International Journal of Biochemistry

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International Journal of Biochemistry, ISJN: 4438-5728, Impact Index: 4.52, Imprint: Photon, Category: Peer Reviewed Indexed International Journal


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Evaluation of MPV & calcium as a prognostic marker in type 2 diabetes


Miss Manzura Rustum Mulani a*, Mrs. Veena S. Hatolkarb 


a JIIU’s IIMS&R medical college, warudi. 431202, Badnapur, Jalna. Biochemistry, Maharashtra, India

b MGM Medical college, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India


Keywords: 

diabetes mellitus, Mean platelet volume and calcium 


Abstract 

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a global pandemic. Increase in incidence of DM is a major health concern and now a global health priority. As such it is genetically & clinically heterogeneous disease requiring continuous follow-up. DM is characterized by enhanced platelet activation & coagulation proteins and reduced fibrinolytic activity. This prothrombotic state and reduced fibrinolytic activity. This prothrombotic state precedes the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of mean platelet volume (MPV) & calcium in type 2 diabetic patients. The study group comprised of 50 type 2 diabetic patients visiting medicine Out Patient Department of MGM institute of medical college and hospital, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, 50 age and sex matched healthy participates comprised the control group. The study found that MPV and calcium levels were significantly high in type 2 diabetes compared the control group significantly positive correlation between MPV with FBSL, HbA1c & platelet count was noted. Calcium appears to play important roles in both insulin secretion and action. The study shows that the patients with DM had increased MPV& Ca2+which may predispose for the development and progression of diabetic complications. 


Citation: 

Miss Manzura Rustum Mulani, Mrs. Veena S. Hatolkar, 2018. Evaluation of MPV & calcium as a prognostic marker in type 2 diabetes. International International Journal of Biochemistry.


Photon 200, 547-553 All Rights Reserved with Photon. 

 Photon Ignitor: ISJN44385728D849920012018








Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry analysis of total lipid and fatty acid content of Spirulina/ Arthrospira strains 


 Devendra Kumar*a, Priyanka Nehrab, Dolly Wattal Dhara, Neeraj Kumarb 


a Centre for Conservation and Utilization of Blue Green Algae, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, India 

b Department of Microbiology, Kurukshetra University Kurukshetra, Haryana, Meerut, 136119, India 


Keywords: 

Lipid extraction, Spirulina, Fatty acids, Gas Chromatography.e


Abbreviations:

PUFA (Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids), GC-MS (Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry) MUFA (Mono Unsaturated Fatty Acids) 


All Rights Reserved with Photon. Photon Ignitor: ISJN44385728D814915062017 


Citation: Kumar D., Nehra P., Dhar W.D., Kumar N., 2017. Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry analysis of total lipid and fatty acid content of Spirulina/Arthrospira strains. International Journal of Biochemistry. Photon 199, 537-543 


Abstract 

Spirulina platensis is a micro alga which contains many essential fatty acids, like gamma linolenic acid, stearic acid, myristic acid, linoleic acid, heptadecanoic acid etc. Lipid fractions were extracted from the biomass through different solvent extractions and the composition of individual fatty acids had been found out through GC-MS analysis based on their retention time and molecular weight. These results make better understanding of rapid metabolic responses in percentage of Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA), Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA) and Mono Unsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFA). Lipid extracted from Spirulina contained approximately 21% linoleic acid and 18% γ-linolenic acid. Overall mean showed that the total lipids were maximum (11.4±0.02) in Spirulina platensis CCC540 and these were lowest (3.6±0.04) in Spirulina maxima CC481. The present study is very useful for identifying the blue green algal strains of high lipid content for extracting biofuel.












Maytenus emarginata willd is a folklore plant utilized by tribals of south Indian Nallamala forest. In this study we assess antiulcer activity and evaluate the effect on the antioxidant system of experimental rats. In our previous study we have assessed the Total Antioxidant Activity and α-glycosidase hindrance Activity. Now, the leaf of M. emarginata was assessed for its gastro defensive action and impact on antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, we found that the MEA1 MEE2 contain fundamentally viable gastro defensive action and astoundingly quickens the exercises of GSH3, GR4, GPx5, GST6 , SOD7 and CAT8 in a ulcer incited experimental rats. Subsequently our trial study gives an indescribable imprint to the ethno-botanical claims and reported ethno pharmacological actions that M. emarginata leaves have a huge restorative potential. [1] Aqueous extract of M. emarginata, 2 extract of M. emarginata 3 Glutathione 4 Glutathione Reductase 5 Glutathione Peroxidase 6 Glutathione s transferase 7 Super Oxide Dismutase 8 Catalase



