexometric titrations
3. Miscellaneous Methods of Analysis: Diazotisation titrations, Kjeldahl method of 
nitrogen estimation, Karl-Fischer titration, Oxygen flask combustion, gasometry.
4. Extraction procedures including separation of drugs from excipients
5. Chromatography: The following techniques will be discussed with relevant
examples of Pharmacopoeial products.
TLC, HPLC, GLC, HPTLC, Paper Chromatography and Column
6. Potentiometry
7. Conductometry
8. Coulometry
9. Polarography
10. Amperometry
2.3.4. Practicals 4 hrs /week
1. Nonaqueous Titrations: Preparation and standardization of perchloric acid and
sodium/potassium/lithium methoxides solutions; Estimations of some
pharmacopoeial products.
2. Complexometric Titrations : Preparations and standardization of EDT A solution,
some exercises related to pharmacopoeial assays by complexometric titrations.
3. Miscellaneous Determinations: Exercises involving diazotisation, Kjeldahl, KarlFischer,
Oxygen flask combustion and gasometry methods. Determination of
alcohol content in liquid galenicals, procedure (BPC) shall be covered.
4. Experiments involving separation of drugs from excipients.
5. Chromatographic analysis of some pharmaceutical products.
6. Exercises based on acid base titration in aqueous and nonaqueous media,
oxidation-reduction titrations using potentiometric technique, Determination of
acid-base disassociation constants and plotting of titration curves using pH meter.
7. Exercises involving polarimetry.
8. Exercises involving conductometric and polarographic techniques.
Anatomy, Physiology and Health Education
2.3.5. Theory 3 hrs / week
1. Digestive System: Gross anatomy of the gastro-intestinal tract, functions of its
different parts including those of liver, pancreas and gall bladder, various
gastrointestinal secretions and their role in the absorption and digestion of food.
Disorders of digestive system.
2. Respiratory System: Anatomy of respiratory organs & its functions, respiration,
mechanism and regulation of respiration, respiratory volumes and vital capacity.
3. Central Nervous System: Functions of different parts of brain and spinal cord. 
Neurohumoral transmission in the central nervous system, reflex action
electroencephalogram, specialized functions of the brain, Cranial nerves and their
4. Autonomic Nervous System : Physiology and functions of the autonomic nervous
system. Mechanism of neurohumoral transmission in the A.N.S.
5. Urinary System: Various parts, structures and functions of the kidney and urinary
tract. Physiology of urine formation and acid-base balance. Diseases of the
urinary system.
6. Reproductive System: Male and female reproductive systems and their hormones,
physiology of menstruation, coitus and fertilization. Sex differentiation,
spermatogenesis & oogenesis. Pregnancy its maintenance and parturition.
7. Endocrine System: Basic anatomy and physiology of Pituitary, Thyroid,
Parathyroid. Adrenals, Pancreas, Testes and ovary, their hormones and functions.
8. Sense Organs: Basic anatomy and physiology of the eye (vision), ear (hearing),
taste buds, nose (smell) and skin (superficial receptors).
9. a. Concepts of health and disease: Disease causing agents and prevention of
b. Classification of food requirements: Balanced diet, nutritional deficiency
disorders, their treatment and prevention, specifications for drinking water.
c. Demography and family planning : Medical termination of pregnancy.
d. Communicable diseases: Brief outline, their causative agents, modes of
transmission and prevention (Chicken pox, measles, influenza, diphtheria,
whooping cough, tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, helminthiasis, malaria, filariasis,
rabies, trachoma, tetanus, leprosy, syphilis, gonorrhoea, and AIDS).
e. First Aid: Emergency treatment of shock, snake bites, burns, poisoning,
fractures and resuscitation methods.
2.3.5. Practicals 4 hrs /week
1. Study of different systems with the help of charts and models.
2. Microscopic studies of different tissues.
3. Simple experiments involved in the analysis of normal and abnormal urine:
Collection of specimen, appearance, determination of pH, Sugars, proteins, urea
and creatinine.
4. Physiological experiments on nerve-muscle preparations.
5. Determination of vital capacity, experiments on spirometry.
Pharmaceutics - III
(Unit Operations II)
2.4.1. Theory 3 hrs / week
1. Stoichiometry: Unit processes material and energy balances, molecular units, 
mole fraction, tie substance, gas laws, mole volume, primary and secondary
quantities, equilibrium state, rate process, steady and unsteady states,
dimensionless equations, dimensionless formulae, dimensionless groups, different
types of graphic representation, mathematical problems.
2. Heat Transfer: Source of heat, heat transfer, steam and electricity as heating
media, determination of requirement of amount of steam/electrical energy, steam
pressure, Boiler capacity, Mathematical problems on heat transfer.
3. Evaporation: Basic concept of phase equilibria, factor affecting evaporation,
evaporators, film evaporators, single effect and multiple effect evaporators,
Mathematical problems on evaporation.
4. Distillation: Rault's law, phase diagrams, volatility; simple steam and flash
distillations, principles of rectification, Mc. Cabe Thiele method for calculations
of number of theoretical plates, Azeotropic and extractive distillation.
Mathematical problems on distillation.
5. Drying: Moisture content and mechanism of drying, rate of drying and time of
drying calculations; classification and types of dryers, dryers used in
pharmaceutical industries a..'1d special drying methods. Mathematical problems
on drying. .
6. Size Reduction and Size Separation: Definition, objectives of size reduction,
factors affecting size reduction, laws governing energy and power requirements of
a mills including ball mill, hammer mill, fluid energy mill etc.
7. Mixing: Theory of mixing, solid-solid, solid-liquid and liquidliquid mixing
8. Automated Process Control Systems : Process variables, temperature, pressure,
flow, level and vacuum and their measurements. Elements of automatic process
control and introduction to automatic process control systems. Elements of
computer aided manufacturing (CAM).
9. Reactors and fundamentals of reactors design for chemical reactions.
2.4.1. Practicals 4 hrs week
l. Determination of overall heat transfer coefficient.
2. Determination of rate of evaporation.
3. Experiments based on steam, extractive and azeotropic distillations.
4. Determination of rare of drying, free moisture content and bound moisture
5. Experiments to illustrate the influence of various parameters on the rate of drying.
6. Experiments to illustrate principles of size reduction, Laws governing energy and
power requirements of size Reduction.
7. Experiments to illustrate solid-solid mixing, determination of mixing efficiency
using different types of mixers. 
Pharmaceutical Microbiology
2.4.2. Theory 3 hrs /week
1. Introduction to the scope of microbiology.
2. Structure of bacterial cell.
3. Classification of microbes and their taxonomy. Actinomycetes, bacteria,
rickettsiae, spirochetes and viruses.
4. Identification of Microbes : Stains and types of staining techniques, electron
5. Nutrition, cultivation, isolation of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, viruses, etc.
6. Microbial genetics and variation.
7. Control of microbes by physical and chemical methods.
a. Disinfection, factors influencing disinfectants, dynamics of disinfection,
disinfectants and antiseptics and their evaluation.
b. Sterilization, different methods, validation of sterilization methods & equipments.
8. Sterility testing of all pharmaceutical products.
9. Immunity, primary and secondary, defensive mechanisms of body, microbial
resistance, interferon.
10. Microbial assays of antibiotics, vitamins & amino acids.
2.4.2. Practicals 4 hrs /week
Experiments devised to prepare various types of culture media, subculturing of common
aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, fungus and yeast, various staining methods, various
methods of isolation and identification of microbes, sterilization techniques and their
validation, evaluation of antiseptics and disinfectants, testing the sterility of
pharmaceutical products as per I.P. requirements, microbial assay of antibiotics and
vitamins, etc.
Pharmacognosy - III
2.4.3. Theory 3 hrs / week
1. Study of the biological sources, cultivation, collection, commercial varieties,
chemical constituents, substitutes, adulterants, uses, diagnostic macroscopic and
microscopic features and specific chemical tests of following groups of drugs
containing glycosides :
(i) Saponins : Liquorice, ginseng, dioscorea, sarsaparilla, and senega.
(ii) Cardioactive sterols: Digitalis, squill, strophanthus and thevetia.
(iii) Anthraquinone cathartics: Aloe, senna, rhubarb and cascara.
(iv) Others: Psoralea, Ammi majus, Ammi visnaga, gentian, saffron, chirata, quassia. 
2. Studies of traditional drugs, common vernacular names, botanical sources,
morphology, chemical nature of chief constituents, pharmacology, categories and
common uses and marketed formulations of following indigenous drugs:
Amla, Kantkari, Satavari, Tylophora, Bhilawa, Kalijiri, Bach, Rasna, Punamava,
