To expand the coverage of radio stations using different methods. One of them - the rise of transmission antennas at high altitude. The world is a kind of competition, who earlier put its antenna. Thus, the French have installed antennas on the Eiffel Tower, the Americans - on the roof of a skyscraper Empire State Building, a Russian on the Ostankino Tower in Moscow.
The first record in this competition linked with the emergence of Old ladies - the so-called residents of the Eiffel Tower in Paris, became a symbol of France. Curiously, that such a structure, but much earlier, could appear in London. It is there in 1832 the idea to create 320 - metre tower. But the project belonged to the English engineer named Trevesik was dismissed londontsami, for good luck Parisian.
At the time, every European nation has sought to be louder voice their scientific and technological achievements. Their was to be the embodiment of something, which would not exist in another country. In France, such a construction project turned 300 - metre tower, embodies the great achievements of French nation. Today the age of the spire more than 100 years. Her erected at the Field of Mars in 1889 - for the opening of the World Exhibition in Paris. Designed engineer Alexandre Gustave Eiffel project was selected from more than 700 works submitted for the contest.
Not paying attention to protest known writers, the French government and the municipality of Paris in January signed in 1887 with Eyfelem contract for the construction of the tower. Bookmark foundation began in the same month, and construction lasted two years, two months and two days. March 31, 1889 Eiffel himself with the French flag in their hands, breaking the 1789 stairs, rose at an observation tower and the tower there installed it. The tower was named after its founder. After the end of the exhibition, in 1890, assumed the construction disassemble. Fortunately, this did not happen, and Eiffel received the right to commercial service facilities within 20 years.
Initially tower unpleasantly surprised and even shocked his unusual appearance. It is no accident, many Frenchmen demanded its demolition. By that famous writer Guy de Maupassant, with no desire to look at the "monster", dine in the restaurant of the tower - the only place where it could not contemplate in all beauty. But there have been those who have inspired tower. She was captured on linens Marc Chagall, Pablo Picasso and Fernand Leger, is mentioned in the works of Vladimir Mayakovsky, Louis Aragon, and Guillaume Apollinaire called it "shepherd clouds."
The height of the tower - 300 meters. Its top varies with the amplitude of 22 centimetres. The construction is designed in such a way that is able to withstand wind pressure up to 300 kg/m2. In the hot season tower at 18 centimetres longer. The total weight is 75 thousand construction tons. On the upper viewing platform, you can view Paris within a radius of 90 km. At the foot of the tower installed a bronze bust of Alexander Eyfelya by sculptor Burdelem.
In 1921 offspring Eyfelya attached to radio engineering, setting it on the radio. Two years later, on the tower has four different types of transmitters: the musical spark transmitter with a capacity of 150 kW tone, with its help in the wake of 2600 m transferred news and weather reports, as well as verified hours; arc transmitter at 150 kW, who worked in the range of 3200 -8000 M and military service; high electrical motors transmitter capacity of 20 kW, who worked in the wake of 10000 m, and tube transmitter power of 1 kW. After a while instead of the existing tube transmitter has been installed a more powerful transmitter in the 5 kW with a wavelength of 2600 m.
In 1925, on the tower held the first experiments television reception, and in 1957 - was installed meters TV antenna, which increased the height of buildings for another 20 metres. Today the Eiffel Tower - the whole enterprise. Over the past decade done much to "rejuvenate" Old ladies. In order to protect against corrosion every seven years of her strength, using 40 tons of special ink. New lights illuminates pronounced openwork structure, consuming three times less energy than before. And to this day the tower is important for the radio and television, as well as radar service for France.
The original gift to 100 - anniversary of the Eiffel Tower received its visitors. The upper floor was built a special room with five screens, allows you to monitor the fluctuating peaks installations, which are recorded using special devices.
In some countries, unsuccessfully tried to build a tower of the same height. In Prague, on top of the mountain Petrzhin erected reduced copy of the Eiffel Tower. Its total height of 60 meters, but despite this it is very popular, but since 1953 and serves as the Tower.
Up until 1931 Eiffel Tower remained the highest building in the world, has not yet been built New York Empire State Building, above her at 81 metre. The Americans placed on the transmission antennas and thereby raised the upper point of a skyscraper to 442 meters.
