Journal of Agricultural Economics and Sustainable Development

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Journal of Agricultural Economics and Sustainable Development,  Impact Index: 4.18, ISJN: 7755-2467, Imprint: Photon, Category: Peer Reviewed Indexed International Journa

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Effect of Crop Insurance on Livelihoods of Rural Farmers in Rwanda 

Gakwerere I.a*, Mbeche R.b, Shukla J.a, Mbabazi P.a

Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kigali campus, Rwanda 

Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Juja main Campus, Nairobi, Kenya

Keywords: crop insurance, livelihoods, rural farmers, Rwanda 


Agriculture is an important sector in Rwanda’s economy. The sector contributes 90% of the national food needs and generates more than 70% of the country’s export revenues. However, smallholder farmers who account for 86% of the agricultural sector in Rwanda faces risks and uncertainties to their agricultural enterprises which leaves their livelihoods vulnerable. Crop insurance is promoted as a potentially critical element to mitigate risk and better manage uncertainties in order to improve the sustainability of the livelihoods of rural farmers. This paper assesses the effect of crop insurance on input use and the livelihood of rural farmers in Rwanda. Data was collected from 200 randomly selected farmers in 16 districts in Rwanda. The study found that insured farmers employed more labour, cultivated land size, credit to purchase improved production inputs than the uninsured farmers suggesting their increased confidence in insurance to mitigate their risks. Additionally, based on the proxies of livelihoods – increased crop production, higher income from crop enterprises and increased savings from agriculture – insured farmers have potentially more sustainable livelihoods than the uninsured ones. The findings of this study suggest that crop insurance has a positive effect on livelihoods of rural farmers. Policy makers should therefore seek to promote crop insurance as a risk management strategy for smallholder farmers in Rwanda. 


Gakwerere I.a*, Mbeche R.b, Shukla J.a, Mbabazi P.a, 2017. Effect of Crop Insurance on Livelihoods of Rural Farmers in Rwanda. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Sustainable Development. Photon 106, 233-240 


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Photon Ignitor: ISJN77552467D878825112017

Determinants of Access to Formal Credit for Agricultural Purposes in Wukari -Taraba State, Nigeria 

G.O. Onogwu .*, Audu I.A., Igbodor F.O 

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Services, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria 


Access to Agricultural Credit, Small Scale , Formal Financial Institutions, Farmers’ and Institutional Characteristics, Effects 


LGA: Local Government Area, GDP: Gross Domestic Product, FAO: Food and Agricultural Organization, WB: World Bank, CBN: Central Bank of Nigeria 


G.O. Onogwu .*, Audu I. A., Igbodor F.O., 2017. Determinants of Access to Formal Credit for Agricultural Purposes in Wukari -Taraba State, Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Sustainable Development. Photon 106, 219-232 


Farmers do not have access to formal credit and the factors affecting access has not been identified in study area located between latitude 60 301 and 90361 north and longitude 90101 and 110501 east of the Greenwich meridian (see figure1). The main aim of study was to determine the major factors affecting smallholders’ access to formal credit for agricultural purposes. A total of 150 respondents were randomly selected using multistage and simple random sampling techniques. Results revealed that Gender, farming experience, ownership of bank account, access to extension agent and interest rates were significant at 5%, while farm size and number of years in school were significant at 10% levels. It is recommended that lending institutions should offer agricultural loans at one digit interest rate to enable the farmers make gains for themselves and save expenditures on costs of capital that would normally be passed on to consumers in form of price, presence of which engenders a food secured nation and region.


Factors Influencing Adoption of Provitamin A Cassava Varieties By Farmers In Rural Areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria 

Asa U. A.*, Obinaju L.C. 