Chitrack, Apamarg, Gokhru, Shankhapushpi, Brahmi, Adusa, Atjuna, Ashoka,
Methi, Lahsun, Palash, Guggal, Gymnema, Shilajit, Nagarmotha and Neem.
3. The holistic concept of drug administration in traditional systems of medicine.
Introduction to ayurvedic preparations like Arishtas, Asvas, Gutikas, Tailas,
Chumas, Lehyas and Bhasmas.
2.4.3. Practicals 4 hrs / week
1. Identification of crude drugs listed in theory.
2. Microscopic study of some important glycoside containing crude drugs as
outlined above. Study of Powdered drugs.
3. Standardization of some traditional drug formulations.
Pathophysiology of Common Diseases
2.4.4 Theory 4 hrs week
1. Basic Principles of Cell Injury and Adaptation: Causes of Cellular injury,
pathogenesis, morphology of cell injury. Intercellular alterations in lipids, proteins
and carbohydrates, Cellular adaptation, atrophy, hypertrophy.
2. Basic Mechanisms involved in the process of inflammation and repair: Alterations
in vascular permeability and blood flow, migration of WBCS, acute and chronic
inflammation, mediators of inflammation, brief outline of the process of repair.
3. Pathophysiology of Common Diseases: Rheumatoid arthritis, gout, epilepsy,
psychosis, depression, mania, hypertension, angina, congestive heart failure,
atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, diabetes, peptic ulcer, asthma, ulcerative
colitis, hepatic disorders, acute and chronic renal failure, tuberculosis, urinary
tract infections, sexually transmitted diseases, anemias and common types of
neoplasms. Wherever applicable the molecular basis should be discussed.
Pharmaceutics - IV
(Dispensing and Community Pharmacy)
2.4.5. Theory 3 hrs / week
1. Definition and Scope
2. Prescription: Handling of prescription, source of errors in prescription, care 
required in dispensing procedures including labeling of dispensed products.
3. General dispensing procedures including labeling of dispensed products.
4. Pharmaceutical calculations: Posology, calculation of doses for infants, adults and
elderly patients; Enlarging and reducing recipes percentage solutions, allegation,
alcohol dilution, proof spirit, isotonic solutions, displacement value etc.
5. Principles involved and procedures adopted in dispensing of : Typical
prescriptions like mixtures, solutions, emulsions, creams, ointments, powders,
capsules, pastes, jellies, suppositories, opthalmics, pastilles, lozenges, pills,
lotions, liniments, inhalations, paints sprays tablet triturates, etc.
6. Incompatibilities: Physical and chemical incompatibilities, inorganic
incompatibilities including incompatibilities of metals and their salts, non-metals,
acids, alkalis, organic incompatibilities. Purine bases, alkaloids, pyrazolone
derivatives, amino acids, quaternary ammonium compounds, carbohydrates,
glycosides, anesthetics, dyes, surface active agents, correction of
incompatibilities. Therapeutic incompatibilities.
7. Community Pharmacy: Organization and structure of retail and whole sale drug
store-types of drug store and design, legal requirements for establishment,
maintenance and drug store-dispensing of proprietary products, maintenance of
records of retail and wholesale, patient counselling, role of pharmacist in
community health care and education.
2.4.5. Practicals 4 hrs / week
1. Dispensing of prescriptions falling under the categories : Mixtures, solutions,
emulsions. creams, ointments, powders, suppositories, opthalmics, capsules,
pastes, jellies, pastille, lozenges, pills, tablet triturates, lotions, liniments,
inhalations, paints, etc.
2. Identification of various types of incompatibilities in prescription, correction
thereof and dispensing of such prescriptions.
3. Dispensing procedures involving pharmaceuticals calculations, pricing of
prescriptions and dosage calculations for paediatric and geriatric patients.
4. Dispensing of prescriptions involving adjustment of tonicity.
5. Categorization and storage of pharmaceutical products based on legal
requirements of labelling and storage.
6. Project report on visit to the nearby Community for counselling on the rational
use of drugs and aspects of health care. 
Pharmaceutical Chemistry –V
3.5.1. Theory 3 hrs / week
1. Biochemical organization of the cell and transport processes across cell
2. The concept of free energy, determination of change in free energy - from
equilibrium constant and reduction potential, bioenergetics, production of A TP
and its biological significance.
3. Enzymes: Nomenclature, enzyme kinetics and its mechanism of action,
mechanism of inhibition, enzymes and iso-enzymes in clinical diagnosis.
4. Co-enzymes: Vitamins as co-enzymes and their significance. Metals as coenzymes
and their significance.
5. Carbohydrate Metabolism: Conversion of polysaccharide to glucose-I-phosphate,
Glycolysis and fermentation and their regulation, Gluconeogenesis and
glycogenolysis, Metabolism of galactose and galactosemia, Role of sugar
nucleotides in biosynthesis, and Pentosephosphate pathway.
6. The Citric Acid Cycle: Significance, reactions and energetic of the cycle,
Amphibolic role of the cycle, and Glyoxalic acid cycle.
7. Lipids Metabolism : Oxidation of fatty acids, ~-oxidation & energetic, aoxidation,
c.o-oxidation, Biosynthesis of ketone bodies and their utilization.
Biosynthesis of saturated anq unsaturated fatty acids, Control of lipid metabolism,
Essential fatty acids & eicosanoids (prostaglandins, thromboxanes and
leukotrienes), phospholipids, and sphingolipids.
8. Biological Oxidation : Redox-potential, enzymes and co-enzymes involved in
oxidation reduction & its control, The respiratory chain, its role in energy capture
and its control, Energetics of oxidative phosphorylation, Inhibitors of respiratory
chain and oxidative phosphoryla Mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation.
9. Nitrogen & Sulphur Cycle : Nitrogen fixation. ammonia assimilation, nitrification
and nitrate assimilation, Sulphate activation. sulphate reduction. Incorporation of
sulphur in organic compounds, Release of sulphur from organic compounds.
10. Metabolism of Ammonia and Nitrogen Containing Monomers : Nitrogen balance.
Biosynthesis of amino acids. Catabolism of amino acids. Conversion of amino
acids to specialized products, Assimilation of ammonia. Urea. cycle, metabolic
disorders of urea cycle. Metabolism of sulphur containing amino acids. Porphyrin
biosynthesis. formation of bile pigments. hyperbilirubinemia. Purine biosynthesis.
Purine nucleotide interconversion. Pyrimidine biosynthesis. and Formation of
11. Biosynthesis of Nucleic Acids: Brief introduction of genetic organization of the 
mammalian genome, alteration and rearrangements of genetic material,
Biosynthesis of DNA and its replication. Mutation. Physical & chemical
mutagenesis / carcinogenesis. DNA repair mechanism. Biosynthesis of RNA.
12. Genetic Code and Protein Synthesis: Genetic code. Components of protein
synthesis. and Inhibition of protein synthesis. Brief account of genetic engineering
and polymerase chain reactions.
13. Regulation of gene expression.
3.5.1. Practicals 4 hrs / week
1. Preparation of standard buffers (citrate, phosphate and carbonate) and
measurement of pH.
2. Titration curve for amino acids.
3. Separation of amino acids by two dimensional paper chromatography and gel
4. The separation of lipids by TLC.
5. Separation of serum proteins by electrophoresis on cellulose acetate.
6. Quantitative estimation of amino acids.
7. Quantitative estimation of proteins.
8. The identification of c-terminal amino acids of a protein.
9 The determination of glucose by means of the enzyme glucose. oxidase.
10. The isolation and assay of glycogen from the liver and skeletal muscle of rats.
11 Enzymatic hydrolysis of glycogen by. alpha- and beta-amylases.
12. The isolation and determination of RNA and DNA.
13. Effect of temperature on the activity of alpha - amylase.
14. Estimation of SGOT, SGPT, ALP and BRN in the serum.
Pharmaceutics - V
(Pharmaceutical Technology I)
3.5.2. Theory. 3 hrs / week
1. Liquid Dosages Forms: Introduction, types of additives used in formulations,
Vehicles, stabilizers, preservatives, suspending agents, emulsifying agents,
solubilizer, colors, flavours and others, manufacturing packaging and evaluation
of clear liquids, suspensions and emulsions official in pharmacopoeia.
2. Semisolid Dosage Forms: Definitions, types, mechanisms of drug penetration,
factors influencing penetration, semisolid bases and their selection. General
formulation of semisolids, clear gels manufacturing procedure, evaluation and
3. Suppositories: Ideal requirements, bases, manufacturing procedure, packaging
and evaluation. 
4. Extraction and Galenical Products : Principle and method of extraction,
preparation of infusion, tinctures, dry and soft liquid extracts.
5. Blood Products and Plasma Substitutes: Collection, processing and storage of
whole human blood, concentrated human RBCs, dried human plasma, human
fibrinogen, human thrombin, human normal immunoglobulin, human fibrin, foam
plasma substitutes, -ideal requirements, PVP, dextran etc. for control of blood
pressure as per I.P.
6. Pharmaceutical Aerosols : Definition, propellants, general formulation,
manufacturing' and packaging methods, pharmaceutical applications.