Study of serum levels of vitamin D in type 2 diabetic patients 


Dr. Gomathy Ra, Dr. Suman Doddamania, Dr. Lakshmi K.Sb, Dr. Arundhathi Sb, Dr. Prathibha Sc, Ms. Veni Ud 


a Department of Biochemistry, Sanjay Gandhi Institute of Trauma and Orthopedics Center, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India 

b Department of Pathology Sanjay Gandhi Institute of Trauma and Orthopedics Center, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India 

c Department of Microbiology, Sanjay Gandhi Institute of Trauma and Orthopedics Center, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India 

d Department of Biochemistry, Sanjay Gandhi Institute of Trauma and Orthopedics Center, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India 


Keywords: 

Vitamin D, Diabetes Mellitus (DM), Calcium homeostasis, Hyperglycemia 


All Rights Reserved with Photon. Photon Ignitor: ISJN44385728D829912092016 


Citation:

R Gomathy , Doddamani S., Lakshmi K.S., Arundhathi S., Prathibha S., Veni U., 2016. Study of serum levels of vitamin D in type 2 diabetic patients. Journal of Pesticide. Photon 198, 520-523 



Abstract 

Vitamin D is necessary for normal insulin action. It influences production and secretion through its effect on calcium metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of vitamin D in type 2 diabetic patients. The study group comprised of 50 type 2 diabetic patients in the age group of 20-60 years visiting medicine Out Patient Department of Sanjay Gandhi Institute of Trauma and Orthopedics, Bengaluru, Karnataka. 50 age and sex matched healthy participants comprised the control group. The study found that vitamin D levels were significantly low in type 2 DM compared to the control participants. And significant negative correlation between HbA1c and vitamin D levels was noted. The study shows that the patients with diabetes mellitus had decreased levels of vitamin D which may predispose these patients for the development and progression of diabetic complications.





Effect of Deltamethrin on Some Biochemical Metabolites in Clarias lazara (juveniles) 


Inyang I.R.a*, Pughikumo D.T.b, Omu A.O.a 


a Aquatic toxicology unit, department of biological sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria 


b Department of Physiology, College of health sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State Nigeria 


Keywords:

Deltamethrin, clarias lazera, biochemical metabolites, pesticide. 


All Rights Reserved with Photon. Photon Ignitor: ISJN44385728D747906082016 


Citation:

 Inyang I.R., Pughikumo D.T., Omu A.O., 2016. Effect of Deltamethrin on Some Biochemical Metabolites in Clarias lazara (juveniles). International International Journal of Biochemistry. Photon 198, 515-519 


Abstract 

Careless use of pesticides can lead to effects on non target organisms. The inherent toxicity of a pesticide depends upon its capacity to disturb the dynamic life processes in a biological system. The essence of this study was performed to assess the effect of deltamethrin (a pyrethroid) on Clarias lazara. Thrirty (juveniles) Clarias lazara (mean length, 14.02 ±0.20 cm SD and mean weight 97.00±0.34 g SD) were acclimatized to laboratory conditions for 12 days and then exposed to varying sublethal concentration of deltamethrin for 14 days. Biochemical metabolites (total protein, albumin and urea) were determined in the liver and muscle. Muscle and liver total protein were significant (P<0.05) while urea in the muscle and liver values were not significant (P>0.05). Significant effect of the toxicant in the muscle albumin was observed. Further work need to be carried out on Clarias lazara’s fingerlings and adults as well as other biochemical metabolites in other to evaluate the potential effect of deltamethrin on Clarias lazara.







Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity in different solvent extracts of Garlic and Snow Mountain Garlic 


Ritu Mahajan, Nisha Kapoor, Shweta Tickoo 


School of Biotechnology, University of Jammu, Jammu, India 



Keywords: Phytochemical, allicin, antimicrobial, secondary metabolites, antioxidant 


Abbreviations: FRAP: Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power, GAE: Gallic acid equivalents, PDA: potato dextrose agar, SMG: Snow mountain garlic 


Photon Ignitor: ISJN44385728D814028012016 


Citation: Mahajan R., Kapoor N., Tickoo S., 2015. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity in different solvent extracts of Garlic and Snow Mountain Garlic. International Journal of Biochemistry. Photon 198, 509-514 


Abstract 

Snow mountain garlic found in high altitudes of Himalayan region also has high medicinal value as garlic. In present study a comparison was made between garlic and SMG for the presence of phenolics and flavonoids in methanol, chloroform and aqueous extracts. In garlic, the highest amount of phenolics were observed in methanolic extract (11.27±0.003mg GAE/g), while in SMG, the aqueous extract has the highest amount of phenolic compounds (10.008±0.001mg GAE/g). The flavonoid concentration was highest in chloroform extract in both garlic and SMG. Antioxidant activity of different extracts using FRAP assay indicated that both in garlic and SMG, the highest antioxidant activity was observed in the aqueous extract. This antioxidant activity is due to organo sulphur compounds present in the plants. Regarding the antimicrobial activity, the highest zone of inhibition was observed in garlic in the chloroform extract as compared to methanol extract against Bacillus subtilis. Whereas, against the tested fungal strains the highest zone of inhibition was observed only in SMG against Bipolaris in methanolic extract. Thus, the presence of active antimicrobial activity along with the phytochemical substances provides both these plants a significant basis for their use in ethnomedicine.



 

Protein Kinase Antinucleopolyhedrovirus Red Fluorescent Protein from Midgut of Silkworm, Bombyx mori (L)


 S.G. Sunagara,c, S.B. Hinchigeri,d*, D.B. Sajjana, C.J. Savanurmathb 


Department of Biochemistry, Karnatak University, Dharwad- 580003, Karnataka, India

Department of Biotechnology, B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Vidyanagar,Hubli- 580031, Karnataka, India 

c Bio-X Institutes, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, P.R. China 

d Administrative Block, REVA University, Bangalore-560064, Karnataka, India 



Keywords: 

Red Fluorescent Protein, Pure Mysore, antinuleopolyhedrovirus, RFPPM1, Kinase 


Abbreviations: 

RFP: Red Fluorescent Protein, PM: Pure Mysore, antinuleopolyhedrovirus: antiNPV 


Photon Ignitor: ISJN44385728D808819012016 



Abstract 

The red fluorescent protein (RFP) from the silkworm are know act as antiviral molecule in the midgut of B. mori. The antiviral protein RFPPM1 present in the gut juice of multivoltine Pure Mysore (PM) silkworm was purified. In our previous study we showed that the RFPPM1 possesses strong antinucleopolyhedrovirus (antiNPV) activity through bioassay. Further, the RFPPM1 was subjected for biochemical studies to understand the biological functions using tools like MALDI-TOF-MS, CD and protein kinase assay. The relative molecular weight of RFPPM1 was determined using SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF-MS. The amount of chlorophyll derivative methyl chlorophyllide in each mg of RFPPM1 expressed in terms of µmoles. The present investigations throw light on function of RFPPM1 and its antiNPV behaviour attributed to a kinase activity involved in neutralising the NPV. 




Curative role of green banana and red apple on aspirin induced gastric ulcer in rats 


Fatma A. Khalila, Lamiaa A.A. Barakatb*, Nahla H. Alia, Nagwa A. Ahmedc, Alyae M.S. Gabala 


Biochemistry and Nutrition Department, Women’s College, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt 

Chemistry and Biochemistry Department, Science's College, Portsaid University, Cairo, Egypt 

Histology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt 



Keywords: 

Aspirin, peptic ulcer, green banana, red apple, oxidative biomarkers 



Citation: 

Fatma A.K., Lamiaa A.A.B., Nahla H.A., Nagwa A.A., Alyae M.S.G., 2016. Curative role of green banana and red apple on aspirin induced gastric ulcer in Rats. International Journal of Biochemistry. Photon 198, 490-502 


