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"computer science" OR "information science" OR "computer programming" OR informatics OR "data management" OR "information security" OR "network security" OR forensics OR "visual computing" OR "data mining" OR "machine learning" OR "multimedia databases" OR "artificial intelligence"



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OAIster
717,713    Results


CONTENT SAMPLE

How far along is the artificial intelligence domain in creating their ultimate goal? : building an intelligent robot that matches/exceeds human intelligence (examples of Siri, Watson, pokerbots and robots in elderly homes) 
Author: Mulkens, F. Author(s): Mulkens, F. Publication: Universiteit van Tilburg. Informatiemanagement In: Master thesis; Degree granted by Tilburg University. FEW. Informatiemanagement; [32] p.
Dissertation: Thesis / Dissertation ETD
Document: English : Internet Resource
  
16.Stakeholder perceptions and standards for information security risks :
a case study in a Dutch Healthcare Organization
 
Author: Wit, D. de Author(s): Wit, D. de Publication: Universiteit van Tilburg. Informatiekunde 
In: Student thesis; Degree granted by Tilburg University. FEW. Informatiekunde;
Supervisor(s): B.A. van de Walle, N. Minderman; xi, 70 p.
Dissertation: Thesis / Dissertation ETD
Document: English : Internet Resource
  
17.AffyMiner: mining differentially expressed genes and biological knowledge
in GeneChip microarray data
 
Author(s): Lu, Guoqing; Nguyen, The V; Xia, Yuannan; Fromm, Michael E. 
Publication: DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Document: Internet Resource Archival Material Archival Material
  
 
18.Pattern recognition and machine learning based on musical information 
Author: Mennen, P. Author(s): Mennen, P. Publication: Universiteit van Tilburg. Communicatie en Informatie In: Master thesis; Degree granted by Tilburg University. FGW. Communicatie en Informatie;
Supervisor(s): M.M. van Zaanen, J.J. Paijmans; 43 p.
Dissertation: Thesis / Dissertation ETD
Document: English : Internet Resource

 
19.Strikes that never happened : text mining in historical data 
Author: Hoven, M. van den Author(s): Hoven, M. van den 
Publication: Universiteit van Tilburg. Communicatie en Informatie 
In: Master thesis; Degree granted by Tilburg University. FGW. Communicatie en Informatie;
Supervisor(s): A.P.J. van den Bosch, J.J. Paijmans; 38 p.
Dissertation: Thesis / Dissertation ETD
Document: English : Internet Resource
  

20.Game theory of the past decade, the contribution of the Netherlands 
Author(s): Tijs, S.H.; Vrieze, O.J. Publication: Centre for Mathematics and Informatics (CWI) 
In: Klein Haneveld, W.K., Vrieze, O.J., Kallenberg, L.C.M. (Ed.), Ten Years LNMB, p.207-215.
Amsterdam: Centre for Mathematics and Informatics (CWI). [ISBN 906196475X]
Document: English : Internet Resource Article Article
  


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OMMBID (Online Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease) 
17 results in Textbooks

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 728 (1006 records)

 

Content Sample

Artificial Intelligence by David Corn 
Go to Resource: Washington Monthly (1995-01)
Artificial Intelligence A entertaining account of life inside the KGB shows how large intelligence bureaucracies—East and West—spend more time produci ...

Security Check by Rosen, Jeffrey 
Go to Resource: The New Republic (20021216) (12/16/2002, Vol. 227 Issue 25, p11-13)
Offers views on issues concerning the efforts of the U.S. government to increase its authority with regard to intelligence gathering to fight terroris ...

COMPUTER REVOLUTION by Ross Corson 
Go to Resource: The Progressive (1982-09)
COMPUTER REVOLUTION BY ROSS CORSON Time magazine gushes about the "whiz kids" of the "computer revolution." Pop sociologist Alvin Toffler hits us with ...

Machine Dreams by Star, Alexander 
Go to Resource: The New Republic (19920727) (7/27/92, Vol. 207 Issue 5, p59-65)
Reviews three books. "Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology," by Neil Postman; "Life After Television: The Coming Transformation of Media ...

Information, Please 
Go to Resource: The Weekly Standard (2006-05)
GUEST EDITORIAL Information, Please Oh, sorry, it's not 1942. It's 2006, and these three phone giants are about to be excoriated for cooperating with ...

THE SEARCH FOR ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE by Tom Bethell 
Go to Resource: American Spectator (2006-07)
by Tom Bethell N A SEMI-OFFICIAL WAY, the search for artificial intelligence began 50 years ago. In the summer of 1956, a two-month conference at Dart ...

Science Fiction by DERESIEWICZ, WILLIAM 
Go to Resource: The Nation (20061009) (10/9/2006, Vol. 283 Issue 11, p25-28)
A review of the book "The Echo Maker," by Richard Powers is presented

THE COMPUTER CURE by Finkelstein, Katherine Eban 
Go to Resource: The New Republic (19980914) (09/14/98-09/21/98, Vol. 219 Issue 11/12, p28-33)
Argues that the advantages of using computers in health care services outweigh the fears of civil rights advocates that it would infringe on the priva ...

Total Information Unawareness by Heather MacDonald 
Go to Resource: The Weekly Standard (2003-02)
Total Information Unawareness What we don't know can hurt us. BY HEATHER MAC DONALD SCORE A BIG ONE for the Luddites, and maybe for al Qaeda. On Janua ...

Man vs. Machine by James C. Banks 
Go to Resource: The Weekly Standard (2014-04)
Books ^Arts Man vs. Machine The limits (?) of artificial intelligence. by James C. Banks The failure to explore and monitor the threat [of dangerous a ...

