A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects.
A university is a corporation that provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education.
The word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, roughly meaning "community of teachers and scholars."
University College Terminologies
The academic debt is the lack of knowledge orbasic skills (admittance requirements) foreseen for admittance to a specific university degree course or specialist degree course.
The requirements for each course describe how the student may fulfil any eventual academic debts. 'Clear academic standing' refers to those students who have fulfilled all academic credit obligations and will not have to make up missing credit point subjects during the chosen specialist degree course.
The academic year begins on October 1 and ends in September of the following year (however lessons start in September). This period is divided into semesters (which are divided into course and exams periods).
Apostille is a French word which means a certification. It is commonly used in English to refer to the legalization of a document for international use under the terms of the 1961 Hague Convention Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents. Documents which have been notarized by a notary public, and certain other documents, and then certified with a conformant apostille are accepted for legal use in all the nations that have signed the Hague Convention.
The teaching committee for each degree course appoints university teachers, known as Contacts, who then have the task of giving high school students information about their courses.
They also help students who need advice on the specific cultural contents of the general three year degree courses or the two year specialist courses.
University students are required to attend the following types of courses: classes, seminars, practical workshops or laboratories, small group classes, tutoring, orientation, practical training, projects, theses for specialist degree courses, individual study and self-study.
The Ministry of Education foresees the following kinds of teaching:
a) Core subjects that gives the student a general foundation.
b) Specialist courses that characterise the typology of the individual course.
c) Interdisciplinary courses to avoid excessive emphasis on one particular discipline.
d) Courses the student may choose.
e) Courses relative to the final exam and knowledge of a foreign language (required in all degree courses).
f) Other courses for further knowledge of other: foreign languages, computer skills, practical training and internship in various professional fields, development of communication skills.
Each group of courses is worth a specific number of academic credit points.
The course content includes all the subjects programmed for any given course, whether compulsory or optional, that a student enrolled in a university degree course must follow in order to pass the exams and be awarded the relative credits. Each course content, or study plan, should be drawn up by December 31 using the computers situated in the various university buildings.
The Departments are the university structures that promote, coordinate and organise scientific research. They include teaching chairs of related subjects, also belonging to various Faculties. They contribute to the organisation of all the teaching activities of the courses they are in charge of.
Post-lauream, or specialisation and teaching post-lauream qualification of studies. This is awarded to graduates attending a specialisation course lasting a maximum of four years.
Is the administrative procedure each student must follow when enrolling in a university degree at any level.
For every exam passed, the student will be awarded a defined number of credits relative to the courses followed and quantitative evaluation, out of a maximum mark of 30.
In order to be awarded the academic credits foreseen for each course and teaching activity, students must pass an exam or other form of evaluation.
Each teaching committee is free to decide on the nature of these exams as is stated in the course regulations. The exam may be written, oral or simply a pass/fail.
Credits do not replace the final mark, which is given out of a maximum of thirty. 18 is the minimum mark while 30 is the highest, with the possibility of honours.
Faculties may be considered academic units that represent all the courses relative to specific fields of scientific-didactic research. Each faculty offers more than one general or specialist degree course, each of which refers to a specific cultural and methodology matrix.
The general degree course ends with a final exam that does not consist of a traditional thesis. The teaching committee of each course is responsible for the content and procedure foreseen for the final exam.
At the end of the specialist degree course the student is required to write and present a thesis under the supervision of a tutor.
A student must have a mark of at least 66 to pass the exam for both the general and specialist degrees. The highest possible mark is 110, with the possibility of honours.
These are courses relative to advanced and specialised education (decree nr. 509/99, art. 3 paragraph 8).
They last one year and admittance requirements include a university degree.
The most common fields are those of managerial and business education, advanced technology, applied research and international roles. For this reason the Masters may be organised in collaboration with private or public companies and institutions.
Admittance is restricted so as to guarantee personal supervision by the university teachers and tutors.
The credits acquired for the first level Master may be recognised if the student continues his studies with a specialist degree course.
The courses include frontal teaching, individual study, workshops, laboratories, and end with an internship in companies or businesses.
Attendance is compulsory. The course includes periodic progress tests to ascertain if the student has acquired the
The general degree course (art. 1, paragraph 1, art. 3 paragraphs 1,3 4, art. 6 paragraph 1, art. 7 paragraph 1, art. 8, paragraph 2, art. 9, paragraphs 3 and 4) is spread over 3 years of study and gives the student a theoretical grounding in the subject chosen (general degree) or is integrated with professional training that aids the graduate's placement on the employment market (professional first level degree). In accordance with article 3 of decree number 509/99, it aims to "guarantee the student sufficient competence in the use of general scientific methods and contents, as well as the acquisition of professional knowledge".
The general degrees have been grouped into 42 categories according to their common educational objectives.
The academic qualification is awarded once the student has passed the final exam in accordance with the requirements of each individual teaching committee (art. 11, paragraph 3, d) and has acquired 180 credits.
Those wishing to be admitted to a general degree course "must have a general secondary school leaving certificate or
Depending on the course chosen, attendance may be compulsory.
Graduates will find employment in the labour market, work free-lance or may continue their studies with a specialist degree course or a first-level Masters.
These are courses relative to advanced and specialised professional education. A university degree is required for
The most common fields are those of managerial and business education, advanced technology, applied research and international roles.
Unlike the first level University Master, no credits are awarded for Masters conferred prior to the university reform.
These are courses that "give the students the skills needed to carry out highly qualified research in a university or public or private organisation" .
Admittance requirements include a general degree and, as of the academic year 2001-2002, a specialist degree.
Each university is responsible for the admittance procedure for each Research doctorate, the course requirements, course content, duration and scholarships.
The second level degree course or Specialist degree course is one of the academic options open to students with a general degree. According to the law, it aims to "give the student an advanced level of education that will supply him/her with the skills needed to hold higher positions in certain fields" (art. 3, paragraph 5).
The specialist degrees have been grouped into 104 categories according to their common educational objectives.
This academic qualification is awarded once the student has acquired 120 credits, which are added to the 180 of the general degree (a total of 300 credits).
Each university may run one or more specialist degree courses which are the immediate follow on to each general degree. If the student chooses a second level degree course that follows on from the general degree course the student will have already acquired 180 credit points which will be recognised for admittance to the specialist degree.
Students will also be admitted once they have extinguished any academic debt established by the teaching committee of the relevant specialist degree course.
Depending on the course chosen, attendance may be compulsory.
At the end of the specialist degree course the student must present and discuss a thesis.
Graduates with a specialist degree will find employment in the labour market, work free-lance or may continue their
Teaching, also called 'course' is 'the subject matter' the student must study to pass exams and be awarded the number of credits foreseen.
Each course is worth a certain number of credits: around 60 credits are expected in one academic year.
Is the total number of the courses the student expects to attend and/or pass during one academic year.
Each faculty defines a standard course content programme with an academic teaching load of around 60 credits.
A tutor is usually a senior student who has the task of assisting first year students assigned to him when they begin
A university tutor is also available for first year and other students, and is able to give advice on how to draw up their course content programme, and plan their own university studies, etc.
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A university academic credit is the name for the conventional average amount of studying time required of a full-time student. Each credit corresponds to 25 hours of work (individual study, courses, practical training, etc.).
The student is awarded 60 credits for the annual exams he passes at the end of each academic year, corresponding to around 1,500 hours' work for a full-time student.