Ink-and-wash Animation

Panpan’s ongoing research on ink-and-wash animation and its hybrid forms. 

Published essay "Animating Landscape: Chinese Ink-and-wash Animation, 1960-2013"



Where is Mama 小蝌蚪找妈妈 (dir.Te Wei,Qian Jiajun,Tang Cheng,1960) 

A Small Stream 小溪流 (dir. He Yumeng, 1962)

Buffalo Boy and the Flute  牧笛 (dir.Te Wei , Qian Jiajun, 1963)

A boy falls asleep in a tree and has a dream that he has lost his buffalo. The dream sequence in the film is delightfully whimsical, beginning with falling leaves that turn into butterflies and gradually lead the cow herder to a beautiful mist-filled valley. Refusing any dialogue allows the film to be watched by any culture. Scored by Wu Yingju, the film also gives the audience a taste of Lu Chun Ling’s magic flute. 


The Bamboo Shoot in The House 长在屋里的竹笋(dir. Hu Jinqing, Zhou Keqin, 1976)

The Panda Store 熊猫百货商店 (dir. Sheng Zhuwei, Zhou Keqin, 1979)


Three Monks 三个和尚 (dir. Xu Jingda, Ma Kexuan, 1981)

The Monkey and Moon 猴子捞月 (dir.Zhou Keqin, 1981)


The Naughty Monkey 淘气的金丝猴(dir. Hu Jinqing 1982)


The Taoist Priest in the Mountain 崂山道士(dir. Wu Zheguang, 1981)


Lu Ling
鹿铃 (dir. Tang Cheng, Wu Qiang, 1982)


Snipe -Clam Grapple 鹬蚌相争(dir. Hu Jinqing,1983)

When paper-cut animation and ink-and-wash animation get married, the shape edges of paper-cut animation are missing and a lot of labor is saved, compared to creating a "pure" ink-and-wash animation. Awarded  Silver Bear for Best Short Film in the 34th Berlin International Film Festival, Snipe -Clam Grapple is an ink-and-wash paper-cut animation that nobody can  recognize its hybrid identities at the first sight. 

36 Characters 三十六个字 (dir. Xu Jingda, 1984)


The Butterfly Springs 蝴蝶泉 (dir. A Da, Chang Guangxi, 1983)

Feelings of Mountains and Waters 山水情(dir. Te Wei , Yan Shanchun, Ma Kexuan, 1988)

Feelings of Mountains and Waters is simply about a brief Guqin lesson between an elderly scholar and a young boy, but it invites its audiences to travel and sleepwalk in endless poetic ink-and-wash landscape painting rolls. As the last animated film directed byTe Wei, Feelings of Mountains and Waters exhibits a nostalgic longing for the disappearing art of guqin, as well as a nostalgic longing for the lost, golden age of Chinese animation. 


 Chasing the Rat 追鼠 (dir. Hu Jinqing, 1988)

 Cockfighting 斗鸡  (dir. Hu Jinqing, 1988)

The Strong One Bites The Hook 强者上钩  (dir. Hu Jinqing, 1988)

TheLittle Swallow 小燕子 (dir. Qian Yunda, ?)

Lan Hua Hua 兰花花 (dir. Li Geng, 1989)

 A Story in Summer Time 螳螂捕蝉  (dir. Hu Jinqing, 1988)

Deer Women 鹿女 (dir. Yan Dingxian, Lin Wenxiao, 1993)

Ode to Summer 夏 (dir. Xu Yi, 2003)

Pan Tianshou 潘天寿 (dir. Chang Hong, 2003)

La papillon 蝶 (dir. Antoine Antin, Jenny Rakotomamonjy, 2003)


Brush 绝笔  (dir. Chen Lei, 2005)

Spring Mood 思凡 (dir. Zhang Gong, 2005)

ATale of Peach Blossom Spring 桃花源记 (dir. Chen Ming, 2006)

New Book of Mountains and Seas 新山海经 (dir. Qiu Anxiong, 2006)

The experimental ink in post-1990 China didn't successfully immigrant from painting to video until it met the hands of the Shanghai-based artist Qiu Anxiong. Anxiong’s work certainly tends towards the absurdist but not in terms of investigating a meaningless and pointless world. Instead, in a dream-like style, it chronicles a world rapidly succumbing to industrial development, social change and environmental destruction, a world where ideological differences lead inevitably to conflict and war.

Xiling Snow 西岭雪 (dir.He Yi, 2007)

White Snake 白蛇 (dir. Ruan Yunting, 2007)

Under the influence of Caroline Leaf, White Snake employs sand to retell the famous Chinese folk story in an innovative way: the faithful love is replaced by human cruelty; the eternal memory is substituted by a fractured sense of time. If we still recognize White Snake as an ink-and-wash animation, it will lead us to this question: what is essential to ink-and-wash animation after all, ink or rhythm? 

 12 Chinese Zodiac Animals  漢字動畫十二生肖 (dir. Ji Yu, 2009)

Oddly 怪哉 (dir. Zeng Xun, Zhang Shengxi, Huang Yuelin,2009)

 New Book of Mountains and SeaII 新山海经II (dir. Qiu Anxiong, 2009)

National Palace Museum 台北故宫 documentary (dir. Zhou Bing, 2009)

When the Louvre meets the Forbidden City 当卢浮宫遇见紫禁城 documentary (dir. Zhou Bing, 2010)

Harmony China 和谐中国  (dir. Zheng Dasheng, 2010)

Gluttonous Cat 贪食的猫 (dir. Zhu Chenxi, 2010)

Poeny Pavilion 游园惊梦 (dir. Wang Linhui, 2011)

 Ink History 墨水东西 (dir. Chen Shaoxiong, 2012)


Deam 梦 (dir. Mao Shengyu, ?)

Movement and Stillness动静 (dir. Yi-Hsuan Kent Chin, ?)

Animation Time • Genesis 动画时刻•创世纪 (dir. Yuan Zheng,?)

Somewhere 在那儿(dir. Mak Shing Fung, ?)

Farewell 十八里相送 (dir. Yang Hongyi, Zhang Wen, ?)

The Pond 塘韵 (dir. Huang Ying, ?)

The Broken Bridge Umbrella 断桥伞  (dir. Yang Linghua, ?)

The Lotus 疏影莲  (dir. Yang Linghua, ?)

A Smile Over the Sea 沧海一声笑 (dir. Yang Linghua, ?)

Always Focused on Opera 寄情篇, CCTV 11

Always Focused on Opera II 戏牌篇 CCTV 11

Believe The Power of Brand 相信品牌的力量 CCTV 1

Ink Jiangnan 水墨江南 Zhejiang TV