For a side-by-side English translation of the text of Mcg and Lk 22, see Luke Chapter 22
Now the feast of unleavened bread drew nigh, which is called the Passover. [22:1]
In his chapter 40 Tertullian refers to the Passover [22:1], and being betrayed by Judas in return for some money [22:3-5], but does not actually quote any of these verses. Epiphanius quotes from v. 22:4:
“He communed with the captains how he might deliver him unto them,” (Scholion 60)
He omits 'chief priests,' while Bezae has “And he went his way, and communed with the chief priests, how he might betray him.” The parallels in both Mt and Mk side with Bezae in having Judas go just to the chief priests, while Epiphanius has just the captains, and only Lk has both. If Mcg had the captains, then it would seem that Lk is simply incorporating both. However, this does not explain where the captains originated, although there seems little reason for Marcion to make such a change. Some mss omit “And he promised” [or agreed] at the beginning of v. 22:6, but we do not know what Mcg read here.
Then came the day of unleavened bread, when the passover must be killed. [22:7]
Tertullian mentions none of these details of the preparation for the Passover, and Epiphanius just reports:
“And he said unto Peter and the rest, Go and prepare that we may eat the Passover.” (Scholion 61)
He does not suggest that Marcion made a change here. Sense comments:
This quotation may be assumed to cover the story of the mission, though I feel that it does not satisfactorily do so, and the existence of the passage 9-13 in both Gospels [i.e. Mcg and Lk] is doubtful. I can find no references to the passage in contemporary writers.
There are parallel passages at Mt 26:17-19 and Mk 14:12-16, and in both Jesus directs (some of) the disciples to make contact with a man at who’s house they are to eat the Passover. The existence of the parallels and the quote from Epiphanius suggest that these verses were present in both Mcg and Lk at the time. They may not be mentioned by Tertullian simply because there is no action or teaching by Jesus on which to comment.
And when the hour was come, he sat down, and the twelve apostles with him. [22:14]
Epiphanius quotes from both vv. 22:14-15:
“And he sat down, and the twelve apostles with him, and he said, With desire I have desired to eat the Passover with you before I suffer.” (Scholion 62)
He then indicates that Mcg did not have v. 22:16:
He falsified, “I say unto you, I will not any more eat thereof, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God.” (Scholion 63)
Tertullian quotes v 22:15b, but does not mention vv. 22:14 or 16. As neither Tertullian nor Epiphanius mention v. 22:14 (which has parallels in both Mk and Mt, and is basically just scene-setting and contains no contentious points) it is reasonable to assume that it was present in Mcg. However, because Epiphanius specifically mentions the absence of v. 22:16 from Mcg, the fact that Tertullian has nothing to say about it strongly suggests that he did not expect to see it because it was not in his copy of Lk. This possibility is supported by the fact that v. 22:16 does not have a parallel in either Mt or Mk, and also that it contains a difficult variant, with multiple different forms centering around the inclusion (or not) of ouketi (no longer, no more, any more, etc.).
In the majority of mss of Lk (mainly Greek, but also some other versions: P75 A B C L Tvid W Q f1 f13 (33 defective) 565 579 700 892 1241 aur c f q r1 vg hark pal so bo arm geo eth slav), vv. 22:17-20 read as follows:
And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, Take this, and divide it among yourselves: [22:17]
This ‘Majority Text’ gives the impression of being a hybrid, containing elements seen in the Markan parallel and 1 Cor 11:23b-25, although with a number of significant differences from both, which read as follows:
And as they did eat, [14:22a]
1 Cor 11:23b-25
… the Lord Jesus the same night in which he was betrayed took bread: [11:23b]
The square brackets enclosing words shown above identify variants in 1 Cor, Mk, and Mt, with double square brackets marking those that are considered to be not original.