Abstract 

The biochemical effects of ulcer induced by acetyl salicylic acid on rats and the anti-ulcer activity of unripe banana and red apple supplementation was evaluated. One hundred male adult albino rats were divided into five groups (n=8). One group fed balanced diet, while other groups fed balanced diet supplemented with unripe banana and red apple at two tested doses (10 and 20%). After one month, ten rats from each group were starved 48 hours and were given aspirin at a dose level of 200mg/kg/body weight and sacrificed after six hours and noted as groups (6, 7, 8, 9, and 10). Aspirin administration caused a significant increase in serum malondialdehyde, serum alkaline phosphatase activity and nitric oxide level. Reduced glutathione level, erythrocyte Superoxide dismutase and plasma catalase activities were significantly decreased compared to healthy control group. Total titrable acidity, ulcer index, ulceration percent and ulcer score were significantly increased in ulcer control group while mucosal thickness and relative weight of stomach were significantly decreased in ulcer control group compared to healthy control group. Aspirin administration significantly decreased the level of hemoglobin, red blood cells and platelets counts but increased the level of white blood cells, neutrophils and lymphocytes counts. Consumption of green banana and red apple at the tested doses by healthy and ulcerated rats resulted in a significant decrease in oxidative biomarkers and significant improvement in antioxidants levels; complete blood picture, total titrable acidity, ulcer index, ulceration percent and ulcer score as well as mucosal thickness and relative weight of stomach as compared with ulcerated rats.





Phytochemical and Hypoglycemic Screening of Seeds and Peel of Nephelium longan Fruits 


Farhana Alam Ripaa*, Pritesh Ranjan Dasha, Mst. Luthfun Nesab, Zara Sheikha 


a Department of Pharmacy, BRAC University, Mohakhali, Dhaka-1213

b Department of Pharmacy, Atish Dipankar University, Banani, Dhaka-1213 



Keywords: Nephelium longan, hypoglycemic activity, Metmorfin hydrochloride


Photon Ignitor: ISJN44385728D813403122015 


Citation: Ripa F.A., Dash P.R., Nesa M.L., Sheikh Z., 2015. “Phytochemical and Hypoglycemic Screening of Seeds and Peel of Nephelium longan Fruits”. International Journal of Biochemistry. Photon 197, 483-489 


Abstract 

Phytotherapy is considered to be lowest lethal or has no side effects in contrast to current allopathic medicines. The intention of the present investigation was to assess the therapeutic efficacy of Nephelium longan extract in an animal model of diabetes. So in this research we have performed phytochemical screening of methanolic extracts of peel (MNLP) and seeds (MNLS) of N. longan along with their hypoglycemic study in 18 h fasted normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Plant extracts at a dose of 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg body weight were administered orally in fasting glucose loaded rat with regard to normal control during 2 h study period and in alloxan induced (110 mg/kg body weight i.p.) diabetic rat in comparison with reference drug Metformin hydrochloride (150 mg/kg) during 7 days test period. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed that MNLP and MNLS exhibited positive response to alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids. Findings confirmed that the continuous post-treatment for 7 days with both extracts showed significant (P < 0.05) hypoglycemic activity in OGTT and normoglycemic rats and insignificant antidiabetic effects in alloxan induced rat models in dose dependent manner. Further, isolation and establishment of exact mechanism of action of precise compounds from MNLP and MNLS have to be continued in the recent future.





Evaluation of the role of Oxidative Stress in the Pathogenesis and Course of Acute Myocardial Infarction 


Dr. S.K. Sivaramana*, Dr. P.T. Annamalab, Dr. G. Zachariahc 


a Department of Biochemistry Sree Gokulam Medical College & Research Foundation, 

   Venjaramoodu.P.O, Trivandrum– 695607, Kerala, India 

b Department of Biochemistry, Jubilee Mission Medical College & Research Institute, Jubilee 

   Mission.P.O, Thrissur–680 005, Kerala, India 

c Consultant Cardiologist, Mother Hospital Pvt Ltd, P.O.Pullazhi,Olari,Thrissur-680 012, 

   Kerala, India 



Keywords: 

Acute Myocardial Infarction, Oxidative stress, Antioxidants, Lipid peroxidation 


Abbreviations:

AMI: Acute Myocardial Infarction, LDL: Low Density Lipoprotein, SOD: Superoxide dismutase, CAT: Catalase, GSH- Glutathione (Reduced), GSSG: Glutathione (Oxidized), GST: Glutathione-S-Transferase, GR: Glutathione reductase, GPx: Glutathione peroxidase, CADs: Coronary Artery Diseases, LPO: Lipid peroxidation, TBARS: Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances 