7. Ophthalmic Preparations: Requirements, formulation, methods of preparation,
containers, evaluation.
8. Cosmeticology and Cosmetic Preparations: Fundamentals of cosmetic science,
structure and functions of skin and hair. Formulation, preparation and packaging
of cosmetics for skin, hair, dentifrice and manicure preparations like nail polish,
Lipsticks, eye lashes, baby care products etc.
3.5.2. Practicals 4 hrs / week
1. Preparation, evaluation and packaging of liquid orals like solutions, suspensions
and emulsions, ointments, suppositories, aerosols, eye drops, eye ointments etc.
2. Preparation of pharmacopoeial extracts and galenical products utilizing various
methods of Extraction.
3. Collection, processing, storage and fractionation of blood.
4. Formulation of various types of cosmetics for skin, hair, dentifrices and manicure
Pharmacology I
3.5.3. Theory 3 hrs / week
1. General Pharmacology: Introduction to Pharmacology, Sources of drugs,
Dosage forms and routes of administration, mechanism of action, Combined
effect of drugs, Factors modifying drug action, tolerance and dependence,
Pharmacogenetics. Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion of drugs,
Principles of Basic and Clinical pharmacokinetics, Adverse Drug Reactions and
treatment of poisoning, ADME drug interactions, Bioassay of Drugs and
Biological Standardization, Discovery and development of new drugs.
2. Pharmacology of Peripheral Nervous System:
a. Neurohumoral transmission (autonomic and Somatic)
b. Parasympathomimetics, Parasympatholytics, Sympathomimetics, Adrenergic
Receptor and neuron blocking agents, Ganglionic, stimulants and blocking agents.
c. Neuromuscular blocking Agents. 
d. Local anesthetic Agents.
3. Pharmacology of Central Nervous System:
a) Neurohumoral transmission in the C.N.S.
b) General Anesthetics.
c) Alcohols and disulfiram.
d) Sedatives, hypnotics, Anti-anxiety agents and Centrally acting muscle relaxaQ.ts.
e) Psychopharmacological agents (anti-psychotics) antidepressants anti maniacs and
t) Anti-epileptics drugs.
g) Anti-Parkinsonian Drugs.
h) Analgesics, Antipyretics, Anti-inflammatory and Anti-gout drugs.
i) Narcotic analgesics and antagonists. J) C.N .S. stimulants
k) Drug Addiction and Drug Abuse.
3.5.3. Practicals 4 hrs / week
1. Introduction to Experimental Pharmacology :
Preparation of different solutions for experiments.
Drug dilutions, use of molar and w/v solutions in experimental pharmacology.
Common laboratory animals and anesthetics used in animal studies. Commonly
used instruments in experimental pharmacology. some common and standard
Bleeding and intravenous injection, intragastric administration. Procedures for
rendering animals unconscious-stunning of rodents, pithing of frogs, chemical
2. Experiments on intact preparations
Study of different routes of administration of drugs in mice/rats. To study the
effect of hepatic microsomal enzyme inhibitors and induction on the
pentobarbitone sleeping time in mice.
3. Experiments on Central Nervous system: Recording of spontaneous motor
activity, stereotypy, analgesia, anticonvulsant activity, anti- inflammatory
activity, and muscle relaxant activity of drugs using simple experiments. .
4. Effects of autonomic drugs on rabbit's eye.
5. Effects of various agonists and antagonists and their characterization using
isolated preparations like frog's rectus abdominis muscle " and isolated ileum
preparations of rat, guinea pig and rabbit.
Pharmacognosy - IV
3.5.4. Theory 3 hrs / week 1.
1. Systematic study of source, cultivation, collection, processing, commercial 
varieties, chemical constituents, substitutes, adulterants, uses, diagnostic
macroscopic and microscopic features and specific chemical tests of following
alkaloid containing drugs:
a) Pyridine - piperidine: Tobacco, areca and lobelia.
b) Tropane: Belladonna, hyoscyamus, datura, duboisia, coca and withania
c) Quinoline and isoquinoline : Cinchona, ipecac, opium.
d) Indole : Ergot, rauwolfia, catharanthus, nux-vomica and physostigma
e) Imidazole: Pilocarpus
f) Steroidal: Veratrum and kurchi
g) Alkaloidal amine: Ephedra and colchicum.
h) Glycoalkaloid: Solanum.
i) Purines: Coffee, tea and cola.
2. Role of medicinal and aromatic plants in national economy.
3. Biological sources, preparation, identification tests and uses of the following
enzymes: Diastase, papain, pepsin, trypsin, pancreatin.
4. General techniques of biosynthetic studies and basic metabolic pathways. Brief
introduction to biogenesis of secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical
5. Plant bitters and sweeteners.
6. Introduction, classification and study of different chromatographic methods and
their applications in evaluation of herbal drugs.
3.5.4. Practicals 4 hrs /week
i) Identification of crude drugs listed above.
ii) Microscopic study of characters of eight - selected drugs given in theory in entire
and powdered form.
iii) Chemical evaluation of powdered drugs and enzymes.
iv) Chromatographic studies of some herbal constituents.
Pharmaceutics VI
(Hospital Pharmacy)
3.5.5. Theory 3 hrs / week
1. Organization and Structure : Organization of a hospital and hospital pharmacy,
Responsibilities of a hospital pharmacist, Pharmacy and therapeutic committee,
Budget preparation and Implementation.
2. Hospital Formulary : Contents, preparation and revision of hospital formulary.
3. Drug Store Management and Inventory Control:
(a) Organization of drug store, Types of materials stocked, storage conditions. 
(b) Purchase and Inventory Control principles, purchase procedures, Purchase
order, Procurement and stocking.
4. Drug distribution Systems in Hospitals:
(a) Out-patient dispensing, methods adopted.
(b) Dispensing of drugs to in-patients. Types of drug distribution systems.
Charging policy, labeling.
(c) Dispensing of drugs to ambulatory patients.
(d) Dispensing of controlled drugs.
5. Central Sterile Supply Unit and their Management: Types of materials for
sterilization, Packing of materials prior to sterilization, sterilization equipments,
Supply of sterile materials.
6. Manufacture of Sterile and Nonsterile Products: Policy making of manufacturable
items, demand and costing, personnel requirements, manufacturing practice,
Master formula Card, production control, Manufacturing records.
7. Drug Information Services: Sources' of Information on drugs, disease, treatment
schedules, procurement qf information, Computerized services (e.g., MEDLINE),
Retrieval of information, Medication error.
8. Records and Reports: Prescription filling, drug profile, patient medication profile,
cases on drug interaction and adverse reactions, idiosyncratic cases etc.
9. Nuclear Pharmacy: Introduction to Radio- pharmaceuticals, radio-active halflife,
Units of radio-activity Production of radio-pharmaceuticals, methods of isotopic
tagging, preparation of radio-isotopes in laboratory using radiation dosimetry,
radio-isotope generators, Permissible radiation dose level, Radiation hazards and
their prevention, specifications for radio-active laboratory.
3.5.5 Practicals 4 hrs / week
1. Experiments based on sterilization of various types of materials used in
2. Practicals designed on the use of computers in Drug Information Centre,
prescription filling, documentation of information on drug interaction.
3. Experiments to illustrate handling of radiopharma.ceutical products, measument
of radioactivity.
Pharmaceutical Chemistry - j[V
(Medicinal Chemistry - I)
3.6.1. Theory 3 hrs / week
1. Basic Principles of Medicinal Chemistry: Physico-chemical aspects (Optical,
geometric and bioisosterism) of drug molecules and bilological action, Drugreceptor
interaction including transduction mechanisms. 
2. Principles of Drug Design (Theoretic~fll Aspects) : Traditional analog (QSAR)
and mechanism based approaches (Introduction 00' graph theory, applications of
quantum mechanics, Computer Aided Drug Desigming (CADD) androolecular
3. Synthetic procedures of selected drugs, mode of action, uses, structure activity
relationship including physicochemical properties of the following classes of
A.Drugs acting at Synaptic and neuro-effector junction sites:
i. Cholinergics and Anticholinesterases
ii. Adrenergic .drugs
iii. Antispasmodic and anti ulcer drugs iv. Neuromuscular blocking agents.
i. Antihistamines ii. Eicosanoids
iii. Analgesic-antipyretics, anti-inflammatory (non-steroidal) agents.
C.Drugs affecting uterine motility
Oxytocics (including oxytocin, ergot alkaloids and prostaglandins' Biochemical
approaches in drug designing wherever applicable should be discussed.
3.6.1. Practicals 4 hrs /week
1. Exercises based on QSAR: Hansch & Free-Wilson methods.
2. Synthesis of selected drugs from the course content.
3. Spectral analysis of the drugs synthesized.
4. Establishing the pharmacopoeial standards of the drugs synthesized.
5. Determination of partition coefficient, dissociation constant and molar refractivity
of compounds for QSAR analysis.
Pharmaceutical Jurisprudence & Ethics
3.6.2. Theory 4 hrs /week
1. Introduction
a. Pharmaceutical Legislations - A brief review.
b. Drugs & Pharmaceutical Industry - A brief review.
c. Pharmaceutical Education - A briefreview.
2. An elaborate study of the following
a. Pharmaceutical Ethics
b. Pharmacy Act 1948.
c. Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940 and Rules 1945.