The Information Specialist by Kotkin, Stephen 
Go to Resource: The New Republic (20001009) (10/09/2000, Vol. 223 Issue 15, p34-40)
Reviews the books "Godfather of the Kremlin: Boris Berezovsky and the Looting of Russia," by Paul Klebnikov and "Sale of the Century: Russia's Wild Ri ...

The Youngest Science by William R. Ayers 
Go to Resource: Commonweal (1983-05)
THE YOUNGEST SCIENCE NOTES OF A MEDICINE-WATCHER Lewis Thomas Viking, $14.95, 270 pp. William R. Ayers I AM MAD at Lewis Thomas. He has written my boo ...

JUDAISM & SCIENCE 
Go to Resource: Moment (2014-02)
HOW HAS JEWISH THOUGHT INFLUENCED SCIENCE? An exploration of the relationship between Judaism and the evolution of scientifi c thinking YEHUDA BAUER • ...

The Cult of Information by David Toolan 
Go to Resource: Commonweal (1986-05)
and politics, no One Hundred Years of This Supreme - just like the rest of us - premise, one he obviously shares, is that Solitude fantastic circus fo ...

Is Political Science Dying? by STEVEN F. HAYWARD 
Go to Resource: The Weekly Standard (2015-12)
Is Political Science Dying? Its wounds are self-inflicted. While the campus grievance mongers cry for Justice! and continue their drive for power and ...

Does the Data Speak for Itself? by FORD, PAUL 
Go to Resource: The New Republic (20160301) (Mar2016, Vol. 247 Issue 3, p4-5)
The article discusses a dataset containing information from the products and reviews on the online retail website Amazon.com. Topics include the autho ...

The Ghosts In The Machine by Russ Mitchell 
Go to Resource: American Spectator (2001-11)
MACHINE RUSS MITCHELL of the world's $1.5 trillion in daily foreign exchange transactions is the payment from [an al-Quaida cell for a loose Russian n ...

INSIDE THE COURSERA HYPE MACHINE by WIENER, JON 
Go to Resource: The Nation (20130923) (9/23/2013, Vol. 297 Issue 12, p17-21)
The article profiles online higher education company Coursera, as of 2013. The author describes the company's product, massive open online courses (MO ...

Ten Paces: Occasionalism Isn't Science by John Derbyshire 
Go to Resource: American Spectator (2014-01)
Occasionalism Isn't Science By John Derbyshire Why can't the purveyors of intelligent design get a break? They have been plowing their lonely furrow f ...

Biology, Destiny, and Bad Science by Rosalind C.; Rivers, Caryl Barnett 
Go to Resource: Dissent (2005-07)
THERE ARE ominous signs that new versions of biological determinism have returned, with the claim that women are not meant, by nature or by psyche, fo ...


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Opposing Viewpoints in Context 

 

Search Results and Content Samples

Viewpoints 240


  • Christianity Allows for the Possibility of Artificial Intelligence

     Artificial Intelligence2011
    From Opposing Viewpoints in Context


  • Artificial Intelligence Can Help Find a Cure for Cancer

     Cancer2012
    From Opposing Viewpoints in Context

Academic Journals 1,103


  • Should artificial intelligence be regulated?

     Issues in Science and TechnologySummer 2017
    From Opposing Viewpoints in Context

  • Artificial intelligence moves into mainstream

     ScienceJuly 31, 1987
    From Opposing Viewpoints in Context

  • Perspectives on artificial intelligence programming

     ScienceFebruary 28, 1986
    From Opposing Viewpoints in Context

Statistics 116


  • Predictions in Artificial Intelligence by Sector, 2016


  • Artificial Intelligence Patents


  • Table: Definitions of Artificial Intelligence


Primary Sources 23


  • "Watchdogs Seek Out the Bad Side"

     Terrorism: Essential Primary Sources2006
    From Opposing Viewpoints in Context

  • Woman Finds Human Finger in Wendy's Chili

     Medicine, Health, and Bioethics: Essential Primary Sources2006
    From Opposing Viewpoints in Context

  • The Roe v Wade Decision Should Be Reconsidered

     Abortion: An Eternal Social and Moral Issue2012
    From Opposing Viewpoints in Context


Audio 1,783


  • Will Using Artificial Intelligence To Make Loans Trade One Kind Of Bias For Another?

     Morning EditionMarch 31, 2017
    From Opposing Viewpoints in Context

  • Rise Of Artifical Intelligence Met With Mixed Reaction At SXSW

     All Things ConsideredMarch 13, 2017
    From Opposing Viewpoints in Context

  • Scholars Delve Deeper Into The Ethics Of Artificial Intelligence

     All Things ConsideredNovember 21, 2016
    From Opposing Viewpoints in Context


News 58,562


  • CMU to harness power of collaboration to advance artificial intelligence

     The Pittsburgh Tribune-Review (Pittsburgh, PA)June 27, 2017
    From Opposing Viewpoints in Context

  • PNC hosts AI experts to explore its roles in banking

    The Pittsburgh Tribune-Review (Pittsburgh, PA)August 30, 2017
    From Opposing Viewpoints in Context

  • 'It knew what you were going to do next': AI learns from pro gamers - then crushes them

    The Washington PostAugust 15, 2017
    From Opposing Viewpoints in Context


Images 









Videos 






Reference 220


  • Artificial Intelligence

     Opposing Viewpoints Online Collection2017
    From Opposing Viewpoints in Context

  • Preface to "What Are Some Valuable Applications of Artificial Intelligence?"