Epiphanius does not mention these verses in any way, so we do not know what he saw here in Mcg. However, in the second half of Adv. Marcion IV, chapter 40, Tertullian mentions (in the order given below) various elements of these verses, without giving any indication that the text he saw in Mcg differed from that in his copy of Lk. He mentions (translated from the Latin original) that “He so earnestly expressed His desire to eat the Passover” (Lk 22:15), and then writes:
Then, having taken the bread and given it to His disciples, He made it His own body, by saying, "This is my body," that is, the figure of my body…
He then refers to wine several times, for example:
In order, however, that you may discover how anciently wine is used as a figure for blood, turn to Isaiah…
At first sight Tertullian appears to refer to all the important elements that we see in the Majority Text variant. He refers to bread, the cup, and wine, quotes “This is my body” (v. 22:19a), and mentions the covenant to be sealed in His blood (v. 22:20b), and it is these references that has led to the view that Mcg contained all of vv. 22:17-20, i.e. the Majority Text. However, it is important to note the order in which Tertullian mentions these elements, and also what he does not say, and a detailed examination shows that he departs from the Majority Text in several ways. For example:
Although Tertullian is of course not required to mention every part of every verse of Mcg, nor to maintain the same text order in his discussion, where there are apparent differences we should not just assume that they are insignificant without further examination. As Lietzmann & Richardson remark:
“…in any enquiry into the genuineness of a disputed text, and especially in the case of the earliest witnesses, the evidence cited on its behalf cannot be assumed to testify to more than the actual words quoted.”
Lietzmann & Richardson also make various points regarding Tertullian’s account:
From these points they “conclude that the maximum reconstruction of Marcion’s text that can be reached with any degree of probability is:”
“Having taken the bread and … it to his disciples, (he said) [v. 22:19a]
However, Tertullian’s later mention of wine being “used as a figure for blood” would be very unusual if he had not seen wine mentioned in Mcg. Therefore, the above all suggests that Tertullian did not see vv. 19b, 20a, and 20c, and that what he did see read in the order vv. 22:19a, 17, 20b, 18.
As seen above, both 1 Cor 11 and Mk contain close parallels to the words we see in Lk, and therefore are possible sources of these words. It is possible that liturgical practices or different, unknown, sources may be behind the words in Lk, but, as Billings states:
“If the longer text is a harmonization/conflation in the manner suggested by supporters of the shorter reading then evidence of this should be detectable in the vocabulary, grammar and syntax of Lk 22:19b-20.”
Then, after a detailed discussion of the “vocabulary, grammar and syntax,” he concludes that:
“It can be … sustained that the words of the longer reading are demonstrably non-Lukan and do not conform to the usual vocabulary, style, and syntax of the writer of the Third Gospel. A source critical analysis reveals that there are enough very close similarities between the text of the longer Lukan reading [vv. 22:17-20] and the parallels in Mark and Paul to at least suggest, and very possibly sustain, literary dependence.”
In other words, given the closeness of the text in the parallels, a direct literary relationship between the parallels and Lk is most likely. These parallels are shown in the table below, aligned according to the order of the Lukan Majority Text, together with the comments from Tertullian.
None of the parallels contain all the elements found in the Majority Text variant of vv. 22:17-20, and what text they do have is not identical to that in Lk, but perhaps the most significant differences are with regard to order:
Only the sequence ‘bread/body – cup/blood’ is common to all five, and only the Majority Text has the initial cup. Tertullian, Mk, and Mt refer to wine (”the fruit of the vine”) last, while in the Majority Text it follows the initial cup, and is not mentioned in 1 Cor 11. Tertullian does not directly connect “the cup” with the “covenant” (as is done in 1 Cor 11:25), but instead connects it with “His blood.”
On this basis it appears that Tertullian’s words more closely match the order and content of the text found in Mk (or possibly Mt) than that in the Majority Text of Lk:
Then, having taken the bread and given it to His disciples, He made it His own body, by saying, "This is my body," that is, the figure of my body…
And as they did eat, Jesus took bread, and blessed, and brake it, and gave to them, and said, Take it: this is my body. [c.f. v. 22:19a]
Because Tertullian does not mention any differences here between Mcg and Lk, we should assume that his copy of Lk had essentially the same text as he saw in Mcg. This suggests that an early form of the Lukan text (as known to Tertullian) was similar to what we see today as Lk 22:19a, 17, 20b, 18, with the most significant difference being that Tertullian does not mention the atoning sacrifice that we see in Lk 22:20c, which he therefore may not have seen in Mcg.
