Instructional Design: the Blueprint for Success!

Learning by Design

A well-designed course is a blueprint for success. In this session, we will examine the elements of effective instructional design. An emphasis will be placed on how to design your class to meet the needs of the range of students that you expect in the class. We will go through the process of determining which approaches, technologies and techniques will work best for your teaching style, the nature of the subject matter, and the background of the students. We will apply the principles to classes for each of the participants.
 
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Teaching Style
 
Before we begin our discussion of instructional design, consider your current teaching style.
 
Four general teaching style types:
 
  1. Formal Authority
  2. Demonstrator
  3. Facilitator
  4. Delegator
Check out this quiz which points out some of the ways these different styles impact students and mesh with their learning styles:
 
 
What style do you most often employ in your teaching?
 
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ADDIE and ASSURE
 
Two models of instructional design prevail at this time. 
 
The ADDIE model is based on:

Analysis > Design > Development > Implementation > Evaluation

The ASSURE moded is based on:

Analyze learners > State Objectives > Select Media > Utilize Media > Require Participation > Evaluate and Revise

 Both models have their followers and both are effective.
 
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 ADDIE Model
 
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Assure Model
 
The assure model was designed to be used for teachers in developing their own classes.  It is ready-made for those who seek to create an effective blueprint for their online and blended classes. 
 
Analyze learners - Before you begin, you should analyze your learners. 
  • Demographics
    • Age
    • Gender
    • Previous college
    • Socio-economic considerations
    • Cultural characteristics
    • Incoming knowledge / competencies
In analyzing your learners, you may want to begin your class by asking students to assess their learning style mix and to report the results to you. 

How did you score?

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State objectives - make these behavioral or affective objectives
  • Finish the sentence:  At the end of this course (module), the students will be able to..........
  • Put these in "active" terms, such as the newly revised Bloom's Taxonomy:

  • Conditions under which the behavior will be observed
  • Degree to which the learned skills are to be mastered
Freshmen English students (Audience) will be able to identify 90% (Degree) of the protagonists (Behavior) when given a list of ten Shakespearean Tragedies (Condition).
 
Write three objectives relevant to your class - include the elements above.
 
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Select instructional methods, media and materials
 
  • Encourages contact between students and faculty,
  • Develops reciprocity and cooperation among students,
  • Encourages active learning,
  • Gives prompt feedback,
  • Emphasizes time on task,
  • Communicates high expectations, and
  • Respects diverse talents and ways of learning.
Pedagogy helps identify methods - for example, social constructivist approaches have proven effective in online classes:
 

 
Methods might include such activites as:
  • Small groups
  • Case studies
  • Games
  • Simulations
  • Debates 

Which activity seems most relevant to your class?

Media selection in online classes may include the many cloud-based technologies, for example:
 
 
Which technology might you use?
 
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Utilize the media and methods to deliver the modules. 
 
Be sure to test out the technologies prior to the scheduled use. Make sure that you have support ready, and even consider a back-up technology in case the original selection fails.  Monitor the use of the technologies.
 
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Require the use of the technologies.
 
Make sure that the students are actively participating in using the technologies.  Following the constructivist approach, allow your students to build knowledge rather than requiring them to learn. 
 
Build in opportunities for formative evaluation from the students.  Make sure you get feedback along the way (not just at the end of the class) through evaluations and within assessments.
 
Assessments can, themselves, provide active learning experiences!
 
 
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 Evaluate and Revise!
 
 The class is not done for the instructor until you have evaluated the outcomes and the overall learning experience.  These evaluations and outcomes lead to revisions and improvements.  The cycle of improvement through instructional design continues!
 
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