Photon Ignitor: ISJN44385728D801919102015 


Citation: Sreekanth K.S., Annamala P.T., Geevar Z., 2015. Evaluation of the role of Oxidative Stress in the Pathogenesis and Course of Acute Myocardial Infarction. International Journal of Biochemistry. Photon 197, 472-482 



Abstract Free radical induced oxidative stress and modification in LDL cholesterol play a major role in the pathophysiology of AMI. This study evaluated the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis and course of AMI with different risk factors. The markers of oxidative stress in 300 AMI patients and in 100 sex and age matched control subjects were estimated. These markers - the antioxidant enzymes, molecules and lipid peroxidation were found to be altered in these patients.SOD and CAT were found to be decreased in AMI patients with age ranges from 40-60yrs and GPx and GR were decreased in the age group of <40yrs. SOD, Gpx and GR were also decreased in AMI males when compared to AMI females. They were also found to be decreased in AMI patients with the history of diabetes, hypertension, a cholesterol value > 200mg/dl and with the habit of smoking and alcohol intake. The values of LPO is found to be elevated in all the AMI patients irrespective of the risk factors studied. Further evaluation after recovery wasn’t done in these patients, and is a limitation of this study. More studies are required from different parts of the country to enhance our results.





Urinary Alkaline Phosphatase, Gamma Glutamyl Transferase and Lactate Dehydrogenase in Type 2 Diabetic Nephropathy, and their Correlation with Albuminuria 


Laxman Pokhrela, Mohamed Rafib, Shivashankara A.R.c*, Avinash S.S.c, Arun Kumar K.d, Malathi M.e 


a Biochemist, Bharosa Hospital, Kathmandu Nepal 

b Biochemist, Metropolis Labs, Mangalore, India 

c Associate Professor of Biochemistry, Father Muller Medical College, Mangalore-575002, India 

d Assistant Professor of Biochemistry, Father Muller Medical College, Mangalore-575002, India 

e Professor of Biochemistry, Father Muller Medical College, Mangalore-575002, India 


Laxman Pokhrel, Mohamed Rafi, Shivashankara A.R., Avinash S.S., Arun Kumar K. and Malathi M. are conferred with Michael Faraday Research Award-2015 in Biochemistry 


Keywords: Alkaline phosphatase, diabetic nephropathy, gamma glutamyl transferase, lactate dehydrogenase, urinary enzymes 


Abbreviations: ALP: Alkaline Phosphatase, DM: Diabetes Mellitus, GGT: Gamma Glutamyl Transferase, LDH: Lactate Dehydrogenase 


Photon Ignitor: ISJN44385728D752722052015 


Citation: Pokhrel L., Rafi M., Shivashankara A.R., Avinash S.S., Arun K.K., Malathi M., 2015. Urinary Alkaline Phosphatase, Gamma Glutamyl Transferase and Lactate Dehydrogenase in Type 2 Diabetic Nephropathy, and their Correlation with Albuminuria. International Journal of BiochemistryPhoton 197, 466-471.  


Abstract 

The present study aimed to assess urinary enzymes in diabetic nephropathy and correlate the changes in enzymes with albuminuria. Urinary levels of enzymes alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were assayed in normal healthy controls (group-I), normoalbuminuric type 2 diabetic patients without complications (group-II) and type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria (group IIIa), and macroalbuminuric type 2 diabetic nephropathy patients (group-IIIb). Urinary ALP, GGT and LDH were significantly higher in diabetic patients when compared to controls. Most pronounced increase in urinary enzymes was observed in macroalbuminuric diabetic nephropathy patients, followed by microalbuminuric diabetic nephropathy patients and normoalbuminuric diabetic patients. Urinary enzymes serve as sensitive indicators of renal function in early stages of diabetic nephropathy. Measuring the activities of urinary enzymes could help in diagnosing nephropathy et early stages of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and could also help in follow up of treatment, and preventing macrovascular complications of diabetes mellitus. Considering the non-invasiveness of urine collection, its suitability for repeated sampling, and sensitivity of enzymatic markers, further studies on urinary biomarkers of microvascular complications of diabetes are required.