Tertullian does not quote the exact words we see in Mk, but some of this may simply be a translation issue, as although (as far as we know) Mcg was written in Greek, it is highly likely that Tertullian had an Old Latin copy of Lk. Therefore, allowing for the typical variations we see elsewhere between Mk and Lk, it is possible that what Tertullian saw read approximately as follows:
And he took bread, and blessed, and brake it, and gave unto them, saying, This is my body. [22:19a]
Because Epiphanius does not mention any of these verses, we should assume that he also saw text very similar to this in his copy of Lk.
But, behold, the hand of him that betrayeth me is with me on the table. [22:21]
Sense points out that Tertullian refers to v. 22:22b:
The next passage (vv. 22:21-23) is briefly alluded to by Tertullian in ch. 41. He quotes verse 22 thus: “Woe unto him by whom the Son of man is betrayed." The preceding clause, "and truly the Son of man goeth as it was determined," is not necessarily discredited. The quotation of verse 22 may be taken to cover this short passage.
From Tertullian’s quote it is likely that Mcg contained the variant of v. 22:22 seen in Bezae, e, Sy-S and Sy-C, in which “that man” is omitted, so that the verse reads:
“For the Son of man indeed goeth as it was determined: but woe unto him by whom he is betrayed.”
As all three of these verses have parallels in both Mk and Mt it can be reasonably inferred that all three were present in Mcg, although with v. 22:22 as seen in Bezae.
And there was also a strife among them, which of them should be accounted the greatest. [22:24]
Tertullian mentions none of these verses, while in Epiphanius refers only to v. 22:30, where in Elenchus 63 he explains why Marcion removed v. 22:16:
Marcion took this out [v. 22:16] and tampered with it, to avoid putting food or drink in the Kingdom of God, if you please. He was unaware, oaf that he is, that spiritual, heavenly things can correspond with the earthly, partaken of in ways which we do not know.
b) For the Savior testifies in turn, “Ye shall sit at my table, eating and drinking in the kingdom of heaven.”c) Or again, he falsified these things to show, if you please, that the legislation in the Law has no place in the kingdom of heaven. Then why did Elijah and Moses appear with him on the mount in glory? But no one can accomplish anything against the truth.
Some authorities report that, according to Epiphanius, Marcion omitted v. 22:30. For example, Sense states:
“Epiphanius, in his Refutation 63., in which he tells us of Marcion's motive for erasing verse 16, namely, because he objected to eating and drinking in the kingdom of God, tells us that Marcion also cut out verse 30, which he thus quotes: "That ye shall sit at my table, eating and drinking in the kingdom of the heavens"; but he does not expressly say that the long passage from verses 24-29 was erased.”
Waite suggests that all of vv. 22:28-30 was omitted by Marcion. However, Epiphanius uses a Scholion to identify changes wrought by Marcion, and the immediately following Elenchus to provide more details, or to expand on the Scholion. As Scholion 63 only mentions v. 22:16, we should expect that Elenchus 63 also only refers to v. 22:16, not any part of vv. 22:28-30.
Because Epiphanius does not comment that Marcion made a mistake by omitting v 22:16 but not v. 22:30, it is assumed that, as Marcion omitted v. 22:16, then for the same reason he must have omitted v. 22:30. However, it is clear that Epiphanius is quoting from Lk, not Mcg, when he says; “Ye shall sit at my table, eating and drinking in the kingdom of heaven,” but it is not clear that when he says “he falsified these things” he is referring to v. 22:30, and not v. 22:16.
There are no significant known variants in vv. 22:24-29, and as neither Tertullian nor Epiphanius comments on these verses it is safe to say that Mcg contained these verses unchanged. However, although v. 22:30 is present in all mss for which this part of the text is extant, it does have some variants. Mss D, d, e, gat, g1, l, vg mss, and Sy-C omit “my” before kingdom, so reading “the kingdom,” as Epiphanius quotes, while E, F, G, H, S, V, Y, G, L, W, 047, 174, 230(=f13), 2, 22, 565, 1342, 1424, 1675, Maj, geoIII omit “en tē basileia mou” (“in my kingdom”). It is therefore possible that when Epiphanius states that Marcion “falsified these things, if you please, to give the Law’s provisions no place in the kingdom of heaven” he may have simply been indicating that “in my kingdom” was missing from Mcg.