     Artificial Intelligence2011
    From Opposing Viewpoints in Context

  • Christianity Suggests Limits to Artificial Intelligence

     Artificial Intelligence2011
    From Opposing Viewpoints in Context


Biographies 26


  • Turing, Alan M. (1912–1954)

     Encyclopedia of Philosophy2006
    From Opposing Viewpoints in Context

  • Dennett, Daniel Clement (1942–)

     Encyclopedia of Philosophy2006
    From Opposing Viewpoints in Context

  • Grice, Herbert Paul (1913–1988)

     Encyclopedia of Philosophy2006
    From Opposing Viewpoints in Context



Magazines 3,919


  • How Facebook's AI Bots Learned Their Own Language and How to Lie; Bots that can negotiate your next deal on a hotel room might also know how to lie to you

     NewsweekAugust 18, 2017
    From Opposing Viewpoints in Context

  • Un wants artificial intelligence to advance agenda 2030

    The New AmericanAugust 21, 2017
    From Opposing Viewpoints in Context

  • Emojis Are Everywhere, But For How Long? Artificial Intelligence Could Soon Replace Our Smiley Face Friends; Emoji might be another sign of the growing anti-intellectual, anti-science movement in America

     NewsweekAugust 11, 2017
    From Opposing Viewpoints in Context


























































































































































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Oral History Online 


Results for Text Search

Search results: Found 1,560 paragraphs.
Search string: word="computer science" OR "information science" OR "computer programming" OR informatics OR "data management" OR "information security" OR "network security" OR forensics OR "visual computing" OR "data mining" OR "machine learning" OR "multimedia databases" OR "artificial intelligence"
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1,560 results | 
1. Interview of Smith, Bruce H., 1919- 09-Apr-1993 in Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Oral History Program 


What happened was, General Joe was in Europe in November of '63. When he was away, of course, we were interested in the fact that President Kennedy was in Dallas for this event and so on. He was there because his popularity had been dropping, as I'm sure you well know, and he was trying to bolster that up. Then, of course, the horrible news that he had been shot. We were all glued to the radio, and to the television to some extent, to find out what was going on. He was taken to Parkland Hospital in Dallas, where they were trying to do something for him, although they knew it was hopeless. According to the way forensics works, when he died, he should have been left right there, and the local medical examiner should have taken charge of the body.
2. Interview of Froede, Richard, 1929- 27-Oct-1994 in Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Oral History Program 

FROEDE: Can I use the term "a tight ship"? I have known him since that time. I've lectured for him when he left the service. He retired and went down to the VA hospital, and I'd go down to the VA Hospital and lecture for him in forensics. So he obviously knew that I was capable of putting on a good show. He ran the place very well as far as I could tell. During that period of time, it was Dr. Smith, then Dr. Morrissey. As far as I was concerned, it went very well. If nobody bothered me, and they let me do my work, then I thought he was good. Q: Dr. Morrissey, an Air Force colonel. I interviewed this morning Dr.
3. Interview of Hoyle, Linda Adams (3) 03-Nov-2000 in Black History Oral Histories/Black Women 

Kennelly: It would be difficult. By the time your sister, Sherrie--she received her Bachelor's in Computer Science in 1974, I think you told me. Does that seem right? Hoyle: Yes, I think that's right. Kennelly: You graduated in...? Hoyle: Sixty-eight. Kennelly: Sixty-eight...so that would be...she would graduate about six years later. You weren't here at the same time at all? Hoyle: No. Kennelly: Did you have the sense that things had changed at Virginia Tech by the time she came here? Hoyle: Not in the sense that it had changed a lot. But I don't think we talked about it. We did talk about some of the students because she told me she saw Linda here.
4. Interview of Wilson, Ebony, 1979- (2) 12-Feb-2001 in Black History Oral Histories/Black Women 

Cook: You tried... Wilson: Yeah, I really tried. Cook: Do you think he treated you that way as a woman or as an African American or both? Wilson: I think it's both and just as a struggling student, 'cause I told him that I needed a good grade in that class. He's like, "Well I don't think that's going to happen." I don't know. Cook: That is annoying! Wilson: Then in most of the classes, like my computer science teacher... I'm having trouble with that. He's helping a little bit 'cause everybody had trouble with programming their first time so he's all right. He's sort of helping. Cook: But he treats you nice?
5. Interview of Herndon, Michael (1) 20-Sep-2000 in Black History Oral Histories/Black Women 

Cook: What was your school life like? Herndon: High school? Cook: Yes. Herndon: I think I had a typical traditional high school experience. It was good. I was in the band. I was in the Forensics program there. We would go to different places to... Cook: Debate? Herndon: Yes. I enjoyed that. I was involved with... I was one of the guinea pigs of... when our school introduced the Latin language. I was one of the first students to sign up and go through the Latin curriculum there and I thought that was good. Also, I was in the honors program, which was pretty much like college prep throughout. So I had a good high school experience overall.
6. Interview of Wilson, Ebony, 1979- (1) 12-Feb-2001 in Black History Oral Histories/Black Women 

Cook: Gosh, all right um back to the racial things. What do you feel is the racial climate at Virginia Tech. For instance do you feel it's diverse here? Wilson: No. Cook: Why? Wilson: 'Cause I have a computer science class and there are people... five black people in that class in Norris 136 and that's kind of a big classroom. It's not the biggest classroom but it's a big classroom. And I counted, cause I do that on the first day of classes. There was like five of us in there and Norris 136 was full there's about 300 students in that class so it's pretty... it's not diverse at all. Cook: When you're in a class you very much feel like "I'm black" and there's not that many students here that are black.
7. Interview of McDonald, Cheryl Butler (1) 28-Nov-1998 in Black History Oral Histories/Black Women 