Effect of smoking, alcoholism and non-vegetarian diet on lipid profile in non-diabetic, non-hypertensive myocardial infarction patients 


Avinash S.Sa*, Manjunatha Goud B.K.b, Guruprasad Raoc, Bhavna Nayald, Devaki R.N.e, Raghuveer C.V.f  


a Father Muller Medical College, Department of Biochemistry, Mangalore, Karnataka, India 575002 

b Ras Al Khaimah Medical and Health Sciences University, Department of Biochemistry, Ras Al                  Khaimah, U.A.E. 

c Melaka Manipal Medical college, Department of Biochemistry, Manipal university, Manipal, Karnataka,      India  

d Kasturba Medical College, Department of Pathology, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India 

e Mysore Medical College, Department of Biochemistry, Mysore, Karnataka, India 

f Yenepoya University, Department Pathology, Deralakatte, Mangalore, Karnataka, India  


Avinash S.S., Manjunatha Goud B.K., Guruprasad Rao, Bhavna Nayald, Devaki R.N. and Raghuveer C.V. are conferred with Frederick Banting Research Award-2015 in Biochemistry 


Keywords: Smoking, Alcohol, Diet, Lipid profile, Myocardial infarction  


Abbreviations:  MI: Myocardial Infarction, TC: Total Cholesterol, LDL: Low density lipoprotein, HDL: High density lipoprotein, TG: Triglyceride, IHD: Ischemic heart disease 


Photon Ignitor: ISJN57438483D739608042015 


Citation: Avinash S.S., Manjunatha Goud B.K., Rao G., Nayal B., Devaki R.N., Raghuveer C.V., 2015. Effect of smoking, alcoholism and non-vegetarian diet on lipid profile in non-diabetic, non-hypertensive myocardial infarction patients.. International Journal of BiochemistryPhoton 197, 461-465.


Abstract 

Diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, high LDL-Cholesterol, low HDL-Cholesterol are risk factors of Myocardial Infarction (MI). Our study intends to find the isolated effect of cigarette smoking, alcohol and dietary habits on lipid profile in a non diabetic, non hypertensive MI. Serum lipid parameters were estimated in thirty five cases of non diabetic, non hypertensive MI patients and forty age and sex matched normal controls. In non diabetic, non hypertensive MI, when compared with respective group, non vegetarian females and males had higher total cholesterol (TC), LDL and TC/HDL than vegetarian; male smokers had high LDL, low VLDL and low triglyceride (TG) than non smokers and male alcoholics had high LDL and low TG than non alcoholics. TC, LDL and TC/HDL are increased due to the effect of smoking, alcohol consumption and non vegetarian diet even in a non diabetic, non hypertensive MI. This fact should be considered while managing a case of MI. Low sample size is a limitation of our study. However further large population based studies are needed to find out the adjusted effect of smoking, alcohol and diet on altered lipid profile and its independent risk of development of MI.




Anti-dysentery Effect of Milled Fermented Maize (“Ogi”) in Escherichia coli Infected Albino Rats 



a Department of Biochemistry, Bingham University, Karu, Nasarawa State, Nigeria  

b Department of Biochemistry, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria  

c Department of Biological Sciences, Bingham University, Karu, Nasarawa State, Nigeria    


Osheke Shekins Okere, Samuel Omolabi Adeyemo, Moses Dele Adams and Joshua Omoniyi Kolawole Abioye are conferred with Max Planck Research Award-2015 in Food Science 


Photon Ignitor: ISJN44385728D754104042015 


Citation: Okere O.S., Adeyemo S.O., Adams M.D., Abioye J.O.K., 2015. Anti-dysentery Effect of Milled Fermented Maize (“Ogi”) in Escherichia coli Infected Albino Rats. International Journal of Biochemistry. Photon 197, 455-460.