d. Medicinal & Toilet Preparations (Excise Duties) Act 1955.
e. Narcotic Drugs & Psychotropic Substances Act 1985 & Rules.
f. Drugs Price Control Order. 
3. A brief study of the following with special reference to the main provisions.
a. Poisons Act 1919
b. Drugs and Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements) Act 1954
c. Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act 1970 & Rules 1975.
d. Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1960.
e. States Shops & Establishments Act & Rules.
f. Insecticides Act 1968.
g. AICTE Act 1987.
h. Factories Act 1948.
j. Minimum Wages Act 1948. k Patents Act 1970.
4. A brief study of the various Prescription/Non-prescription Products, Medical
/Surgical accessories, Diagnostic aids, appliances available in the market.
Note: The teaching of all the about Acts should cover the latest amendments.
Pharmaceutics VII
(Biopharmaceutics & Pharmacokinetics)
3.6.3. Theory 3 hrs / week
1. Introduction to Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics and their role in
formulation development and clinical setting.
2. Biopharmaceutics
2.1. Passage of drugs across biological barrier (passive diffusion, active transport,
facilitated diffusion and pinocytosis).
2.2. Factors influencing absorption - Physicochemical, physiological and
2.3. Drug distribution in the body, plasma protein binding.
3. Phamacokinetics :
3.1. Significance of plasma drug concentration measurement. 3.2. Compartment
model-Definition and Scope.
3.3. Pharmacokinetics of drug absorption - Zero order and first order absorption rate
constant using Wagner - Nelson and Loo- Reigelman method.
3.4. Volume of distribution and distribution coefficient.
3.5. Compartment kinetics - One compartment and two compartment models.
Determination of pharmacokinetic parameters from plasma and urine data after
drug administration by intravascular and o'al route.
3.6. Curve fitting (method of Residuals), regression procedures.
3.7. Clearance concept, Mechanism of renal clearance, clearance ratio, determination
of renal clearance.
3.8. Extraction ratio, hepatic clearance, biliary excretion, Extrahepatic circulation. 
3.9. Non-linear pharmacokinetics with special reference to one compartment model
after 1. V drug administration, Michaeles Menten Equation, detection of nonlinearity
(Saturation mechanism).
4. Clinical Pharmacokinetics: 4.1. Definition and scope
4.2. Dosage adjustment in patients with and without renal and hepatic failure.
4.3. Design of single dose bio-equivalence study and relevant statistics.
4.4. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions and their significance in combination therapy.
5. Bioavailability and bioequivalence :
5.1. Measures of bioavailability, Cmax, t max, and Area Under the Curve (AUe).
5.2. Design of single dose bioequivalence study and relevant statistics.
5.3. Review of regulatory requirements for conduction of bioequivalent studies.
3.6.3. Practicals 4hrs / week
1. Experiments designed for the estimation of various pharmacokinetic parameters
with given data.
2. Analysis of biological specifications for drug content and estimation of the
pharmacokinetic parameters.
3. In vitro evaluation of different dosage forms for drug release.
4. Absorption studies - in- vitro and in -situ.
5. Statistical treatment of pharmaceutical data.
Pharmacology - II
3.6.4. Theory 4 hrs week
1. Pharmacology of Cardiovascular System:
a) Digitalis and cardiac glycosides.
b) Antihypertensive drugs.
c) Antianginal and Vasodilator drugs, including calcium channel blockers and beta
adrenergic antagonists.
d) Antiarrhythmic drugs
e) Antihyperlipedemic drugs
f) Drugs used in the therapy of shock.
2 Drugs Acting on the Hemopoietic System:
a) Hematinics.
b) Anticoagulants, Vitamin K and hemostatic agents.
c) Fibrinolytic and anti-platelet drugs.
d) Blood and plasma volume expanders.
3. Drugs acting on urinary system:
a) Fluid and electrolyte balance 
b) Diuretics
4. Autocoids :
a) Histamine, 5-HT and their antagonists.
b) Prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes.
c) Pentagastrin, Cholecystokinin, Angiotensin, Bradykinin and Substance P.
5. Drugs Acting on the Respiratory System:
a) Anti-asthmatic drugs including bronchodilators.
b) Anti-tussives and expectorants.
c) Respiratory stimulants.
3.6.4. Practicals 6 hrs / week
1. Experiments on Isolated Preparations:
a) To record the concentration response curve (CRC) of acetylcholine using rectus
abdominis muscle preparation of frog.
b) To study the effects of physostigmine and d-tubocurarine on the CRC of
acetylcholine using rectus abdominis muscle preparation of frog.
c) To record the CRC of 5-HT on rat fundus preparation.
d) To record the CRC of histamine on guinea pig ileum preparation.
e) To record the CRC of noraderenaline on rat anococcygeus muscle preparation.
f) To record the CRC of oxytocin using rat uterus preparation.
2. Pharmacology of Cardiovascular System:
a) To study the ionotropic and chronotropic effects of drugs on isolated frog heart.
b) To study the effects of drugs on normal and hypodynamic frog heart.
3. Blood Pressure of anaesthetized Dog/Cat/Rat :
To demonstrate the effects of various drugs on the B.P. and respiration including
the Vasomotor Reversal of Dale and nicotinic action of acetylcholine.
Pharmacognosy - V
(Chemistry of Natural Products)
3.6.5. Theory 3 hrs / week
1. Chemical and spectral approaches to simple molecules of natural origin
2. Concept of stereoisomerism taking examples of natural products.
3. Chemistry, biogenesis and pharmacological activity of medicinally important
monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, and triterpenoids.
4. Carotenoids: α-carotenoids, β-carotenes, vitamin A, Xanthophylls of medicinal
5. Glycosides : Chemistry and biosynthesis of digitoxin, digoxin, hecogenin,
sennosides, diosgenin and sarasapogenin.
6. Alkaloids: Chemistry, biogenesis and pharmacological activity of atropine and
related compounds; quinine, reserpine, morphine, papaverine, ephedrine, ergot 
and vinca alkaloids.
7. Chemistry and biogenesis of medicinally important lignans and quassanoids,
8. Chemistry and therapeutic activity of penicillin, streptomycin and tetracyclines.
3.6.5. Practicals 4 hrs / week
i) Laboratory experiments on isolation, separation, purification of various groups of
chemical constituents of pharmaceMtical significance.
ii) Exercises on paper and thin layer chromatographic evaluations of herbal drug
Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
4.7.1. Theory 4 hrs /week
1. Immunology and Immunological Preparations : Principles, antigens and
haptens, immune system, cellular humorai immunity, immunological tolerance,
antigen-antibody reactions and their applications. Hypersensitivity, Active and
passive immunization; Vaccines- their preparation, standardization and storage.
2. Genetic Recombination : Transformation, conjugation, transduction, protoplast
fusion and gene cloning and their applications. Development of hybrid om a for
monoclonal antibodies. Study of drugs produced by biotechnology such as
Activase, Humulin, Humatrope, HB etc.
3. Antibiotics: Historical development of antibiotics. Antimicrobial spectrum and
methods used for their standardization. Screening of soil for organisms producing
antibiotics, fermenter, its design, control of different parameters. Isolation of
mutants, factors influencing rate of mutation. Design of fermentation process.
Isolation of fermentation products with special reference to penicillins,
streptomycins tetracyclines and vitamin B12•
4. Microbial Transformation : Introduction, types of reactions mediated by
microorganisms, design of biotransformation processes, selection of organisms,
biotransformation process and its improvements with special reference to steroids.
5. Enzyme immobilization: Techniqes of immobilization, factors affecting enzyme
kinetics. Study of enzymes such as hyaluronidase, penicillinase, streptokinase and
streptodornase, amylases and proteases etc. Immobilization of bacteria and plant
Pharmaceutics - VIII
(Pharmaceutical Technology II)
4. 7.2. Theory 4 hrs /week
1. Capsules: Advantages and disadvantages of capsule dosage form, material for
production of hard gelatin capsules, size of capsules, method of capsule filling,
soft gelatin, capsule shell and capsule content, importance of base absorption and
minimum/gm factors in soft capsules, quality control, stability testing and storage
of capsule dosage forms.
2. Micro-encapsulation: Types of microcapsules, importance of microencapsulation
in pharmacy, microencapsulation by phase separation, coacervation, multi orifice,
spray drying, spray congealing, polymerisation complex emulsion, air suspension
technique, coating pan and other techniques, evaluation of micro capsules.
3. Tablets:
a) Formulation of different types of tablets, granulation, technology on large-scale
by various techniques, physics of tablets making, different types of tablet
compression machinery and the equipments employed, evaluation of tablets.
b) Coating of Tablets : Types of coating, film forming materials, formulation of
coating solution, equipments for coating, coating process, evaluation of coated
c) Stability kinetics and quality assurance.
4. Parenteral Products:
a) Preformulation factors, routes of administration, water for injection, pyrogenicity,