Kennelly: So did you feel funny because you were the only black woman in the Corps? McDonald: No. Kennelly: Just because of being a woman? McDonald: Being a woman was tough enough. We were all just sort of lumped together. I wasn't singled out. It was more of a gender thing. Kennelly: How did you find the professors here? Did you feel that they particularly reached out to you, or were helpful or welcoming, from the point of view of being a student? McDonald: Most of them were pretty good. I enjoyed most of the professors of most of the classes. The computer programming course I took I didn't like 'cause it was in a huge auditorium, and when you have a huge class, it's hard to get individual attention from the professor.
8. Interview of Smith, Tom, 1934- 21-Dec-1992 in Cable Center Oral History Collection 

.. turned out to be quite successful and the other ... we had developed this computerized signal survey on time sharing computers we had programmed ... I had got this consultant at Georgia Tech who was good at computer programming to take a Factbook, program all the TV stations in there, program their offset, their channel, their channel affiliation and power and antenna height. Put that on a time sharing computer, I think we used GE to start with ... time sharing computer and we could plug in the geographical components of the proposed headend, or the actual headend and then it would automatically search out all the tv stations within 500 miles of it and give the distance and the bearing and the proposed signal strength.
9. Interview of Conroy, Benjamin J. 22-May-1987 in Cable Center Oral History Collection 

" He said, "It makes me nervous. I don't hear any commercials. Put it on a commercial station. I have to hear the commercials. This drives me out of my gourd." He and I were at opposite poles in that regard; I like to hear radio without commercials. Just to know the station was making money, Floyd had to hear the commercials. End of insert DUDLEY What was MRI systems? CONROY MRI Systems was a software computer company. It was a data base management system. This had nothing to do with CPI but was purely an investment on my part. I served on the Board of Directors. It was a local company here, started by people who were then still active in the computer science department at the University of Texas.
10. Interview of Gans, Joseph S. 14-Oct-1989 in Cable Center Oral History Collection
SMITH Do you have any siblings? GANS I have two brothers and a sister. SMITH Would you give us their names please? GANS My brother is Ed. Incidentally, he's a manager at Wilkes-Barre Service Electric Cable. I have a brother Ted. He worked in cable for a short time. I have a sister Lorraine who did computer programming and now she does office clerical work. SMITH You have one sister? GANS Yes. SMITH Is she married? GANS Yes. SMITH What is her married name? GANS Lorraine Hofgale. SMITH You're married to Irene? GANS Yes. SMITH What was Irene's maiden name? GANS Osatchi. SMITH What is Irene's ethnic background?

11. Interview of Malone, John 22-Oct-2001 in Cable Center Oral History Collection 

So I did that for a year, came back to Bell Labs, did various projects there, studied the foreign language requirements for the Ph.D., took some time and picked up some additional coursework and then ultimately went back, once again at Bell Labs expense, and got my doctorate at Johns Hopkins in operations research and computer science, which was just starting to be dimly a subject area at the time. So that was sort of the educational background and then I went back to Bell Labs and was essentially somewhat, you would say, in the science of computer science for a couple of years. I worked on a few things that were of interest; one of them was video telephony, which was quite early and of course concluded, like everybody else, we didn't have enough bandwidth.
12. Interview of Hendricks, John Sep-2003 in Cable Center Oral History Collection 

She worked for a company that was on contract to Goddard Space Flight Center - Computer Science Corporation, CSC. LAMB: Did she watch television at all? HENDRICKS: Yeah, she would watch the Ascent of Man series with me, and she would watch NOVA on PBS, so we would typically watch a lot of PBS product and we were news watchers. It doesn't mean we don't love drama; we love drama on television as well, but it just seemed to be those were the great moments that we had around television. LAMB: No kids yet? HENDRICKS: No kids. LAMB: And how were you doing financially, the two of you together? What kind of a living did you make?
13. Interview of Packard, Susan 27-Jul-1999 in Cable Center Oral History Collection
A: I don’t think so. Q: You talked a lot about how people need to be technological savvy. Do you think that these changes in the industry are going to have an effect on women? Will there going to be more opportunity? A: So much is dependent upon your educational background and the degree to which more women get into the engineering fields, the computer science fields, the math fields, the fields that have traditionally been male bastions. We’ll have the biggest influence on women. If they’ve got the schooling and the background and the comfort level with new technologies, new media and I do see -- if you look at Silicon Valley, for example, look at the number of women who are in very senior positions or CEOs, so I think this realm of new media -- as Ruth would call it, new media -- will allow women, allow more women to get into the business and be successful in the business. Q: Well, thank you very much, I appreciate it. A: Thank you very much. Q: Thank you, Susan... THE END

14. Interview of Cole, Terry, 1931-1999 11-Oct-1996 in Caltech Archives Oral Histories Online 


Then he came back here, and I think he was professor of electrical engineering and communication [John Pierce was professor of engineering, 1971-1980—ed.]. And then going into what would have been his third career, he went to JPL as the chief technologist in more or less a planning and strategy function, supporting Bruce Murray, who was the director of JPL at that time. He had a group of technologists from various program offices or divisions. We used to meet on a regular basis and try and at least coordinate planning activities and maybe catalyze one another. John, of course, subsequently, has gone off to his fourth career at the music school and computer science school at Stanford.
15. Interview of Greenstein, Jesse L., 1909-2002 25-Feb-1982 in Caltech Archives Oral Histories Online 