Abstract 

Anti-dysentery effects of uncooked milled, fermented maize (known as “ogi” in Southwestern Nigeria), were investigated in Escherichia coli infected albino rats. “Ogi” was prepared by fermentation of white maize grains for 5 days; wet milled, sieved and allowed to settle for 24 hours. Dysentery was precipitated in albino rats by infection with the pure culture of E. coli. Frequency of blood stool was determined by counting fecal spots on absorbent paper before and after treatment with “ogi”. Physicochemical analysis of “ogi”, comprising titratable acidity, pH 0 and phytochemical screening, was also carried out. Result indicated that 100 mg/kg b.w., 200 mg/kg. b.w. and 400 mg/kg b.w. of “ogi” reduced the number of fecal spots by 48.4%, 80.2% and 96.9%, respectively. Physicochemical analysis revealed that “ogi” had pH of 3.51; titratable acidity of 42.4% lactic acid and presence of alkaloids, saponins, cardiac glycosides and phlobatannins. Dose-dependent therapeutic potency against dysentery has been manifested by “ogi”, most likely aided by its high acidity, presence of lactic acid bacteria and their secondary metabolities, as well as the phytochemicals present in “ogi”. This could be a very simple and cheap solution to the ravaging problem of dysentery in poor families of many developing countries.







Arun Kumar K.a, Sheila Uthappab, Sudarshan Surendranc*, Avinash S.S.d, Sucharitha Sureshe, Sushitha E.S.d 


a Department of Biochemistry, Fr. Muller Medical College, Mangalore – 575002, Karnataka, India 

b Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, St.John’s Medical College, Bangalore – 560034,    

   Karnataka, India 

c Department of Anatomy, Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal – 576104, 

   Karnataka, India 

d Department of Biochemistry, Fr. Muller Medical College, Mangalore – 575002, Karnataka, India 

e Department of Hospital Administration, Fr. Muller Medical College, Mangalore – 575002, Karnataka,      

   India 


Arun Kumar K., Sheila Uthappa, Sudarshan Surendran, Avinash S.S., Sucharitha Suresh and Sushitha E.S. are conferred with Max Planck Research Award-2015 in Biochemistry 


Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases, Hypertension, Advanced oxidation protein products, Ischemia modified albumin, Free radicals, Lipid profile, Blood pressure. 


Abbreviations: ACS: Acute Coronary Syndrome, AOPP: Advanced Oxidation Protein Products, BMI: Body Mass Index, BP: Blood Pressure, CVD: Cardiovascular Disease, HDL: High Density Lipoproteins 



Abstract 


Aim: To evaluate the presence of a correlation between Ischemia Modified Albumin (IMA) and Advanced Oxidation Protein Products (AOPP) to cardiovascular diseases. Study design: Our study was designed to evaluate any link between the levels of IMA and AOPP with other risk factors known to increase risk of cardiac diseases (such as lipid profile). Place and duration of the study: This study was conducted by including the patients visiting Father Muller Medical College Hospital, Mangalore, Karnataka, India. The study was conducted for one year from May 2012 to April 2013. Methodology: A total of 151 participants were categorized into normal, prehypertension and hypertension groups. They were assessed for their levels of AOPP and IMA, and then these values were correlated to various other basic parameters. Results: On a whole, when the results of all the three groups were combined and AOPP correlated with the BMI, lipid profile values and IMA, a significant positive correlation (P<0.05) was seen with BMI, LDL (bad cholesterol), Triglycerides, TCHOL: HDL ratio, and NONHDL. Conclusion: The increase in IMA and AOPP levels indicate a positive correlation with most of the lipid profile values, which are known risk factors in cardiovascular diseases. 




Omeh Y.N.*, Ejiofor E.U.


International Journal of Biochemistry



Department of Biochemistry Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria




Photon Ignitor: ISJN44385728D467104092014


Abstract

Level of LDL, HDL, TAGs and Cholesterols in blood serum serves as markers to determine cardiovascular status. Castor seeds are used as seasonings in food as it improves taste. The study was designed to possibly investigate the effect of castor oil seed at different level of dietary incorporations on cardiovascular status using Wistar Albino Rats. Sixteen (16) rats’ age and sex matched were randomly distributed into four (4) groups, each group consisting of four (4) animals each and one group served as control. The animals were fed for a period of twenty eight days, after which they were sacrificed and serum collected from their blood for serum lipid profile estimation. The mean serum concentration of total cholesterol (TC), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and triacylglycerol (TAG) were estimated and probability value taken at (p<0.05). The increase in the serum concentration of TAGs, LDL and decrease in HDL, gives a clear indication that castor seed is not good dietary item.



Mohammed H F Shalayel*, Amar B Elhussein, Omar EFadlelseed, Ahmed E A Abdelgadeir, Ashraf Naeem, and Osman M Elsheikh receive Ronald Ross Award-2014 in Biochemistry 





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