Full Wave Rectifier Circuit
4-Diode Bridge Rectifier;
A full wave rectifier circuit rectifies the AC in both directions providing a DC signal for each AC cycle.
Bridge Rectifier Circuit schematic using 4 diodes labeled CR1 to CR4.
Filtering is normally done [not shown] by one or more capacitors attached across the Load.
Common diodes used in this application are the 1N4004 diode, 400 volts in a DO-41 leaded package [General Purpose Rectifiers], However there are devices that contain all four diodes in the same package.
Bridge Rectifiers contain all four diodes in a four pin package, there are a number of package styles and voltage/current options. Select diodes with a current rating to cover the full output current load, or twice the current rating to handle any surge current [even though the diode only conduct for half the time].
List of Diode Application and Part Number, providing additional rectifier diode examples.
Same full wave rectifier circuit as above showing the input and output waveforms.
If the transformer has a center tap, only two diodes are required, Rectifier Terms shows a full-wave rectifier schematic using a center tapped transformer.
One other type of rectifier circuit uses both a 4-diode bridge rectifier and a center-tap transformer to provide a dual-polarity voltage supply.
Using the top most graphic as a partial example [because that circuit shows a single voltage supply];
The '+' side of the load would be the positive voltage, the '-' side would be the negative voltage and the center-tap [not shown] would be ground [reference].
Guide lines for diode de-rating over temperature; Diode Temperature Correction.
Guideline to Derating an Axial Lead D0-41 Diode, Temperature-Power Derating Curve. Most of the heat generate by axial-leaded diodes is dissipated via the leads of the device, so keep the diode leads as short as possible [Component Mounting Considerations].
Listing of Manufacturers of Power Supplies.
Semiconductor Diode Rectifiers by Package Types
Power Rectifier Diodes; 1N4245 through 1N4249, 1N5614, 1N5616, 1N5618, 1N5620, 1N5622
Fast Recovery Power Rectifier Diodes; 1N4942, 1N4944, 1N4946, 1N4947, 1N4948, 1N4942, 1N4944, 1N4946, 1N4947, 1N4948, 1N5415 through 1N5420, 1N5186, 1N5187, 1N5188, 1N5190, 1N5615, 1N5617, 1N5619, 1N5621, 1N5623.
Fast Recovery High Voltage Power Rectifier Diode; 1N6520 through 1N6527
Ultrafast Recovery Power Rectifier Diodes; 1N5802, 1N5804, 1N5806, 1N5807, 1N5809, 1N5811, 1N6073 through 1N6081
Fast Recovery Power Rectifier Diodes; 1N3885, 1N3886, 1N3888, 1N3890, 1N3891, 1N3893, 1N5812, 1N5814, 1N5816
Power Rectifier Diodes; 1N1184, 1N1186, 1N1188, 1N1190, 1N3766, 1N3768
Fast Recovery Power Rectifier Diodes; 1N3909, 1N3910, 1N3911, 1N3912, 1N3913
Power Rectifier Diodes; 1N3164, 1N3168, 1N3170, 1N3172, 1N3174, 1N3175, 1N3176, 1N3177, 1N3289, 1N3291, 1N3293, 1N3294, 1N3295
Power Rectifier Diodes; 1N1614, 1N1615, 1N1616, 1N4458, 1N4459, 1N1202A, 1N1204A, 1N1206A, 1N3671A, 1N3673A
There are a number of packages that contain all four diodes, this is one possible Quad-Diode package:
Note the pin locations for the AC inputs and DC outputs [Terminal Polarity] in the diagram above.
3-Terminal TO-254 package:
1N6657; Ultrafast Power Rectifier Semiconductor Diode, Dual Common Anode Center Tap [1N6658, 1N6659].
1N6657R; Ultrafast Power Rectifier Semiconductor Diode, Dual Common Cathode Center Tap [1N6658R, 1N6659R].
1N6672; Ultrafast Power Rectifier Semiconductor Diode, Dual Common Anode Center Tap [1N6672 to 1N6674].
1N6672R; Ultrafast Power Rectifier Semiconductor Diode, Dual Common Cathode Center Tap [1N6672R to 1N6672R].
One diode package would form half the bridge [Common Anode], while the other diode package forms the other half of the bridge [Common Cathode]
In this case each TO-254 semiconductor package holds half the diode bridge.
Each diode has a Forward Current [If] of 15 Amps dc, 30A per package [Total Current].
Derate linearly at 300mA/C from 100C to 150C [+200 degrees centigrade, Maximum junction temperature]
Hybrid Diode Bridge Circuits
Combination circuits in a single package are also possible.
This circuit takes either AC or DC and outputs DC voltage just as a normal rectifier would do.
The differences with this circuit is that the input and output are optically coupled and the output operates at standard TTL logic levels.
For the output to operate at TTL levels both Vcc and Vo would need to be connected to +5 volts.
Any output voltage level is possible because the output pin is an open collector transistor.
Note that diodes D1 and D2 are Schottky diodes and D3 and D4 are zener diodes.
Not only will this circuit rectify AC to DC, but it will also transform dual-polarity DC [+/-] into DC and ground.
This particular circuit comes in a DIP, with pin 7 disconnected. Also this example operates with low voltage AC, not 120V AC.
Diode Bridge Test Circuit
Diode bridges are also used for test circuits.
The DUT or Device Under Test represents the IC being tested.
The 30pf capacitor is used to represent the scope capacitance and IC socket capacitance.
Bridge Test Circuit
Dual Complementary SupplyUsing a center tapped transformer acting as a common connection point a diode bridge may also be configured as a dual voltage supply.
The center tap is the common or ground point, the outputs from the diode bridge would be the plus and minus sides of the supply.