non aqueous vehicles, isotonicity and methods of its adjustment
b) Formulation details, containers and closures and selection.
c) Prefilling treatment, washing of containers and closures, preparation of solution
and suspensions, filling and closing of ampoules, vials, infusion fluids,
lyophillization & preparation of sterile powders, equipment for large scale
manufacture and evaluation of parenteral products.
d) Aseptic Techniques-source of contamination and methods of prevention, Design
of aseptic area, Laminar flow bench services and maintenance.
e) Sterility testing of pharmaceuticals.
5. Surgical products : Definition, primary wound dressing, absorbents, surgical
cotton, surgical gauzes etc., bandages, adhesive tape, protective cellulosic
hemostastics, official dressings, absorbable and nonabsorbable sutures, ligatures
and catguts. Medical prosthetics and organ replacement materials.
6. Packaging of Pharmaceutical Products: Packaging components, types,
specifications and methods of evaluation, stability aspects of packaging.
Packaging equipments, factors influencing choice of containers, legal and other 
official requirements for containers, package testing.
4.7.2. Practicals 6 hrs / week
1. Experiments to illustrate preparation, stabilization, physical and biological
evaluation of pharmaceutical products like powders, capsules, tablets, parenterals,
micro capsules, surgical dressing etc.
2. Evaluation of materials used in pharmaceutical packaging.
Pharmaceutical Industrial Management
4.7.3. Theory 4 hrs /week
1. Concept of Management : Administrative Management (Planning, Organizing,
Staffing, Directing and Controlling), Entrepreneurship development, Operative
Management (Personnel, Materials, Production, Financial, Marketing,
Time/space, Margin/Morale). Principles of Management (Co-ordination,
Communication, Motivation, Decision-making, leadership, Innovation, Creativity,
Delegation of Authority / Responsibility, Record Keeping). Identification of key
points to give maximum thrust for development and perfection.
2. Accountancy: Principles of Accountancy, Ledger posting and book entries,
preparation of trial balance, columns of a cash book, Bank reconciliation
statement, rectification of errors, Profits and loss account, balance sheet,
purchase, keeping and pricing of stocks, treatment of cheques, bills of exchange,
promissory notes and hundies, documentary bills.
3. Economics: Principles of economics with special reference to the laws of demand
and supply, demand schedule, demand curves, labor welfare, general principles of
insurance and inland and foreign trade, procedure of exporting and importing
4. Pharmaceutical Marketing : Functions, buying, selling, transportation, storage,
finance, feedback, information, channels of distribution, wholesale, retail,
departmental store, multiple shop and mail order business.
5. Salesmanship: Principles of sales promotion, advertising, ethics of sales,
merchandising, literature, detailing. Recruitment, training, evaluation,
compensation to the pharmacist.
6. Market Research:
(a) Measuring & Forecasting Market Demands-Major concept in demand
measurement, Estimating current demand, Geodemographic analysis, Estimating
industry sales, Market share & Future demand.
(b) Market Segmentation & Market Targeting.
7. Materials Management: A brief exposure or basic principles of materials
management-major areas, scope, purchase, stores, inventory control and 
evaluation of materials management.
8. Production Management: A brief exposure of the different aspects of
Production Management-Visible and Invisible inputs, Methodology of Activities,
Performance Evaluation Technique, Process-Flow, Process Knowhow,
Maintenance Management.
Pharmacology - III
4.7.4. Theory 3 hrs /week
1.Drugs Acting on the Gastrointestinal Tract:
(a) Antacids, Anti Secretory and Anti-ulcer drugs.
(b) Laxatives and anti diarrhoeal drugs.
(c) Appetite Stimulants and Suppressants (d) Emetics and anti-emetics.
(e) Miscellaneous-Carminatives, demulcents, protectives, adsorbents, astringents,
digestants, enzymes and mucolytics.
2.Pharmacology of Endocrine System:
(a) Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones
(b) Thyroid hormones and anti thyroid drugs, parathormone, calcitonin and
Vitamin D.
(c) Insulin, oral hypoglycaemic agents & glucagon.
(d) ACTH and corticosteroids.
(e) Androgens and anabolic steroids.
(f) Estrogens, progesterone and oral contraceptives. (g) Drugs acting on the
(a) General Principles of Chemotherapy. (b) Sulfonamides and cotrimoxazole.
(c) Antibiotics-Penicillins, Cephalosporins, Chloramphenicol Erythromycin,
Quinolones and Miscellaneous Antibiotics.
(d) Chemotherapy of tuberculosis, leprosy, fungal diseases, viral diseases, urinary
tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases.
(e) Chemotherapy of malignancy and Immunosuppressive Agents.
4.Principles of Toxicology :
(a) Definition of poison, general principles of treatment of poisoning with
particular reference to barbiturates, opioids, organophosphorous and atropine
(b) Heavy metals and heavy metal antagonists.
4.7.4. Practicals 4 hrs / week
1.Experiments on Isolated Preparations:
(a) To calculate the pA2 value of atropine using acetylcholine as an agonist on rat 
ileum preparation.
(b) To calculate the pA2 value of mepyramine or chlorpheniramine using
histamine as agonist on guinea pig ileum.
(c) To estimate the strength of the test sample of agonist/drug (e.g. Acetylcholine,
Histamine, 5 -HT, Oxytocin, etc) using a suitable isolated muscle preparation
employing Matching bioassay, Bracketing assay, Three point assay and Four
point bioassay.
2. Pharmacology of the Gastrointestinal Tract:
To study tbe Anti- secretary and anti-ulcer activity using pylorus
3.Clinical pharmacology :
To determine the effects of certain clinically useful drugs on human volunteers like:
(a) Antihistaminics
(b) Anti-anxiety and sedative drugs (c) Analgesics
(d) Beta blockers.
Pharmaceutical Chemistry - VII
(Medicinal Chemistry - II)
4.7.5. Theory 3 hrs / week
Synthetic procedures of selected drugs, mode of action, uses, structure activity
relationship including Physico-Chemical properties of the following classes of drugs.
1. Steroids and related drugs : Steroidal nomenclature and stereochemistry,
androgens and anabolic agents, estrogens, and progestational agents,
2. Drugs acting on the Central Nervous System: General Anesthetics, Local
Anesthetics, Hypnotics and Sedatives, Opioid analgesics, antitussives, anti
convulsants, Antiparkinsonism drugs, CNS stimulants, Psychopharmacological
agents (neuroleptics, antidepressants, anxiolytics).
3. Diuretics, Cardiovascular drugs, Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet drugs.
Biochemical approaches in drug designing wherever applicable should be discussed.
4.7.5 Practicals 4 hrs /week
1. Workshop on stereomodel use of some selected drugs.
2. Synthesis of selected drugs from the course content involving two or more steps
and their spectral analysis.
3. Establishing the Pharmacopoeial standards of the drugs synthesized. 
Pharmaceutics IX (Dosage Form Design)
4.8.1. Theory 3 hrs / week
1. Preformulation studies:
a) Study of physical properties of drug like physical form, particle size, shape,
density, wetting dielectric constant. Solubility, dissolution and organoleptic
property and their effect on formulation, stability and bioavailability.
b) Study of chemical properties of drugs like hydrolysis, oxidation, reduction,
racemization, polymerization etc., and their influence on formulation and
stability of products.
c) Study of pro-drugs in solving problems related to stability, bioavailability
and elegancy of formulations.
2. Design, development and process validation methods for pharmaceutical
operations involved in the production of pharmaceutical products with special
reference to tablets, suspensions.
3. Stabilization and stability testing protocol for various pharmaceutical products.
4. Performance evaluation methods
a) In-vitro dissolution studies for solid dosage forms methods, interpretation of
dissolution data.
b) Bioavailability studies and bioavailability testing protocol and procedures.
c) In-vivo methods of evaluation and statistical treatment.
5. GMP and quality assurance, Quality audit
6. Design, development, production and evaluation of controlled released
4.8.1. Practicals 3 hrs / week
1. Preformulation studies including drug-excipient compatibility studies, effect of
stabilizers, preservatives etc. in dosage form design.
2. Experiments demonstrating improvement in bioavailability through prodrug
3. Stability evaluation of various dosage forms and their expiration dating.
4. Dissolution testing and data evaluation for oral solid dosage forms.
6. In -vivo bioavailability evaluation from plasma drug concentration and urinary
excretion curves.
7. Design, development and evaluation of controlled release formulations. 
Pharmaceutical Analysis – III
4.8.2. Theory 3 hrs / week
A. Quality assurance:
1. GLP, ISO 9000, TQM, Quality Review and Quality Documentation.
2. Regulatory control, regulatory drug analysis, interpretation of analytical data.
3. Validation, quality audit: quality of equipment, validation of equipment, validation
of analytical procedures.