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Keywords: Provitamin A, Cassava, Rural, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria Abbreviations: FAO, IITA, TMS01/1368, TMS01/1371, TMS01/1412

All Rights Reserved with Photon. Photon Ignitor: ISJN77552467D844909122016


Asa, U.A.*, Obinaju L.C., 2016. Factors Influencing Adoption of Provitamin A Cassava Varieties By Farmers In Rural Areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Sustainable Development. Photon 105, 212-218


The Nigerian Government, in 2011, made three new vitamin A-rich cassava varieties available to farmers for cultivation to overcome the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in the country. There is the need to understand the adoption patterns of these cassava varieties by the farmers. This study, therefore, ascertained the factors influencing the adoption of the provitamin A cassava varieties by farmers in rural areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. A sample of 150 rural farmers, selected using multi-stage sampling procedure, was used for the study. Data obtained from the rural farmers were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the adoption index and multiple regression. The adoption index reveal that the level of adoption of provitamin A cassava varieties by most of the farmers was above the “low” category in a 3-point categorization of adoption levels into low, moderate and high. Educational status, membership of farmers’ cooperative associations, years of farming experience, extension contact and farm size influence adoption of the three provitamin A cassava varieties by farmers in the study area. Rural farmers in the study area should be encouraged to join farmers’ cooperative associations since membership of such associations positively influence the adoption of provitamin A cassava varieties.


The Contribution of Urban and Peri-Urban Maize Production on the Food Security of Farm Households in Kaduna State, Nigeria 

Mohammed Maina* 

University of Maiduguri, Nigeria 


Urban and peri-urban, food security, farm households, socio-economic, constraints 

Abbreviations: Urban and peri-urban: UPA, United Nation Development Project: UNDP, National Population Commission: NPC 

All Rights Reserved with Photon. Photon Ignitor: ISJN77552467D842324112016 


Maina M.*, 2016. The Contribution of Urban and Peri-Urban Maize Production on the Food Security of Farm Households in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Sustainable Development. Photon 105, 206-211 


This study was conducted to assess the contribution of urban and peri-urban maize production on the food security of farm households in Kaduna State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used in selecting farmers while primary data were collected with the aid of a structured questionnaire. Descriptive Statistics was used to; describe the socio-economic characteristics of the urban and peri-urban farmers, determine the level of contribution of maize to household farm income and describe the constraints faced by the urban and peri-urban maize farmers. The results showed that half of the maize farmers had no formal education, finance and extension services. Lack of access to credit, labour, extension and improved seeds were among their major constraints. It is recommended that the farmers should diversify their sources of income and register with cooperative societies which may be necessary for them to access funds through interventions funds from governments since financial institutions are averse to the risk in farming. Input supplies must ensure seamless distribution to farmers, while government revisit the Growth Enhancement Support Scheme to eliminate lapses witnessed in distribution of inputs and guarantee loans given to farmers by financial institutions.

The Effect of Improved Rural Roads on Maize Farming In Kirehe District, Rwanda. A Case of Three Maize Faming Cooperatives (Coacmu, Coaiga, Coopaga) 

MutakoVedasto Alphonsine*, Jaya Skukla, Peter Mbabazize Jomo Kenyatta 

University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT), Kenya 


Improved rural roads, maize farming 


ANOVA: Analysis of Variance, CIP: Crop Intensification Program, COACMU: Coopérative des Agriculteurs des Céréales de Musaza, COAIGA: Coopérative des agriculteurs de Gahara COOPAGA: Coopérative des Agriculteurs de Gatore, DDP: District Development Plan, FRDP: Feeder Roads Development Project, GDP: Gross Domestic Product, IFAD: International Fund for Agriculture Development, KWAMP: Kirehe Watershed Management Project, MDGs: Millennium Development Goals, MINAGRI: Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources, NEPAD: New Partnership for Africa Development, NISR: National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda, PSTA III: Plan Stratégique pour la Transformation Agricole, Phase III 

All Rights Reserved with Photon. Photon Ignitor: ISJN77552467D845108102016 


Mutako A.V.*, Shukla J., Mbabazize M., 2016. The Effect of Improved Rural Roads on Maize Farming In Kirehe District, Rwanda. A Case of Three Maize Faming Cooperatives (Coacmu, Coaiga, Coopaga). Journal of Agricultural Economics and Sustainable Development. Photon 105, 193-205 