It also produced almost all the recent administrative leaders; in fact, almost everybody active on the Aims and Goals Committee got to be some big shot in the administration. PRUD’HOMME: Who was on this committee? GREENSTEIN: Well, for example, Bob Christy was chairman of the committee. I was a committee member and on various panels, but as Faculty Board chairman I had to be a little separated from them. Neil Pings was active in it. He’s now dean of deans at USC. And there were people from engineering whom I had hardly known but seemed to be representing the more modern side of what was going to be electronics and information science later.
16. Interview of Greenstein, Jesse L., 1909-2002 25-Feb-1982 in Caltech Archives Oral Histories Online 


I think there is historical example that in certain areas—specifically, within astronomy—women have made enormous contributions because of certain mental sets which they have. Now that doesn’t mean they will lack the others necessary for the future. I think women are probably very good in computer programming, and if that’s the way science goes, then they will do fine. In seeing things in the large—seeing synoptically; an idea that comes out of many clues in different areas—I think they’re just wonderful. Historically in astronomy that’s been what they’ve been good at. The most famous woman astronomer is Annie Jump Cannon, who worked at Harvard, classified the spectrum of 300,000 stars, and invented the process of spectral classification.
17. Interview of Kincannon, C. Louis 11-Sep-1992 in Census Oral History Interviews 

I did my undergraduate work in economics at the University of Texas at Austin. In those days that was the only University of Texas there was, but now you need to tag it with “Austin.” I came back from Christmas holiday of my senior year and found waiting for me in Austin a telegram from Don Fay [Donald F. Fay, chief of the Employee Relations Branch, Personnel Division] of the Census Bureau, asking if I would be interested in a job in economic statistics or computer programming. Bohme: What year was this? Kincannon: This was December of 1962; and I replied, “Yes.” It sounded like a good opportunity to come to the East Coast.
18. Interview of Kincannon, C. Louis 11-Sep-1992 in Census Oral History Interviews 

Washington was a very exciting place during the Kennedy Administration. Unfortunately, I had never taken a course in either statistics or computer programming, so in the spring semester I signed up for a course in each and found I liked the statistics far better than the computer programming—at least in the dark ages of computer programming. So I came to Washington in the middle of June of 1963 and reported to the Census Bureau for work. The salaries were—well, they seemed quite generous at the time—$5,540 a year as a statistician, and I remember living pleasantly, if not extravagantly, on that.
19. Interview of Levine, Daniel B., 1925- 23-Apr-1996 in Census Oral History Interviews 

Armstrong, Assistant Division Chief, Research and Development, Systems Division (later Computer Science Division)] in the 1970 census taught us how to use UNIVAC I and clear the machine, put the old tapes on, and all the rest of it. I was a computer programmer until 1954. 7 Pemberton: So did you actually write machine language code? Levine: Yes, we wrote machine language code and put the converted CPS on. In fact, I have at home, maybe I gave it back to the Bureau recently, the reel of tape with all the original CPS programs on it including the ones I wrote. I had some notes, which I have given to the Bureau, of my early programming attempts.
20. Interview of McCahill, Mark P. 13-Sep-2001 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


Computing had all of the thinking- plus, I liked it from way back- and the tools had gotten enough better. It wasn’t decks of cards. It was interactive enough that it was fun. Frana: You could actually see the results. McCahill: And you could do something about it while you were sitting there, as opposed to, wait twenty minutes and I’ll get back to you with the result from your deck of cards. So then, I started taking some more computer science classes. I took a couple that were really good from Marvin Stein, his computer architecture things, and finally understood how computers really worked.
21. Interview of Minsky, Marvin Lee, 1927- 01-Nov-1989 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


1 An Interview with MARVIN L. MINSKY OH 179 Conducted by Arthur L. Norberg on 1 November 1989 Cambridge, MA Charles Babbage Institute Center for the History of Information Processing University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 2 3 Marvin Minsky Interview 1 November 1989 Abstract Minsky describes artificial intelligence (AI) research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Topics include: the work of John McCarthy; changes in the MIT research laboratories with the advent of Project MAC; research in the areas of expert systems, graphics, word processing, and time-sharing; variations in the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) attitude toward AI with changes in directorship; and the role of ARPA in AI 4 research.
22. Interview of Minsky, Marvin Lee, 1927- 01-Nov-1989 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


... MINSKY: No, Flexowriter I think had been around. I did the manuscript of "Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence" with a Flexowriter, I think. NORBERG: Oh, I see, '61 then. MINSKY: It was a big pain, but it was better than retyping. And it wasn't on a computer. I just had one home and I would run the tape through and type it out and punch more holes. NORBERG: I've read most of the works that have appeared about you and I've read a number of things that you've written. So I'm not going to spend any time asking you personal questions or trying to do what Bernstein did for the New Yorker magazine or any of that.
23. Interview of Minsky, Marvin Lee, 1927- 01-Nov-1989 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program

So in that sense, AI is just the more forward looking part of computer science. That's the definition that makes sense in terms of the history, because if you go to the AI labs you'll see people doing... At one time they were doing advanced graphics of one sort or another and then that becomes a little industry of its own, or they're working on speech recognition and that becomes a separate thing. From the very start AI labs were obsessed with making machines that could see. So there was the early vision work. A lot of the early vision work was somehow associated with AI. Although my friend Russell Kirsch at the Bureau of Standards, had been doing it as early as 1954 or '55.