B. The theoretical aspects, basic instrumentation, elements of interpretation of
spectra, and applications of the following analytical techniques should be discussed :
1. Ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry
2. Fluorimetry.
3. Infrared spectrophotometry.
4. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy including 13c NMR.
5. Mass Spectrometry.
6. Flame Photometry.
7. Emission Spectroscopy.
8. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy.
9. X -ray Diffraction. 10. Radio immunoassay.
4.8.2. Practicals 6 hrs / week
1. Quantitative estimation of at least ten formulations containing single drug or more
than one drug, using instrumental techniques.
2. Estimation of Na+, K+, Ca++ ions using flame photometry.
3. IR of samples with different functional groups (-COOH, -COOR. _ CONHR; -
NH2, -NHR, -OH, etc.).
4. Workshop to interpret the structure of simple organic compounds using UV, IR.
NMR and MS.
Pharmaceutical Chemistry - VIII
(Medicinal Chemistry III)
4.8.3. Theory 3 hrs / week
1. Drug metabolism and Concepts of Prodrugs.
2 Synthetic procedures of selected drugs, mode of action, uses, structure activity
relationship (including physicochemical aspects) of the following classes of
drugs. (Biochemical approaches in drug designing wherever applicable should be 
i) Antimetabolites (including sulfonamides).
ii) Chemotherapeutic agents used in Protozoal, Parasitic and other infection
iii) Antineoplastic agents
iv Anti-viral including anti - HIVagents.
v) Immunosuppressives and immunostimulants.
3. Amino acids, peptide, nueleotides and related drugs
a. Thyroid and Anti thyroid drugs
b. Insulin and oral hypoglycaemic agents.
c. Peptidomimetics and nucleotidomimetics.
vi. Diagnostic agents.
vii. Pharmaceutical Aids.
4.8.3. Practicals 3 hrs / week
1. Experiments designed on drug metabolism:
a. Preparation of S9 and microsomes from tissue homogenates and
standardization of protein.
b. Effect of phenobarbital pretreatment on microsomal cytochrome p-450,
cytochrome b5, and NADPH-Cytochrome C-reductase and comparison of
micro somes from control.
c. Determination of microsomal aminopyrine demethylase and p_ nitroanisole odemethylase
d. Determination of microsomal azo- and nitroreductase activities.
2. Synthesis of selected drugs.
3. Establishing the pharmacopoeal standards and spectral studies.
Pharmacognosy – VI
4.8.4. Theory 3 hrs /week
1. World-wide trade in medicinal plants and derived products with special reference
to diosgenin (disocorea), taxol (Taxus sps) digitalis, tropane alkaloid containing
plants, Papain, cinchona, I pecac, Liquorice, Ginseng, Aloe, Valerian, Rauwolfia
and plants containing laxatives.
2. A brief account of plant based industries and institutions involved in work on
medicinal and aromatic plants in India. Utilization and production of
phytoconstituents such as quinine, calcium sennosides, podophyllotoxin,
diosgenin, solasodine, and tropane alkaloids.
3. Utilization of aromatic plants and derived products with special reference to
sandalwood oil, mentha oil, lemon grass oil, vetiver oil, geranium oil and 
eucalyptus oil.
4. Historical development of plant tissue culture, types of cultures,. nutritional
requirements, growth and their maintenance. Applications of plant tissue culture
in pharmacognosy.
5. Chemotaxonomy of medicinal plants.
6. Marine pharmacognosy, novel medicinal agents from marine sources.
7. Natural allergens and photosensitizing agents and fungal toxins.
8. Herbs as health foods.
9. Herbal cosmetics.
4.8.4. Practicals 3 hrs / week
i Isolation of some selected phytoconstituents studied in theory.
ii Extraction of volatile oils and their chromatographic profiles.
iii Some experiments in plant tissue culture.
Pharmacology - IV
(Clinical Pharmacy and Drug Interactions)
4.8.5. Theory 4 hrs / week
1.Introduction to Clinical Pharmacy.
2.Basic Concepts of Pharmacotherapy.
a) Clinical Pharmacokinetics and individualization of Drug Therapy.
b) Drug Delivery Systems and their Biopharmaceutic & Therapeutic
c) Drug Use During Infancy and in the Elderly (Pediatries & Geriatrics).
d) Drug use during Pregnancy.
c) Drug induced Diseases.
d) The Basics of Drug Interactions.
g) General Principles of Clinical Toxicology"
h) Interpretation of Clinical Laboratory Tests.
3. Important Disorders of Organ Systems and their Management:
a) Cardiovascular Disorders-Hypertension, Congestive Heart Failure, Angina,
Acute Myocardial Infarction, Cardiac arrhythmias.
b) CNS Disorders: Epilepsy, Parkinsonism, Schizophrenia, Depression.
c) Respiratory Disease-Asthma.
d) Gastrointestinal Disorders-Peptic ulcer, Ulcerative colitis, Hepatitis,
c) Endocrine Disorders-Diabetes mellitus and Thyroid Disorders. t) Infectious
Diseases-Tuberculosis, Urinary Tract Infection, Enteric Infections, Upper
Respiratory Infections. 
g) Hematopoietic Disorders-Anemias.
h) Joint and Connective Tissue Disorders-Rheumatic Diseases, Gout and
i) Neoplastic Diseases- Acute Leukaemias, Hodgkin's disease.
4. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
5. Concept of Essential Drugs and Rational Drug use.
4.8.6. Project Related to Elective 4 hrs / week
Proposed List of Elective Subjects
in Semester – VII
1. Pharmaceutical marketing
2. Medicinal plant biotechnology
3. Quality assurance
4. Drug design and lead identification
5. Bioavailability and therapeutic drug monitoring
6. Cosmeticology
7. Packaging technology
8. Any other emerging area availing the local expertise 
(Structure of Courses)
Note: It is desired that 80% course contents from the above structure is adhered to in
order to maintain uniformity.
Subject *L+T P
Semester 1
1.1.1. Pharmaceutical Analysis - I 3 4
1.1.2. Remedial Mathematics/Biology 4/3 0/4
1.1.3. Phannacognosy- I 3 4
1.1.4. Pharmaceutical Chemistry - I 3 4
(Inorganic Pharmaceutical
1.1.5. Basic Electronics & 3 4
 Computer Applications
16/15 16/20
Semester II
1.2.1. Pharmaceutics - I 3 4
 (Physical Pharmacy)
1.2.2. Advanced Mathematics 4 _
1.2.3. Pharmaceutical Chemistry-II 3 4
 (Physical Chemistry)
1.2.4. Pharmaceutical Chemistry-III 4 6
 (Organic Chemistry - I)
1.2.5. Anatomy Physiology & Health 3 4
 Education (APHE I) - I
17 18
* L - Lecture T - Tutorial P - Practical
Semester III
2.3.1. Pharmaceutics - II (Unit
Operations -I, including Engg. 3 4
2.3.2. Pharmaceutical Chemistry - IV 3 4
 (Organic Chemistry - II
2.3.3. Pharmacognosy - II 3 4
2.3.4. Pharmaceutical Analysis -II 3 4 
2.3.5. A P H E - II 3 4
15 20
Semester IV
- 2.4.1 Pharmaceutics - III
(Unit Operations - II) 3 4
2.4.2. Pharmaceutical Microbiology 3 4
2.4.3. Pharmacognosy - III 3 4
2.4.4. Pathophysiology of Common 4-
2.4.5. Pharmaceutics - IV 3 4 _
 (Dispensing & Community Pharmacy)
16 16
Semester V
3.5.1. Pharmaceutical Chemistry V
(Biochemistry) 3 4
3.5.2. Pharmaceutics - V
(Pharmaceutical Technology I) 3 4
3.5.3. Pharmacology -I 3 4
3.5.4. Pharmacognosy - IV .. - 3 4
3.5.5. Pharmaceutics - VI 3 4
 (Hospital pharmacy)
15 20
Semester VI
3.6.1. Pharmaceutical Chemistry - VI 3 4
(Medicinal Chemistry-I) 4-
3.6.2. Pharmaceutical Jurisprudence
 & Ethics
 3.6.3. Pharmaceutics - VII 3 4
 (Biopharmaceutics & Pharmacokinetics)
3.6.4. Pharmacology - II 4 6
3.6.5. Pharmacognosy - V 3 4
 (Chemistry of Natural Products)
17 18·
Compulsory Industrial Training of Four Weeks with Component of Evaluation after
Completion of VI Semester
Semester VII
4.7.1. Pharmaceutical 4-
4.7.2. Pharmaceutics VIII 4 6
 (Pharmaceutical Technology II) 
4.7.3. Pharmaceutical Industrial 4-
4.7.4. Pharmacology III 3 4
4.7.5. Pharmaceutical Chemistry VII 3 4
 (Medicinal Chemistry II)
4.7.6. Elective (Theory) 4-
22 14
Semester VIII
4.8.1. Pharmaceutics IX 3 3
4.8.2. Pharmaceutical Analysis III 3 6
4.8.3. Pharmaceutical Chemistry VIII 3 3
 (Medicinal Chemistry - III)
4.8.4. Pharmacognosy VI 3 3
4.8.5. Pharmacology N 4-
 (Clinical Pharmacy & Drug Interactions)
4.8.6. Project related to - 4
16 19
1 Each Semester will consist of a minimum of 15 weeks instructions.
*i.e. 15x6 = 90 instructional days (Actual teaching).
2. There will be a minimum of one sessional examination of 20 marks in each of the
theory subjects during each semester. There will be no separate sessional
examination in practicals.
3. Internal assessment of practicals (20%) will be based on day to day attendance.
viva, laboratory record, etc. The question papers of university examinations shall
be set by one or more external examiners. The choice in question papers shall be
restricted to 25% only. Complete coverage of prescribed syllabus in university
question papers is desired.
4. 20% marks shall be allotted for sessional examinations in theory. A minimum of
75% attendance in theory and practical classes is compulsory.
5. In view of the fact that B. Pharm is a professional degree with diverse
employment potential, the university degree certificate may continue to remain
the same with no mention of elective subjects. However, the mark-list should
indicate the elective/s opted by the candidate. 
(Pharmaceutical Technology" Dispensing Pharmacy,
Forsenic Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Microbiology)
A Owunwonne, Handbook of Radiopharmaceuticals, Narosa Publishing House, New
A Pecile and A ResignoPharmacokinetics, Plenum Press, NY.
Aiba Suichi, Humphrey and Millis, Biochemical Engineering, University of Tokyo Press.