And the Lord said, Simon, Simon, behold, Satan hath desired to have you, that he may sift you as wheat: [22:31]
Epiphanius has no comment on these verses, while Tertullian refers to them in general terms in his chapter 41, where he writes:
“For in the case of Peter, too, he gives you proof that he is a jealous God, when he destined the apostle, after his presumptuous protestations of zeal, to a flat denial of him, rather than prevent his fall.”
Sense remarks that:
“Verse 33, in which Peter says, "Lord, I am ready to go with thee, both into prison and to death," may be justly regarded as covered by the remark that Peter said something presumptuous or pretentious; and as Peter's remark is consistently a reply to Jesus' observations in verses 31 and 32, Tertullian's remark may be stretched to cover them also.”
According to Tertullian Jesus destined Peter to a “flat denial.” Because there is no mention of Peter denying Jesus three times Sense suggests that detail of the triple denial before the cock crow was not present in Mcg:
“There was no need of prophetic power at all to foresee the denial of Peter; for the knowledge of his personal character would be a sufficient guide to a sagacious man to indicate his course of conduct in the impending crisis, which Jesus foresaw was inevitable from the persistent and fierce hostility towards him of the chief priests and Pharisees. The extravagant and unnecessary terms of the prediction are inconsistent with the moderation and sobriety of the narratives in the Marcionite Gospel. I find it hard to believe that it contained such a peculiar prophecy as this is. I cannot reconcile myself to its admission into this Gospel, and I have very serious doubt whether it was universally admitted into any of the four Gospels till late in the fourth century, when Jerome made his collection.”
Despite the doubts by Sense as to the authenticity of the cock crow, there is no extant mss in which this verse is missing. The most that can be said is that even if it was missing in Mcg, the lack of comment from Tertullian and Epiphanius suggest that it was missing in their mss too, and therefore was not a Marcionite omission.
Following the reference above to v. 22:33, Tertullian takes very little note of any of the second half of Lk 22. He mentions that Jesus was “betrayed with a kiss" [v. 22:48], and mentions Peter’s "flat denial" [v. 22:57], but has nothing else until vv. 22:66-71, which he refers to in some detail. Although such a long period of silence from Tertullian is unusual, all we can reliably conclude from this is that he saw nothing in Mcg that he could use to refute Marcion, either text left in Mcg that would hurt Marcion’s case, or differences between Mcg and Lk. However, as discussed below, comments from Epiphanius make it almost certain that vv. 22:35-38 and 49-51 were not present in Mcg, thus making it very likely that these verses were not in Tertullian’s copy of Lk either.
And he said unto them, When I sent you without purse, and scrip, and shoes, lacked ye any thing? And they said, Nothing. [22:35]
As noted above Tertullian does not mention these verses, but Epiphanius states that:
He falsified, “When I sent you, lacked ye anything?" and so on, because of the words, “This also that is written must be accomplished, And he was numbered among the transgressors.” (Scholion 64)
Sense comments that this indicates that at least vv. 22:35-37a were missing from Mcg:
The next passage (vv. 22:35-38) is not alluded to by Tertullian, and Epiphanius tells us (Sch., 64) that Marcion cut out the passage from "When I sent you" unto "he was reckoned among the transgressors." The final clause, "for the things concerning me have an end," may be regarded as included in the excision; but hardly the next verse (38), "And they said, Lord, behold here are two swords. And he said unto them, It is enough," which Epiphanius does not notice. My conclusion is that the whole passage was interpolated in the Canonical Gospel in Epiphanius' hands; but verse 38 was a later interpolation which Epiphanius knew nothing of.
