International Journal of Photocatalysis

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Titanium (IV) Oxide-Tungsten (VI) Oxide Composite Nanoparticles has Photo-catalytic Potential to Degrade Selected Heavy Metals and Pesticides Pollutants in Water 

Wandiga Shem Oyooa,b, Kamau Geoffrey Njugunaa, Mbugua Simon Ngigia 

a University of Nairobi, Kenya 

b Department of Chemistry, Director (Ag.) Institute for Climate Change and Adaptation at the University of Nairobi, Kenya 


Persistent Organic Pollutants, Heavy metal pollution, Photocatalysis, Titanium (IV) Oxide-Tungsten (VI) Oxide Composites, Water Purification 


XRF: X-ray Florescence, XRD: X-ray Diffraction, UV/Vis: Ultra Violet/ Visible BLB: Black Light Blue nm: Nanometer g: Gram ml: Milliter L: Litre AOP: Advanced Oxidation Processes CB: Conduction Band ANCAP: Africa Network for Chemical Analysis of Pesticides BDL: Below Detection Limit DBP: Disinfection Bi-Products SPE: Solid Phase Extraction GC-MS: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry 

All Rights Reserved with Photon. Photon Ignitor: ISJN32767846D841117012017 


Wandiga S.O., Kamau G.N., Mbugua S.N., 2017. Titanium (IV) Oxide-Tungsten (VI) Oxide Composite Nanoparticles has Photo-catalytic Potential to Degrade Selected Heavy Metals and Pesticides Pollutants in Water. International Journal of Photocatalysis. Photon 121, 235-245 


Provision of potable water for rural and peri-urban communities remains a challenge in Africa. Removal of selected heavy metals and pesticides from water by nanoparticle photocatalysts of Tungsten (VI) Oxide doped onto Titanium (IV) Oxide surface give an alternative point of use purification system. Experiments to determine the composite nanoparticle efficacy on degradation of heavy metals and pesticides were performed under UV/VIS illumination using PHILIPS lamps emitting between 350-600nm as energy source. Solid Phase Extraction and GC-MS were used for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides namely; α-HCH, β-Lindane, BHC and for δ-HCH. Two heavy metals; copper and lead, were selected for their common occurrence in ground water, and were used as sample heavy metal pollutants. Results on heavy metals showed 98.77% of copper (II) ions and 97.48% of lead (II) ions removal efficiency from water. Results on pesticide photocatalysis showed a residual fraction for α-HCH- 0.0517, β-Lindane- 0.0900 and BHC- 0.0176 after a four-hour photocatalysis period. δ-HCH was not detected, implying either a complete mineralization, or, below the detection limit of the instrument used. The composite photo-catalytic potential offers an alternative less costly process for water purification.


Photocatalytic Degradation of P-Rosaniline Hydrochloride and Azure-B using WO3 in Presence of Solar Light: A comparative study 

Ankita Vijaya, Shipra Bhardwajb*, Prakash C. Choudharya 

a Department of Chemistry, Mewar University, Gangrar, Dist. Chittorgarh, Rajasthan, India 

b Department of Chemistry, Government Meera Girls P.G. College, Udaipur- 313001, Rajasthan, India 


Tungsten oxide, Azure B, Pseudo first order kinetics 

All Rights Reserved with Photon. Photon Ignitor: ISJN32767846D834808072016 


Vijay A., Bhardwaj S.*, Choudhary P.C., 2016. Photocatalytic Degradation of P-Rosaniline Hydrochloride and Azure-B using WO3 in Presence of Solar Light: A comparative study. International Journal of Photocatalysis. Photon 120, 227-234 


Visible light induced photocatalytic degradation of P-Rosaniline hydrochloride and Azure B dyes is carried out. Effects of operation parameters on the photocatalytic degradation such as pH of solution, concentration of dye, catalyst loading, light intensity etc. are discussed. The kinetic study suggests that the reaction follows pseudo first order rate law. Formation of nontoxic degraded products like NO2, CO2, H2O etc. make the process of immense importance. Participation of radical is confirmed by use of scavenger. The semiconductor in heterogeneous phase is recovered back.


Photocatalytic Degradation of Rose Bengal Using Nano Barium Chromate Semiconducting Particulate System

Rakshit Ametaa*, N. Chouhanb, Pinki B. Punjabic, Dinesh I. Prajapatia,d 

a Department of Chemistry, PAHER University, Udaipur - 313003 (Raj.) India 

b Department of Chemistry, University of Kota, Kota - 324005 (Raj.) India

c Department of Chemistry, M. L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur - 313002 (Raj.) India 

d Department of Chemistry, M. G. Science Institute, Ahmedabad - 380009 (Guj.) India 

Keywords: Semiconductor, Photocatalyst, Rose Bengal, Barium chromate 

Photon Ignitor: ISJN32767846D801212092015 

Citation: Ameta R., Chouhan N., Punjabi P.B., Prajapati D.I., 2015.. Photocatalytic Degradation of Rose Bengal Using Nano Barium Chromate Semiconducting Particulate System. International Journal of Photocatalysis. Photon 119, 219- 226 


Various semiconductors have been used as photocatalysts for the degradation of different dyes from their aqueous solutions. In the present investigation, barium chromate has been used as a photocatalyst for the degradation of rose Bengal dye. Due to its yellow color, it absorbs major portion of light and proves itself as an efficient photocatalyst. Different rate affecting parameters like pH, concentration of dye, amount of semiconductor and light intensity have been studied. A tentative mechanism has been proposed for the photocatalytic degradation of dye, involving hydroxyl radical as an oxidizing species. The successful use of barium chromate as a photocatalyst will explore its applications in various fields of environmental pollution......