In its effort to accelerate agricultural transformation, the Government of Rwanda has in recent years invested heavily in road infrastructure. Knowledge on how improved rural road infrastructure is contributing to inputs use, level of maize output and market participation is needed. Purposive sampling was done and 67 farmers from three maize cooperatives interviewed. Using questionnaires, qualitative and quantitative data were obtained and analyzed using descriptive statistics, regression analysis, Correlation and estimation of a short-run maize production function. The research found that every unit changes in distance caused 0.05659 declines in fertilizer use, unit increase in cost of fertilizer increased the use of fertilizer by 2.91E-05 but change is not statistically significant (p-value, 9.93E-08>0.05). Factors of quantity of fertilizers, land size, and labor inputs are statistically significantly associated with change in level of maize output; unit increase in land size increased it by 0.068, while labor lead to an increase by 0.643 and fertilizer raised production by 0.256. Unit increase in francs of transport caused a decrease in trips made to the market by 0.12798 at significant level 0.000698<0.05. To conclude, areas where fertilizer application is low, maize production will become low significantly to their counterparts with good fertilizer application.

Determinants of market participation of communal beef farmers in Kgatleng district of Botswana 

Patrick Malope* 

Botswana Institute for Development Policy Analysis Private Bag BR 29, Gaborone, Botswana 

Keywords: Market participation; Logit; Tobit; marginal effects; Kgatleng 

Photon Ignitor: ISJN77552467D817012052016 

Citation: Malope P., 2016. Determinants of market participation of communal beef farmers in Kgatleng district of Botswana. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Sustainable Development. Photon 105, 184-192 


This study identifies factors that influence communal beef farmers’ marketing decisions in Botswana, using data collected from a sample of 120 households in Kgatleng district. The Logit and Tobit models were used to determine factors influencing market participation and the number of cattle sold respectively. Several factors affect the communal farmers’ marketing decisions and the number of cattle sold. These factors include among others; human capital (age and attendance of a marketing course); financial capital (the means of acquiring cattle); physical capital (arable farming, water source used for watering cattle, herd size, and mortality); and transaction costs. In order to increase market participation and stimulate slaughter cattle supply, there must be concerted efforts to train farmers on marketing; promote group formation, and institute policies aimed at reducing mortality. These will increase the contribution of the beef sector to the economy and improve the livelihoods of those involved in cattle production.

The study examined the effects of farm management factors on the net income of dairy farmers in Benue State. The specific objectives were to: examine the socioeconomic characteristics of dairy farmers, and determine the influence of socio-economic and farm management factors on income of dairy farmers in the study area. Eight (8) local government areas were purposively selected due to the presence of dairy farm units in the areas. A simple random sampling procedure was used to select 50 dairy farmers from a population of 72 dairy farm units. Data were collected via structured questionnaire and analysis using Descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. Results show that majority of the farmers (86%) were male, had between 5 and 16 years of formal education (54%), and received between $588.24 and $2352.94 annually (42%). The estimated regression model was significant (F = 5.12, P< 0.01). The adjusted coefficient of determination (R²) was 0.632. Age animals at first calving, Sex of farmers, and Ranching system had significant effect on net income of farmers at 5% level of probability. Herd size, Culling rate, Pastoral system, number of lactating cows, and bulls, and Age before maturity were significant at 10% level of probability. It was recommended that interest rates on government micro-credit facilities should be reviewed downward to offer farmers increased access to capital to enable them adopt new dairy development technologies like improved, early-maturing, high yielding breeds of animals, intensive production system; women should be more fully integrated into dairy development value chain; extension service should be intensified; low culling rate and optimum herd size, were also recommended for sustainable profits. 