24. Interview of Minsky, Marvin Lee, 1927- 01-Nov-1989 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


But this other part of just being in the forefront of new computer techniques and hackery and getting the machines to do all kinds of new things was just the informal thing that actually happened. NORBERG: How did support come for these groups? Let's just stick with your group for the moment. MINSKY: Okay. Our group was... It was very simple from my point of view, McCarthy and I met - he might have a slightly different version of it, we were walking down the hall and we met Jerry Wiesner or Zimmerman or someone and he said how's it going and we said well, we're working on these artificial intelligence ideas but we need a little more room and support for some graduate students.
25. Interview of Minsky, Marvin Lee, 1927- 01-Nov-1989 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


NORBERG: But, now, how does this then develop into a relationship of the kind that you're describing to me? MINSKY: We used to talk about how you could make thinking machines. I had been working on it longer than anyone else because I was enamored of Warren McCullough and people like that in this little college. And then I went to Harvard at the end of graduate school. I went to Tufts for six months - an ill-fated, ambitious project - and then I got the junior fellowship at Harvard. McCarthy went off to Dartmouth, which was sort of a nice miracle there. 11 You know what happened? You could say, how come Dartmouth was prominent in computer science?
26. Interview of Minsky, Marvin Lee, 1927- 01-Nov-1989 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program

.. Scientists only got computers in the late '50s. There were the SEACs and the ENIACs and things. It's only in 30 1957 when Fortran comes out that there are actually hundreds of people who get to use them. So, everything we did was new and you didn't have this question of even why does it really work. NORBERG: That suggests to me, though, that there's no peer review process going on within this avant garde area of computer science. MINSKY: There's no formal one; there was an internal one. NORBERG: How did the internal mechanism work? MINSKY: The internal mechanism would be somebody did something that she did by having the knowledge right near the surface, then everybody would consider them a loser.

27. Interview of Minsky, Marvin Lee, 1927- 01-Nov-1989 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


NORBERG: Would you like to separate them out from AI and call what's now become AI something else? Is that now part of conventional computer science, I guess is what I'm asking you. MINSKY: You mean a lot of AI work? NORBERG: Yes. MINSKY: Yes, I guess so. I think expert systems activity is not returning very much scientific knowledge. [unintelligible] But you know, you've got this problem when you decide to separate something which is... and you can't decide... You don't want to get rid of the money cow, because you can hide basic research in large projects. But if they're out in the open, then they are vulnerable.
28. Interview of Minsky, Marvin Lee, 1927- 01-Nov-1989 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


We're talking about just computer science. MINSKY: Well, I told you in the elevator or whenever it was, my impression was that it was probably equal to all of NSF, because of very uniformed... It's just that all the good people I know are in the DARPA circuit. Every now and then I meet somebody who isn't in our network and I'm sort of surprised - I didn't know you could do good work out there. (laugh) [INTERRUPTION] MINSKY: Another million dollars we could order somebody to get all those reports and add up how many. NORBERG: I want to ask you one off-the-wall question here as a way of bringing this to, what I hope is an adequate close.
29. Interview of Minsky, Marvin Lee, 1927- 01-Nov-1989 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


That is a shift, certainly. MINSKY: He's really furious. They're withholding his RA money until he signs the agreement. NORBERG: Well, now getting back to this reviewing process of being on the phone continuously... MINSKY: And e-mail. We were the first ones because of Larry Roberts. We simply use e-mail for ordinary social... NORBERG: What I was trying to say, and trying to see if you would agree with me on this analysis, is that it seems to me that the present AI community, however we define what we mean here by community, the people who claim to belong to the artificial intelligence research community, seem to me to have a different attitude toward publication, for example, and how you evaluate publication, where many things appear in proceedings and preprints rather than in published articles and in refereed journals.
30. Interview of Minsky, Marvin Lee, 1927- 01-Nov-1989 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


) there as General Manager. I hired him as an engineer and he started taking over things, pretty much managed the whole bunch of offices. They decided who would be in what rooms unless there was a complaint and then I would try to negotiate it. I'll bet I didn't manage more than four hours a week. NORBERG: I would like to shift to a slightly different area here and that is the influence of AI on itself, first of all as a growing enterprise, intellectually; secondly its affect on computer science as the overarching discipline, and its affect on computing. I'd like to ask that in the following way.
31. Interview of Minsky, Marvin Lee, 1927- 01-Nov-1989 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


If you were me trying to do a study of AI that had an objective to demonstrate its development and its influence, I can't spend time on all of the sub-areas of AI, that just doesn't seem to be possible, there's too much going on. MINSKY: So you have to do it by anecdotes or something. 36 NORBERG: Yes. What areas would you think have the most promise for demonstrating development and influence? MINSKY: And again there are sort of things that you can still identify as AI and things that just happened to start developing in AI. A good example of the latter is modern complexity theory. When you take a course in computer science now, or if you go to graduate school, there are sort of four areas, and one of them is called algorithm theory.
32. Interview of Minsky, Marvin Lee, 1927- 01-Nov-1989 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


(Laugh) It's sort of funny. But that's what we're going through. So that's an important direction in theoretical computer science, that came from other places too. Shmuel Winograd at IBM was interested in that. They developed a pretty good [unintelligible]. What's another example....? That's a kind of weak example of a by-product. What's the question again? NORBERG: The question is what sub-areas of AI would be the best ones to focus on to show development on the one hand and influence on the other. MINSKY: Maybe robotics. As far as I can remember, modern robotics came almost entirely out of AI groups, but maybe that's a wrong judgement.
33. Interview of Minsky, Marvin Lee, 1927- 01-Nov-1989 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


