Data and Image Processing- As a part of technology transfer program the NASA provides a collection of software to free.
Binarymark - A bunch of free software like Batch Images,Batch Image Resizer,Batch Image Watermarker,Batch Image Converter,Batch Image Enhancer,Batch Photo Face, Batch Image Splitter
OpenCV - It is released under a BSD license and hence it’s free for both academic and commercial use. It has C++, C, Python and Java interfaces and supports Windows, Linux, Mac OS, iOS and Android. OpenCV was designed for computational efficiency and with a strong focus on real-time applications. Written in optimized C/C++, the library can take advantage of multi-core processing. Enabled with OpenCL, it can take advantage of the hardware acceleration of the underlying heterogeneous compute platform.
Cell Profiler - It is free open-source software designed to enable biologists without training in computer vision or programming to quantitatively measure phenotypes from thousands of images automatically. See our papers on analyzing cell images and non-cell images.
Computer Vision Sandbox - It is targeted as a software package, which aims to allow solving different tasks related to computer vision areas, like, for example, video surveillance, vision based automation, different sorts of image/video processing, etc. At this point the software is in its early starting phase with more things to do rather than done. However the plan is to evolve it bringing many new features, achieving the goals set and beyond.
FreeMat - It is a free environment for rapid engineering and scientific prototyping and data processing. It is similar to commercial systems such as MATLAB from Mathworks, and IDL from Research Systems, but is Open Source. FreeMat is available under the GPL license.
ImageJ - It is written in Java, which allows it to run on Linux, Mac OS X and Windows, in both 32-bit and 64-bit modes.
Point Cloud Library - It is a large scale, open project for 2D/3D image and point cloud processing. The PCL framework contains numerous state-of-the art algorithms including filtering, feature estimation, surface reconstruction, registration, model fitting and segmentation. These algorithms can be used, for example, to filter outliers from noisy data, stitch 3D point clouds together, segment relevant parts of a scene, extract keypoints and compute descriptors to recognize objects in the world based on their geometric appearance, and create surfaces from point clouds and visualize them
The ESA/ESO/NASA FITS Liberator 3 - The release of version 3 of the popular ESA/ESO/NASA Photoshop FITS Liberator image processing software has meant that it is even easier and faster to create colour images using raw observations from a range of telescopes, including the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope
VLFeat - The VLFeat open source library implements popular computer vision algorithms specializing in image understanding and local features extraction and matching. Algorithms include Fisher Vector, VLAD, SIFT, MSER, k-means, hierarchical k-means, agglomerative information bottleneck, SLIC superpixels, quick shift superpixels, large scale SVM training, and many others. It is written in C for efficiency and compatibility, with interfaces in MATLAB for ease of use, and detailed documentation throughout. It supports Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux. The latest version of VLFeat is 0.9.20.