Allwodd M C and Fell J T, Textbook of Hospital Pharmacy, Blackwell Scientific
Publications, Oxford.
Ansel H C, Introduction to Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms, K M Varghese & Co.,
Aulton M E Pharmaceutics - The Science of Dosage Form Design, ELBS/ Churchill
Avis K E, Lachman L and Licberman H A, Marcel Dekker Inc. Pharmaceutical Dosage
Forms; Parenteral Medications, Vols. 1& 2, NY.
Badger W L and Banchero J T, Introduction to Chemical Engineering McGraw Hill
Intematonal Book Co.,London.
Banker G S and Rhode C T Modem Pharmaceutics, Marcel Dekker Inc., NY.
Bean H S, Beckett A H, and Carless A H Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 1-4
Academic Press, London.
Bergey's Manual of Determinative bacteriology.
Bharati H K, Drugs and Pharmacy Laws in India, Sadhana Mandir, Indore.
Bolton Sanford, Pharmaceutical Statistics, Mareel Dekker inc NY.
British .National Formulary, No. 25 Pub jointly by British Medical Association and
Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.
British Pharinacopoiea, Her Majesty's Stationery office, University Press, Cambridge.
Brock T D, Madigen M T Biology of Micro-organism Prentice Hall, New Jersey USA.
Carter S. 1. Cooper and Gunn's Dispensing for Pharmaceutical Students, CBS Publishers,
Carter S J, Cooper and Gunn's Tutorial Pharmacy CBS Publishers, Delhi.
Cartstensen J T, Drug Stability, Marcel Dekker Inc NY.
Chittion H M and witcofski R L, Nuclear pharmacy Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia.
Connores KA, Amiden GLand Stella V J, Chemical Stability of Pharmaceuticals, John
Wiley & Sons NY. 
Dittert L W Sprowl's Smerican Pharmacy, J & B Lippincott Co., Philadelphia.
C G Brown, Unit Operatons (Indian ed) Asia Publishing House, Bombay. Gibaldi M &
Perrier D, Pharmacokinetics, Marcel Dekker Inc NY.
Remington's The science and Practice of Pharmacy, Mack Publishing Co. Easton,
Hassan William E, Hospital Pharmacy, Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.
Hoover J E Dispensing of Medication, ed Mack Publishing Co., Easton P A.
Hugo and Russel, Pharmaceutical Microbiology; Blackwell Scientific Publication,
Jellinek J S, Formulation and Function of Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, NY.
Jain N K A Text Book of Forsenic Pharmacy, Vallabh Prakashan, Delhi.
Juliano R L, Drug Delivery Systems, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
KacChensney J C Packaging of Cosmetics and Toiletories, Newness Butterworth,
Kielslich K, Ed Biotechnology vol6a, Verleg Chemie, Switzerland.
Lachmen L, Lieberman HA and Kanig J L, The Theory and Practice of Industrial
Pharmacy, Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.
Lea & Fibiger "Milo Gibaldi, Biopharmaceutics & Clinical Pharmacokinetics",
Lea and Febiger Pharmaceutical Dosage. Forms and Drug Delivery Systems,
Lewin Benjamin, Gene V Microbiology.
Liberman H A. Rieger M M and Banker G 8, "Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms; Dispense
Systems, Vols. 1 &2, Marcel Dekker Inc., NY.
Lieberman H A, Lachman L & Schwartz J B Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms.: Tablets,
'Vols. 1-3, Marcel Dekker Inc., NY.
Loftus B T and Nash Robert, Pharmaceutical Process Validation, Marcel Dekker inc.,
MaCabe W L and Smith j. C, Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering McGraw Hill
International Book Co., London.
Martin A N, Arthur Cammarata, James Swarbrick, Physical Pharmacy, K M Varghese &
Co., Bombay.
Martin E. W. Dispensing of Medication, Mack Publishing Co., Eastern P A.
Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoiea, ed J E F Reynolds, The Pharmaceutical Press,
Merchant H.S and Qadry J. S, Text Book of Hospital Pharmacy, B.S. Shah Prakashan,
Mittal B.M. A Text Book of Forsenic Pharmacy, National Book Depot, Calcutta.
Notari R E, Biopharmaceutis and Pharmacokinetics - an Introduction Marcel Dekker Inc
Parry R H & Chilton C H Chemical Engineers Handbok, McGraw Kogakusha Ltd. 
Peppier, Microbial Technology, vol l & II.
Pharmacopoiea of India, published by the Controller of Publications, Delhi, I st ed -
1966- 1985 4th ed- 1996.
Prescott L M, Jarely G P, Klein D A, Microbiology, Wm C Borown Publishers, Oxford.
Prescott and Dunn, Industrial Microbiology, McGraw Hill Book Company Inc.
Rawlins EA Bentley's Textbook of Pharmaceutics ELBS Bacilliere Tindall.
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M S E, and Brain K R., An Introduction to Phytopharmacy, Pitman medical,
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Scheuer P 1., Marine Natural Products, Academic press, London.
Sinnott E W., Dunn L c., and Dobzhansky T., Principles of Genetics, Tata
Mcgraw Hill Publishing Co., Limited, New Delhi.
Staba E J., Plant Tissue Culture as a Source of Biomedicinals, CRC Press,
Stahl E.,Min Layer Chromatography - A Laboratory Handbook, Springer Verlag,
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P K and Conn E E, 7he Biochemistry of Plants: A Comprehensive Treatise, 1-8,
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Whistler R L., Industrial. Gums, Polysaccharides and their Derivatives, Academic
Press, New York.
Williams S., Official Methods of Analysis, Association of Official Analytical
Chemists Inc., Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Zafar R, Medicinal Plants of India, c. B.S. Publisher, New Delhi. 
Applied Therapeutics: The Clinical Use of Drugs, Applied Therapeutics, Inc.
Barar F S K., Text Book of Pharmacology, Interprint, new Delhi.
Best and Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, Willium & Wilkins,
Chaurasia B D, Human Anatomy, Regional & Applied. Part I, II & III, CBS
Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi.
Crossland J and Thomson J H., Essentials of Pharmacology, Harper and Row
Publishers NY
Craig C R and Stitzel R R, Modem Pharmacology, Little Brown and Company,
Davidson's Principles and Pratice of Medicine, ELBS/Churchill Living Stone.
DiFore Lea SHand Febiger, Atlas of Normal Histology, Philadelphia.
Ganong W F, Review of Medical Physiology, Prentice Hall International.
Ghosh M N., Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology, Scientific Book
Agency, Calcutta.
Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological basis of Therapeutics; Editors: J G
Hardman, L E Limbird, P B Molinoss, R W Ruddon and A G Gil, Pergamon
Guyton A C, Hall JE., Textbook of Medical Physiology,WB Sannders Company.
Herfindal E T and Hirschman J L., Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics. Williams
and Wilkins.
Human Physiology, C C Chatterjee, Medical Allied Agency, Calcutta.
Human Physiology, Subhash Shalya, CBS Publishers & Distributors.
Katzung, B G., Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, Prentice Hall, International.
Keele C A, Neil E and Joels N, Samson Wright's Applied Physiology, Oxford
University Press.
Kulkarni S.K., Handbook of Experimentals Pharmacology, Vallabh Prakashan
Laurence, D R and Bennet P. N., Clinical Pharmacology, Churchill Livingstone.
McNaught, A.B. and Callander R, Illustrated Physiology, Churchill Livingstone.
Mycek M J, Gertner S Band Perper M M, Pharmacology Lippincott's Illustrated
Reviews, Lippincott Company, Philadelphia.
Paul L., Principles of Pharmacology, Chapman and Hall.
Parmer N .S, Health Education and Community Pharmacy, CBS Publishers.
Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiological Approach, Dipiro, J L Elsevier.
Rang MP Dale MM, Riter lM., Pharmacology, Churchill Livingstone.
Ranade V G, Text Book of Practical Physiology, Pune Vidyarthi Griha Prakashan, 
Robbins S L and Kumar V, Basic Pathology, W B Saunders Company.
Tortora G J, and Anagnodokos N P, Principles of Anatomy and Physiology
Harper & Row Publishers N. Y.
T'heoharides T C, Pharmacology, Little Brown and Co ..
Vander A J, Shermati J H and Luciano D S Human Physiology, Tata McGraw
Hill Publishing Co., New Delhi.
Acheson R N, An Introduction to the Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds,
Interscience Publishers, New York.
Atherden L M, Bentley and Driver's Text book of Pharmaceutical Chemistry,
Oxford University Press, London.
Bassett J, Denny R C, Jeffery G H, Mendham J, Vogel's Textbook of Quantitative
Inorganic Analysis, ELBS/Longman, London.
Beckett A H and Stenlake J B, Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry Vol. I and II.,
The Athlone Press of the University of London.
Block J H, Roche E, Soine T 0 and Wilson C 0, Inorganic Medicinal and
Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, P A. Brey W S,
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Chatten L G, A Textbook of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Vol. I and II, Marcel
Dekker, New York.
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Connors K A, A Textbook of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Wiley Interscience,' New
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Organic Medicinal and Phamaceutical Chemistry, J. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia.
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Reference Citation: Hordegen P., Hertzberg H., Heilmann J., Langhans W., Maurer V., 2003. The anthelmintic efficacy of five plant products against gastrointestinal trichostrongylids in artificially infected lambs. Veterinary Parasitology, 117(3), 51–60.  