Serillo was making different theories of perception, and no one understood him very well. But Gerry got him; this might be a new deal. So when he was running RLE, he would collect people that he thought might be important for the future. It may not be inherent in artificial... I think it is inherent in the nature of artificial intelligence. Sure, you're trying to make machines that can think so you need ideas about thinking. But I 45 hired composers who seemed to have... In Project MAC I hired three different composers at different times in the hope that they would, I guess they would seem more articulate than other musicians.
34. Interview of Minsky, Marvin Lee, 1927- 01-Nov-1989 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


(Laugh) It does take a few minutes. NORBERG: I'm going to keep that in mind. Okay, my last question is back to this question of the influence of the developments in AI. You've mentioned several times now about the people down the hall who are in conventional areas of computer science. A number of them have never come around. They just don't believe that AI is a really significant part of the field, I guess. MINSKY: Or they don't like something you can't prove. NORBERG: Right. But it seems to me that there must be a number of examples that you could cite that are important contributions to their activities, now, non-AI activities, as a result of the work in AI.
35. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


1 An Interview with ALLEN NEWELL OH 227 Conducted by Arthur L. Norberg on 10-12 June 1991 Pittsburgh, PA Charles Babbage Institute Center for the History of Information Processing University of Minnesota, Minneapolis Copyright, Charles Babbage Institute 2 Allen Newell Interview 10-12 June 1991 Abstract Newell discusses his entry into computer science, funding for computer science departments and research, the development of the Computer Science Department at Carnegie Mellon University, and the growth of the computer science and artificial intelligence research communities. Newell describes his introduction to computers through his interest in organizational theory and work with Herb Simon and the Rand Corporation.
36. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program

He discusses early funding of university computer research through the National Institutes of Health and the National Institute of Mental Health. He recounts the creation of the Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) under J. C. R. Licklider. Newell recalls the formation of the Computer Science Department at Carnegie Mellon and the work of Alan J. Perlis and Raj Reddy. He describes the early funding initiatives of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and the work of Burt Green, Robert Cooper, and Joseph Traub. Newell discusses George Heilmeier's attempts to cut back artificial intelligence, especially speech recognition, research.

37. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


He compares research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Stanford's Artificial Intelligence Laboratory and Computer Science Department with work done at Carnegie Mellon. Newell concludes the interview with a discussion of the creation of the ARPANET and a description of the involvement of the research community in influencing ARPA personnel and initiatives. 3 ALLEN NEWELL INTERVIEW DATE: 10 June 1991 INTERVIEWER: Arthur L. Norberg LOCATION: Pittsburgh, PA NORBERG: Can I ask you to briefly describe for me, as you understand it, the origins of this field in the 1950s? And the reason I am asking the question is I want to distinguish the various approaches and the reasons for their emergence.
38. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


And for several years there was air defense training all over the United States. There actually were some situations in which the entire nation was being run on a single simulated thing for three or four hours, lots of talk about choosing it at random so the Soviets wouldn't attack us. When the whole system was down, working on a simulated task so that the headquarters and so forth would also get training in how to interact with it. I was out of thing [?] by then. NORBERG: Okay, so your interest in this started on the machine side. NEWELL: Right, and you can see a lot of the elements. No concern with numerical computing; total concern with sort of non-numerical stuff, not artificial intelligence, but non-numerical stuff.
39. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


It was unrelated to artificial intelligence, but it was certainly related to computer technology. I remember staying at Nat's house one time way back in there somehow, and I think that was well before Dartmouth, talking about the history of the 701 and some of the politics of it and all the rest of the stuff. So I pretty soon got to know these guys, and I can't remember any of the sort of initial events for any of them. They were not memorable. And the Dartmouth thing, I think, had the real effect of pulling everybody together, although we were fairly offish with respect to... partly because we had already done something.
40. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


Congratulations! This really looks like a real breakthrough kind of thing." And this is all happening in 1956, 1957, this period. So there is certainly not a notion of working in a tunnel. There is a notion of being connected with the whole world. Now, a lot of that happened through Herb, of course. Herb is connected to at least one big part of the world. But again, Rand produces this other kind of connection. So I never found myself worrying about that. I just took all that for granted, and it all happened. There was never anything that I would call deliberate planning by a cabal with respect to the field of artificial intelligence.
41. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


And in physics you sort of list all the great laws and the great empirical discoveries. 144 NORBERG: Well, how does this relate to the list of items that you have in the UTC book, ranking the various areas of computer science, from the bottom with switching systems through to knowledge systems? NEWELL: Orthogonal. Totally orthogonal. NORBERG: They are. NEWELL: Yes. This is simply a description of the different levels of description that you can give. In computer science, there is a set of developments at the level of circuitry. And there is a set of developments at the level of programming. And the fact that you can list all the developments at the level of programming doesn't mean that there wasn't something called VLSI that came along.
42. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


And so, in one sense this is a geographical, it turned out to be sort of vertical, geographical description of the field, which says that there is simultaneously work going on at all of these levels. And one of the peculiar things that we observed about computer science as a developing field was at some of these lower levels, to begin with, but not now, totally, were deeply ensconced in electrical engineering departments, and thus did not participate in the development of the field. Only slowly, later, did they participate. They participated later when software invaded them. Software invaded the construction of computers.
43. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