However, Lardner suggests that Epiphanius’ words should be taken to include v. 22:38, and indeed, as Epiphanius does not actually specify that “among the transgressors” is the end of the omission, this could be the case. Although there are no variants of Lk in which any of these verses are not present, it is worth noting that vv. 22:35-36 and 38 have no parallels in either Mk or Mt. In addition, although v. 22:37a has a parallel at Mk 15:28, the Markan parallel is probably not original, as it is not present in 01, A, B, C, D, X, Y*, Ψ, 047, 157, pm173, d, k, Sy-S, sa, and bopt. Further, although Mk 15:28 fits very well after Mk 15:27: “And with him they crucify two thieves; the one on his right hand, and the other on his left,” v. 22:37 interrupts the narrative of vv. 22:36, 38.
It should also be noted that as v. 22:38 is pointless without v. 22:36, it is likely that the whole of vv. 22:35-38 was missing from what Epiphanius saw in Mcg. As Tertullian does not mention the absence of these verses, they are most likely an interpolation that was not present in his copy of Lk, and so not an omission by Marcion.
And he came out, and went, as he was wont, to the mount of Olives; and his disciples also followed him. [22:39]
Tertullian has no comment on these verses, but in Scholion 65 Epiphanius writes: “He was withdrawn from them about a stone’s cast, and kneeled down and prayed.” He then notes in Elenchus 65 that Jesus was kneeling in human fashion, showing his fleshly nature. This suggests that these verses were present unchanged in Mcg, but there is some doubt regarding v. 22:42. Although this verse does have parallels in Mk and Mt, and is in P75, it is not present in P69 (POxy 2383). According to Willker:
Regarding P69, there are two possibilities:
Both points are equally possible and probable. Therefore one cannot assign P69 as a witness for the omission of verses 43-44, but only, as a "third way", for the omission of 42-44.
Despite the final comment above from Willker, it is equally likely that the lack of comment from both Tertullian and Epiphanius support the view that they saw these verses in Mcg as in their copies of Lk.
And there appeared an angel unto him from heaven, strengthening him. [22:43]
Neither Tertullian nor Epiphanius refer to these verses in their treaties on Marcion. However, it is certain that Epiphanius knew these verses in Lk, as in Panarion 69, section 61:1-2 he records:
And Arius adds next that “‘being in agony while he prayed,’” <as> we find in the Gospel according to Luke, and “‘he sweat, and his sweat was as it were drops of blood falling to the ground. And there appeared an angel of the Lord strengthening him.’”
Then, in section 61:4, he adds:
… No sweat comes from bodiless beings. In this way he showed that his flesh was real and not an apparition.
It is clear from Panarion 69 that not only does Epiphanius know vv. 22:43-44 in Lk, but in his comments he uses these verses against the Marcionites to show that Jesus had a real body. However, he does not go so far as to indicate, either here or in Panarion 42, whether Mcg contained these verses or not. Despite the fact that Epiphanius knew vv. 22:43-44, the textual evidence strongly suggests that these verses were not originally present in Lk, as noted in the NET:
Several important Greek mss (Ì75 א1 A B N T W 579 1071*) along with diverse and widespread versional witnesses lack 22:43-44. In addition, the verses are placed after Matt 26:39 by Ë13. Floating texts typically suggest both spuriousness and early scribal impulses to regard the verses as historically authentic. These verses are included in א*,2 D L Θ Ψ 0171 Ë1 Ï lat Ju Ir Hipp Eus. However, a number of mss mark the text with an asterisk or obelisk, indicating the scribe’s assessment of the verses as inauthentic.
Wikipedia has these quotes on the matter from Aland and Metzger:
Kurt Aland (1995): "These verses exhibit a conclusive clue to their secondary nature (like the Pericope Adulterae) in the alternative locations for its insertion. While the majority of the (now known) manuscripts place them at Luke 22:43-44, they are found after Matthew 26:39 in the minuscule family 13 and in several lectionaries. This kind of fluctuation in the New Testament manuscript tradition is one of the surest evidences for the secondary character of a text."
Bruce M. Metzger (2005): "These verses are absent from some of the oldest and best witnesses, including the majority of the Alexandrian manuscripts. It is striking to note that the earliest witnesses attesting the verses are three Church fathers - Justin, Irenaeus, and Hippolytus - each of whom uses the verses in order to counter Christological views that maintained that Jesus was not a full human who experienced the full range of human sufferings. It may well be that the verses were added to the text for just this reason, in opposition to those who held to a docetic Christology."