In connection with the rapid development of television there was a need to build a special high-rise buildings to install antennas broadcasters. In 1953, in the German city of Stuttgart has decided to build a Tower height of 200 meters. The original design included the use of traditional steel lattice structure. But this idea opposed one of the architects, engineers F. Leonhard. Technical object of this form, he argued, will look against the backdrop of beautiful dissonance landscape around Stuttgart. It is better to build this architectural design, which, as a technical object, while organically would fit into the landscape. The idea took, and after a while based on it drafted a new type of tower. Construction continued for three years, and in February 1956 - passed the first construction to operation. It is a reinforced concrete truncated cone height of 159 meters with a diameter of 10.8 meters lower grounds, and the ceiling - 5.04 meters. The thickness of the lower grounds amounted to 80 cm, and the ceiling - a total of 19 crowns see Vershinu cone antennas 52 meters in height. The top antenna is located at an altitude of 211 meters above the surrounding terrain. At the top of the tower is located multi-pavilion called "Stork Nest." There are translation equipment, technical and business premises, restaurant and observation tower.
Following the Eiffel Tower Stuttgart television has also become a model to be emulated. In 1957, the Soviet Union was declared the All-Union competition for the construction of Ostankino Tower. Regarding the design and construction of Ostankino Tower, both in time and against Stuttgart Tower, initially had doubts, too, disputes and unrest. No could not reach agreement on the appearance of the buildings. Some called to build something similar to the Eiffel Tower, others suggested doubling option Shuhovskoy Tower, which is Shabolovskaja in Moscow.
In 1958, summarizing the competition and selected project architects Leonid Batalov, Dmitry Burdin and designer of doctor of technical sciences Nikolay Nikitin. The originality of the proposed design was that the tower should be composed of two main parts. The lower part, from the ground up to 385 m, is made of cast, prestressed concrete, and the upper part, up to 533 m, consists of pieces of steel pipes of various diameters, which are mounted antenna transmission stations. And the foundation of such a large tower at its height had a minimum depth - only 4 meters. (By the way, lot of construction at the site was a dense layers of clay, sand and water.)
And again in doubt, disputes ... Indeed, it is difficult to construct looking to the sky at nearly 500 metres in height. Engineers designed the tower, which barely exceeded the age of 40 years. The son Leonid Batalov recalled how his father came to Nikolay Nikitin and exclaimed with a threshold: "I calculated standard lamp!" That was genius design: a very thin, long rod stands on a shallow but very wide concrete slabs. The engineering solution creators Tower borrowed from nature, remembering that the stems of plants, thin and high, seemingly fragile, but do not break even from strong wind, as they - hollow. It was decided to build a tower of reinforced concrete, but in its trunk floor to tighten 149 steel ropes. The existence of ropes allowed compress tower with such enormous force that no external factors, including strong winds and even hurricanes, could not bend dangerously designed and cause cracks in concrete. At the Tower design reminds army radio antenna. Ostankino Tower is able to withstand earthquake measuring 8 on the Richter scale and gusts of wind at speeds up to 44 m / sec.
Ostankino Tower Construction began in 1960 and lasted for seven years. While laying the foundation Leonid Batalov remembered on the old tradition of throwing in the construction of palaces and temples foundation pit specially minted commemorative medals and threw his hat into the ground. Construction ended on November 4, 1967. The tower was put into operation on the eve of 50 - anniversary of the October Revolution. The team of officers who participated in its design, and most Nikolay Nikitin was awarded the Lenin Prize. With the opening of Ostankino television radius confirm the TV signal reception was 120 km. After completion of the flagpole tower have become the height of 540 m.
However, Ostankino Tower walked around the side and not misery. Ambitious fire, which started in Sunday, August 27, 2000, it caused enormous damage. The fire occurred at 15.08 and at an altitude of 475 meters, presumably because of a short circuit in cable antennas. With flames distributed compartments Tower, calculations firefighters struggled throughout the night. From the impact of high temperatures burst more than 50 fastening cables, restraint design in an upright position. Only to 17.40 on Monday succeeded in dismantling the fire. Despite the huge damage caused by construction, Ostankino Tower stood and thus confirmed the validity of the strength calculations performed by specialists under the leadership of Nikolay Nikitin. By the way, Eiffel Tower burned twice in 1956 and 1998.
However, Ostankino Tower long held position of the highest buildings in the world. After eight years championship transferred to the reinforced concrete TV Tower C. N. Tower height of 553.34 meters, which came into operation on April 2, 1975 in the Canadian city of Toronto. According to the workers of this facility, lightning hit the tower in the top 200 times a year.
World Tower, members of the Federation WFGT
Currently there are 22 giant ground installations, which merged into tall towers of the World Federation (The World Federation of Great Towers). Federation unites not people, but the building of a certain type of tower. Construction should be in the form of towers, a landmark building in a city where it is situated, and of interest to tourists, but also have an observation tower, equipped for tourists. Naturally, the construction of buildings should be completed and the tower should be open to observation and general overview.