The United States’ National Science Foundation (NSF) supported this work via two programs: Long Term Ecological Research in the Plum Island Ecosystems (PIE) via grants OCE-0423565 & OEC-1058747, and Coupled Natural and Human Systems via grant BCS-0709685. NSF supplied additional funding through a supplement grant entitled ‘Maps and Locals (MALS)’ via grant DEB-0620579 and a PIE supplement grant OEC-1026859. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendation expressed in this work are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the funders. The Massachusetts Geographic Information System supplied data for this project. Clark Labs facilitated this work by creating the GIS software Idrisi®.