Although it would not be at all unreasonable to suppose that Marcion might remove verses such as these for suggesting that Jesus was a “full human,” the evidence for them being instead a post-Marcion interpolation in Lk is strong. Willker recounts the following from Severus of Antioch, who “preserves a statement from Cyrill († 444 CE) from an otherwise lost work. Severus writes in "the 3rd letter of the 6th book of those after the exile" to the "glorious Caesaria"”:
But, as to the passage about the sweat and the drops of blood, know that in the divine and evangelical Scriptures that are at Alexandria it is not written. Wherefore also the holy Cyril in the 12th of the books written by him on behalf of the religion of all the Christians against the impious demon-worshipper Julian plainly stated as follows:
"But, since he said that the divine Luke inserted among his own words the statement that an angel stood and strengthened Jesus, and his sweat dripped like blood-drops or blood, let him learn from us that we have found nothing of this kind inserted in Luke's work, unless perhaps an interpolation has been made from outside which is not genuine. The books therefore that are among us contain nothing whatever of this kind; and I therefore think it madness for us to say anything to him about these things: and it is a superfluous thing to oppose him on things that are not stated at all, and we shall be condemned to be laughed at and that very justly."
In the books therefore that are at Antioch and in other countries it is written, and some of the fathers mention it; among whom Gregory the Theologian made mention of this same passage in the 2nd homily on the Son [Or. Theol. IV. 16]; and John bishop of Constantinople in the exposition composed by him about the passage, 'My Father if possible let this cup pass from me.'
It is perhaps important to note that none of vv. 22:43:45a have parallels in either Mk or Mt, thus lending weight to the possibility that these verses might be an interpolation in Lk.
As Epiphanius does not comment on vv. 22:43-44 in Panarion 42, and Tertullian does not comment on them, it would appear that neither saw anything to note regarding these verses, either more ammunition with which to attack Marcion, or any differences between Mcg and Lk. Although it seems that at least one of them would have gleefully mentioned seeing vv. 22:43-44 (again showing the corporal nature of Jesus) in Mcg, we can only assume that for some reason they both chose not to.
And when he rose up from prayer, and was come to his disciples, he found them sleeping for sorrow, [22:45]
Neither Tertullian nor Epiphanius comment on these verses, suggesting that they were unchanged in Mcg.
And while he yet spake, behold a multitude, and he that was called Judas, one of the twelve, went before them, and drew near unto Jesus to kiss him. [22:47]
Tertullian makes reference to v. 22:47-48 in his chapter 41:
The Christ of the prophets was destined, moreover, to be betrayed with a kiss, for He was the Son indeed of Him who was "honoured with the lips" by the people. [Isa 29:13]
Epiphanius also comments on the kiss, as noted by Sense:
But Epiphanius here comes to our assistance, and quotes the conclusion of verse 47, "and Judas drew near to kiss him, and he said," etc., in order to refute Marcion by demonstrating that the act of kissing undertaken by Judas proved that the Lord and God made flesh had real lips and was not a dokesis or phantom! (Sch. and Ref., 66).
There is no indication that Marcion had changed any of these verses, but instead both Tertullian and Epiphanius note a detail in Mcg that can be used to refute Marcion, i.e. something that, according to them, Marcion ‘should’ have omitted, but didn’t.
When they which were about him saw what would follow, they said unto him, Lord, shall we smite with the sword? [22:49]
Tertullian has no comment on these verses, although Epiphanius notes that Mcg did not contain at least part of this passage:
He falsified what Peter did when he struck the servant of the high priest and cut off his ear. (Scholion 67)
At first sight this would appear to indicate that vv. 22:50-51 were not in Mcg, but as this would leave an unanswered question in v. 22:49, it is clear that this verse could not have been present in Mcg either.
Willker comments that D, it(a, d, e, f, ff2, r1), armms have a variant in v. 22:51b (with slight variations), which avoids the problem of Jesus touching an ear that had already been cut off:
Et extendens manum (suam Iesus) tetigit eum et redintegrata est auris eius.