Removing colour pollutants from wastewater: Use of a novel nanosized ternary semiconductor Ba3Y2WO9 and measurement of kinetic parameters 

Ankita Vijaya, Shipra Bhardwajb* 

a Department of Chemistry, Mewar University, Gangrar, Dist. Chittorgarh, Rajasthan, India 

b Department of Chemistry, Government P.G. College, Kota-324001, Rajasthan, India 

Ankita Vijay and Shipra Bhardwaj are conferred with Grignard Research Award-2015 in Photocatalysis 

Keywords: Photocatalysis, pseudo first order kinetic, scavenger, non toxic products 

Photon Ignitor: ISJN32767846D704514052015 

Citation: Bhardwaj S., Vijay A., 2015. Removing colour pollutants from wastewater: Use of a novel nanosized ternary semiconductor Ba3Y2WO9 and measurement of kinetic parameters. International Journal of Photocatalysis. Photon 119, 212-218. 


Photocatalysis, a part of advanced oxidation technology is considered as a promising technology for waste water treatment. In the present work attempt is made to degrade a dye Azure B using Barium Yttrium tungsten Oxide, as a photocatalyst. Effect of various rate affecting parameters like pH, concentration of dye, amount of semiconductor, intensity of light etc. have been investigated. The rate is monitored spectrophotometrically and on the basis of observed data, a tentative mechanism has been proposed which proves the reaction to be a photocatalytic one. Optimum conditions (pH 7.3, concentration of the dye 5×10-6M, amount of semiconductor 0.12, light intensity 37 mW/cm2) for maximum degradation are extracted. The kinetic study suggests that the reaction follows pseudofirst order rate law. Formation of nontoxic degraded products like NO2, CO2, H2O etc. make the process of immense importance. Participation of OH free radical is confirmed by use of scavenger. The process is found beneficial for cleaning the hazards from environment that too in an eco friendly manner as it uses solar light and the semiconductor is in heterogeneous phase and is recovered back for further studies.

This work focused on synthesis of Titanium (IV) Oxide and Tungsten (VI) Oxide composite and testing the composite as a photocatalyst in deactivation of Escherichi coli in water. Modified wet chemistry method was used and the synthesized nanoparticles calcined at 575° C, taken through X-Ray Fluorescence and X-Ray Diffraction. The result showed a particle size diameter of 18.99nm. The nanoparticles photocatalytic inactivation efficacy of Escherichia coli in water was tested. 3M Petrifilms from 3M Microbiology Products, U.S.A., was used for Escherichia coli colony forming units’ counts. ATUV 8W G8 T5 lamp from PHILIPS emitting between 350-600nm was used as energy source. The catalyst reduced Escherichia coli count by log 3.415 at an optimum catalyst amount of 0.75 g/L at pH 7.3 using the Chick-Watson model for disinfection kinetics. This work proved that photocatalysis is a promising technology in water purification with possible and practical opportunities existing especially for small-scale point-of-use water purification units where potable water could be treated for disinfection of pathogens or trace priority pollutants remaining in water distribution network after conventional treatment methods. This work proved that nano particles can provide solutions in treatment of drinking water especially for poor communities living in the tropics. 


Visible light active photocatalysts are much sought after due to possibility of development of efficient and less expensive photoreactors for environmental applications. We prepared a visible light active photocatalyst, polyaniline-TiO2 (PANI-TiO2) nanocomposite, using insitu polymerisation method. It was characterized using photocatalytic activity of the PANI-TiO2 nanocomposite was tested for photo degradation of Reactive Blue 4 (RB- 4) using visible (100 W tungsten-halogen lamp) as well as UV lamp (125 W). The PANI/TiO2 nanocomposites having thin layers of PANI (~1 nm) polymerized on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles (~30 nm) were obtained. The nanocomposite displayed remarkable photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation (% RB-4 removal efficiency ³ 92; % TOC removal ³ 50). About 15 times greater rate constant for the reaction under visible light (5.23 × 10-2 min-1) was obtained compared to the rate constant with TiO2 (k = 3.5 ´ 10-3 min-1). The kinetic and morphological data were discussed in the light of the reported data for PANI/TiO2 materials produced earlier by different methods. On the basis of such comparison, a PANI/TiO2 in which TiO2 nanoparticles are deposited on polyaniline could be inferred to have higher photo activity over the other forms.

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