Dr. B. Sujathaa*, Dr. P. Lakshmi-narayana Reddy a, Dr. M.A. Shanthan Babub, Dr. S. Sankar Naika 

a Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Department of Sericulture, Anantapur-515003, Andhra Pradesh, India 

b Regional Sericultural Research Station CSB, PB No. 50, Anantapur-515001, Andhra Pradesh, India


Knowledge, adoption, organic farming, socio-economic factors, constraints 

Photon Ignitor: ISJN77552467D783620112015 


Sujatha B., Reddy P.L., Shanthan Babu M.A., Naik S.S., 2015. High knowledge and low adoption levels on organic farming in mulberry cultivation with the farmers of Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Sustainable Development. Photon 104, 170-174


Studies on knowledge and adoption levels of recommended organic manures by farmers and problems faced in adoption are crucial. Inorganic fertilizers reduced useful microbial population and soil properties apart from increased environmental pollution. Therefore, attempt was made to study the issue in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, to appraising the knowledge and adoption patterns of organic manures, to find out the relationship between the socio-economic factors with knowledge and adoption levels; and to identify the constraints. Results, based on interview conducted among 125 farmers revealed full (100%) knowledge on FYM and tank silt application and their adoption levels are low (67.5 - 72.5%). Knowledge levels on compost, organic cakes, VCP and GM are high (60-73%) but their adoption levels are poor (21.5 - 26%). Knowledge on preparation/use of panchagavya is negligible (1.5%). Knowledge on seri-residue composting, biofertilizers, VAM, PSB and panchagavya is low (0 – 30%) and their adoption was meager (0 – 2.5%). Constraints for the above are lack of credit facilities, technical guidance, non-availability of organic fertilizers. Education, extension contact, social participation, cattle population and cocoon yield were positively significant variables; family size and experience were negatively related with knowledge and adoption levels. It is concluded that the knowledge and adoption of organic manures enhance quality and quantity of mulberry, reducing cost of mulberry production, protect environment; avoid pest and disease outbreaks; improve cocoon and silk quality which in turn fetches high price in the market.



Mainstreaming Limiting Factors and Preferred Strategies of Cost-Sharing Implementation by Farmers and Public Extension Agents in Benue and Nasarawa States, Nigeria 

Attah A.J.*, Ejembi E.P., Okwu O.J.

Department of Agricultural Extension and Communication, University of Agriculture, P. M. B. 2373, Makurdi, Nigeria

Agbo J. Attah, Ejembi E.P. and Okwu O.J. are conferred with Alexander Fleming Research Award-2015 in Agricultural Economics and Sustainable Development


Cost-sharing, farmers, public extension agents,factors, strategie


PEAs: Public Extension Agents, PPP: Public Private Partnership

Photon Ignitor: ISJN77552467D797709092015


Attah A.J.*, Ejembi E.P., Okwu O.J., 2015. MainstreamingLimiting Factors and Preferred Strategies of Cost-Sharing Implementation byFarmers and Public Extension Agents in Benue and Nasarawa States, Nigeria. Journalof Agricultural Economics and Sustainable Development. Photon 104, 165-169


Implementation of cost-sharing practices inagricultural extension funding is a far cry in Nigeria’s public extensionsystem despite its positive perception by stakeholders. This is largelyattributed to the perceived constraints associated with its possible practiceand, as well as, the inability to identify the right strategies for itsimplementation. This study assessed perceived factors that limit theimplementation of cost-sharing practices and ascertained the preferences forstrategies of cost-sharing implementation by farmers and public extensionagents (PEAs) in Benue and Nasarawa States, Nigeria. A multistage sampling techniquewas employed to randomly select 346 respondents. Data were analyzed usingfrequency and percentage distribution and factor analysis. Both socio-economic andpolitico-cultural factors were perceived as possible threats to theimplementation of cost-sharing practices. Many respondents preferred partialprivatization as the most appropriate method for its implementation. Farmer education and knowledge playfundamental roles in socioeconomic, political and cultural values that entrenchperceptual thresholds in social functionalism. These help to regulatethe social, political and economic status of the society which will, in turn,organize behavior that will particularly provide the means for accomplishingthe task of cost-sharing practices.

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