In addition to this variant 0171 omits this verse completely.
Then took they him, and led him, and brought him into the high priest's house. And Peter followed afar off. [22:54]
Neither Tertullian nor Epiphanius makes any reference to these verses, except that Tertullian mentions Peter’s “flat denial” [vv. 22:57, 58, 60]. Sense comments as follows:
The next passage (vv. 22:54-62) is not noticed by either Tertullian or Epiphanius; but we might admit it as covered by the remark of the former about the denial of Peter, but the words, or all the incidents in the passage, are not guaranteed. I do not, however, think that Tertullian's remark can be stretched to the extent of covering the crow of the cock; and hence the concluding clause of verse 60, and the words in verse 61, "before the cock crew," and "thrice" should be deleted.
The suggestion by Sense that Mcg did not contain any mention of the cock does not appear to be supported by any mss evidence. Not only are there no variants in which the cock is missing, but both Mk and Mt include parallel references. It is possible that Lk 22:62 was not present in Mcg, as this verse is not in the Old Latin mss a, b, e, ff2, i, l, and r,1 but if that were the case that would mean that v. 22:62 was also not present in both Tertullian’s and Epiphanius’ copies of Lk. For Tertullian’s Old Latin copy this may be a reasonable deduction, but it seems less likely in the case of Epiphanius.
And the men that held Jesus mocked him, and smote him. [22:63]
In vv. 22:63-64 the KJV mentions Jesus being mocked, smote, blindfolded, struck, and then asked who had hit him. Tertullian does not refer to these verses, but Epiphanius refers to them in his Scholion 68:
“They that held him mocked him, smiting and striking him and saying, Prophesy, who is it that smote thee?”
In Elenchus 68 he then confirms what he saw, and comments:
That “they that held,” “mocked,” “smite,” “strike,” and “Prophesy, who is it that smote thee,” was not appearance, but indicative of tangibility and physical reality, is plain to everyone, Marcion, even if you have gone blind and will not acknowledge God’s plain truth.
The KJV has all the actions mentioned by Epiphanius, but between Jesus being ‘smote’ and ‘struck,’ it also has Jesus being blindfolded. As Epiphanius does not mention the blindfolding, and this action is definitely “indicative of tangibility and physical reality,” it seems certain that he did not see it in Mcg. This is similar to the parallels in both Mk and Mt, in which Jesus is hit but not blindfolded:
And some began to spit on him, and to cover his face, and to buffet him, and the servants did strike him with the palms of their hands, and to say unto him, Prophesy: [Mk 14:65]
Then did they spit in his face, and buffeted him; and others smote him with the palms of their hands, Saying, Prophesy unto us, thou Christ, Who is he that smote thee? [Mt 26:67-68]
The lack of the blindfolding in Mt (and the slightly different ‘covering’ in Mk) makes it likely that in Mcg it was not an omission by Marcion, but that this was what was in whatever ms formed the basis of Mcg. Further, as Epiphanius does not mention this as an omission in Mcg, it likely that he did not see it in his copy of Lk either. Neither Tertullian nor Epiphanius mention v. 22:65, so it is unlikely that this verse differed from what they saw in Lk.
And as soon as it was day, the elders of the people and the chief priests and the scribes came together, and led him into their council, saying, [22:66]
Epiphanius makes no mention of these verses, indicating that he saw no difference between Mcg and his copy of Lk. Sense notes the following from Tertullian:
The rest of the passage is minutely referred to by Tertullian in ch. 41. He speaks of Jesus being led before the council (verse 66), and interrogated whether he was Christ (verse 67), and his answer, "For if I tell you, ye will not believe," and he would still have to suffer (verse 68). He quotes verse 69, "Hereafter shall the Son of man be sitting on the right hand of the moral perfection or virtue (uirtutis) of God," and verse 70, "Art thou the Son of God?" and "Ye say that I am."
Like Epiphanius, Tertullian does not suggest that Mcg differed from his copy of Lk.
Next Chapter: Lk 23