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Photon Research AwardEven, if you have already published your research in Pharmacy, in your career, still you can send it for screening/ nomination for Photon Research Award-2015. Your research must already be published in any National or International Journal of repute. It can also be your research thesis (already submitted/ Co-/ supervised by you). You should send it as attached pdf file with your biography at: The last date is 31 December, 2015.   

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N. Panda, A.V. Reddy, G.V.S. Reddy and M.S. Ansari are conferredwith Amedeo Avogadro Research Award in Pharmacy

Dr. Eniojukan Joshua Funsho is conferred with Camillo Golgi Research Award in Pharmacy

M. Krishnaveni is conferred with Robert Brown Research Award-2015 in Pharmacy

Uma Maheswari B. and Dr. Meerabai R.S. are conffered with NicolausCopernicus Research Award-2015 in Pharmacy

Hemantkumar A. Thakur, Mukta R. Bhamare and Udaya G. Basarkar are conferred with International Ayurveda Research Award-2014


Thomas Edison Award-2015
Thomas Edison Award-2015 is acknowledged for Inspiration and Knowledge Distribution among young research scholars. This is world's prestigious award, dedicated to most innovative researchers. Scientistsacademicians, recipient of the award impact the scientific domain with their excellent research work and incubate cutting edge research across the globe.

PYSP-2015 encourages Undergraduate, Post Graduate and Research students/ fellow with a passion of Research and Development in their chosen area of interest in Science or Technology to excel in research. Students are encouraged to write and submit a Short Communication or a Review Article along with their ‘own’ and ‘original’ research idea. Their submissions would be screened on the basis of merit and novelty in Global Perspective. Screened submissions would be sent for peer review. Accepted articles would be published in Photon Journals under young scientist category. Editor-in-Chief may recommend selected articles to appropriate Photon Journals subject to their Aims and Scope. PYSP-2015 identifies world’s best innovative minds that have calibre to excel in their chosen area of research. Such innovative minds would be awarded with Young Scientist under PYSP-2015.

Antimicrobial activity of aqueuos extract of the leaves of Synclisia scabrida, family: Menispermaceae
Chinedu Fredrick Anowi*, T.U. Onyekaba, Utoh-Nedosa Uche, Ezenachi Valentine C.

Wound healing Activity of Niosomal Gel of Punicalagin from peels of Punica Granatum
Hanu Priya Yadav*

In Vitro Antileishmanial, Insecticidal, Antioxidant activities and their Phytochemical Estimation of Methanolic Extract of Acantholimon longiscapum leaves
Nizam Baloch, Sajid Nabi, Yasser. M.S.A. Al-Kahraman*

Study on the Potentiation of Anticancer Activity of Nano-structured Lipid Carriers Loaded with Gemcitabine alone and in Combination with Diclofenac Sodium in Cancer Cell Lines and their Bio-distribution Studies in Normal Rat Model
Inderpreet Kaur, Tanya Vohra, Rayasa Ramachandramurthy*

Miniature Thin-Layer Chromatography: A Recent Advancement in Planar Chromatography
Pornima A. Kawathekar*, Vrushali Tambe

Phytochemical, Biological and Botanical Studies of Klanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln
Aly M. El-Shamy, Fify I. Fathy, E.H. Abdel-Rahman*, Manal M. Sabry

Chronic Toxicity Studies of Hydromethanolic Extract of Grewia crenata Leaves in Albino Rat 

Ukwuani A.N.*, Abubakar M.G., Hassan S.W., Agaie B.M.

Download Research Articles (Volumes)

Biphasic release of Zolmitriptan through design of gastroretentive bilayer floating matrix tablets 

N. Pandaa*, A.V. Reddya, G.V.S. Reddyb, M.S. Ansaria 

a Anwarul Uloom College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, India & Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, JNTUA, Anantapur, AP, India 

b Department of Chemistry, JNTUA College of Engineering, Pulivendula, YSR (Kadapa), A.P 

Phytochemical and Antimicrobial activity of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. 

Hemantkumar A. Thakur*, Mukta R. Bhamare, Udaya G. Basarkar 

Post Graduate & Research Center of Botany, Gokhale Education Society’s, H.P.T Arts & R. Y. K. Science College Nashik, 422005 (Maharashtra State), India 

3D Structure Prediction of Acetylcholineesterase in Aedes aegypti by Multitemplate Modeling 

Unnithan A.R.a*, Patil S.a, Unnikrishnan G.b 

a Department of Biotechnology, Birla College of Arts Science and Commerce, Mumbai University,              Kalyan 421304, India 

b Department of Zoology, Birla College of Arts Science and Commerce, Mumbai University, Kalyan 

   421304, India 

Formulation and in vivo Evaluation of Buccoadhesive Gels Containing Glimepiride: An Antidiabetic Drug 

Nisha Singha*, Roshan Issarania, B.P Nagoria, Manish Kumar Singhb,Mamta Singha 

a Department of Pharmacy, Lachoo Memorial College of Science and Technology, Jodhpur, Rajasthan 

   342001, India 

b Research Center, Fortis Clinical Research Limited, Faridabad, Haryana 121002, India 

Technology Transfer in Pharmaceutical Industries, Challenges and Opportunities in Developing Countries 

Biruk Abatea, Merkuz Aberab*  

a School of Chemical and Food Engineering, Bahir Dar Technology Institute, Bahir Dar University, Bahir 

   Dar, P.O. Box 26, Ethiopia 

b College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, P.O. Box 5501,        Ethiopia       

The bark extracts of Himalayan gymnosperm Picea smithiana (Wall.): A natural sources of antibacterial and antioxidant agent

S.C. Sati*, P. Kumar, S. Joshi  

Department of Botany, D.S.B. Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital-263002, India   

Inhibitory activity of α-glucosidase and α-amylase by Annona stenophylla root extract as mechanism for hypoglycaemic control of DM

Tafadzwa Tadereraa, Lameck Shoriwa Chagondaa* Gome E.b, Shai J.L.c  

a School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, P. O. Box MP 167, 

   Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe 

b Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, P. O. Box A178, 

   Avondale Harare, Zimbabwe 

c Department of Biomedical Sciences, Tshwane University of Technology,  Private Bag X680, 

   Pretoria 0001, South Africa    

Graphical Abstract:

Photon Foundation

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