I did not try to tell you that in general. NORBERG: There's still so many questions. NEWELL: We have got to quit. NORBERG: Yes, we do. NEWELL: But you can have another 20 minutes. NORBERG: Well, I don't think I will take another 20 minutes, but I will take 10. Do you subscribe to the view that AI stimulated many, if not all, of the frontier developments in computer science? NEWELL: No. Many, maybe, but not all, by all manner. NORBERG: Which ones did it stimulate? The field of AI? NEWELL: I'm just thinking about that. So let me try a number of things on you, and maybe it's okay with the word "stimulated" as opposed to the words "was totally responsible for," because for many of these things there are other 146 parts of computer science and parts of technology that are also have had big effects on them.
44. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


Now, I didn't give you expert systems, because I 148 think of expert systems as an application of AI and, therefore, off the other side. And expert systems has not influenced computer science very much. What else has computer science really done that influences the rest of CHU? Well, in fact, object-oriented programming... NORBERG: Comes out of AI. NEWELL: Well, it's a funny story. I mean, the answer is no, the original one comes out of SIMULA, the original language. But the language that kind of picks up SIMULA again and does it all in a way that lays it out is SMALLTALK. But SMALLTALK is completely open and overt.
45. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


" There 138 is also a thing that says, "You have had your vacation; now it's time. The palmy days are over." But there's another set of people down there, mixed in with them, whose vision is really related to the original vision, although it shifts, because when Lick starts it there is no such computer science thing, and then, in the 1980s, it exists already. The issue is fundamentally one of this same long-term growth of information technology, and the application stuff is all tactics. The environment forces you to do this. Like the justification for quoting that thing in the Congressional stuff, you wouldn't put it in there unless you had to, but that's what it takes to get the 250, so it's playing the game.
46. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


Do we see the same sort of phenomenon, perhaps, in computer science? NEWELL: No. NORBERG: Now that budgets for computing have reached such levels across the federal government, is it time that Congress took a more careful look? And therefore, is it possible that research budgets will indeed be cut? I am asking for a prediction, I suppose, rather than an analysis. NEWELL: Right, right, we left history. Always suitable to the last bit of... The answer is no. NORBERG: They won't look at it. NEWELL: Well, of course they will look at it. I am just saying where they will end up. The high performance computing thing is an example.
47. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 

And so, in fact, again, this is related to the five year model, but no longer with a kind of a time scale in it, the issue is when you enumerate the big DARPA successes, mostly what you enumerate -- not you, Arthur Norberg, but you, DARPA apologists -- what you enumerate are all these new things that are brought onto the face of the earth -- networks, graphics, time-sharing -- partly because new things are easy to count. But there are other things. When you write 141 the history of computer science, not the his tory of DARPA, they represent major things, partly because computer science does not have the equivalent of the discovery of laws and so forth, that sort of substitute for these, so that the big event is finally getting Maxwell's equations written down.
48. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program

There are not very many Maxwell's equations floating around in computer science. Again, that's not the nature of the scientists; I believe that's the nature of the field. DARPA doesn't have to invent areas; the community will invent them for it. Now, I don't know whether characters buy into that, but I think they have bought into that at various times. NORBERG: They certainly have. NEWELL: A real ethic. Well, but they buy into it at the same time. Now, I will give you an apologist's point of view from Larry Roberts. At the same time that Larry Roberts says, "One of the things I am most proud of is that we, the DARPA office, started networking.

49. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program

NORBERG: I would like to say in our report that one of the interesting things about the IPTO program is that the things they supported changed the face of computer science. NEWELL: That's the mythology. NORBERG: Well, but I... NEWELL: It's part of the mythology. NORBERG: ... I think there's lots of grounds for that position. NEWELL: Absolutely right. NORBERG: And one of the things that I... NEWELL: I use mythology partly as a way of saying, "That's how we shape up the full complexity of... 143 NORBERG: [laugh] Because we are in the position now of writing a statement about what computing was like in 1960.

50. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


All we have to be able to say is that, "Now we have timesharing; then we didn't. Now we have graphics; then we didn't," and so on. NEWELL: You're right. NORBERG: But they're gross terms; we can argue it that way. NEWELL: Right, but there's an implicit thing that getting time-sharing is a significant event in computer science -- meaning positive event. It's like Maxwell's equations. There is a belief that each of those things are the stuff out of which the field is made. That is, you in some sense can enumerate... Here's a way of saying it: you can enumerate computer science by enumerating its technologies, its micro-technologies, just like you can enumerate physics by enumerating its laws.
51. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


Now, what's the reason for that? What's the relation of AI to computer science generally? NEWELL: By the way, I was talking about that earlier. NORBERG: Yes, you were; I want to enlarge that description a little. NEWELL: You're going to have to start at that place again, because the relationship is one of suspicion and 131 antagonism on the part of the central computer science folk, self-designated, I suppose, which is the programming field. The programming field sort of owns computer science. It doesn't quite, but that's where it comes from. The people who built the machines continued to view themselves as engineers.
52. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program

For a long time they were in engineering department, so they did not participate in the growth of computer science. And it is, in fact, programming, which is completely central and basic, and in some sense is the one new thing on the face of the earth that wasn't around anywhere before and therefore no one else owns it, and so, "We own it and that's us." That's a computer science statement. NORBERG: Yes. NEWELL: So in some sort of obvious way, which does not represent a turf battle or an ideological struggle of any kind, there is just a recognition that programming is of the essence, and therefore, in some sense, the programming language, and ultimately the programming systems types.

53. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


are the heartland of computer science. And then all the other parts come in. There's got to be some theory. All the theory is irrelevant for a long time, until we finally do some analysis of algorithms. Deep suspicion all the way along that AI is intellectually dubious, probably morally wrong. It comes about from a basic proposition that says that computers are to serve people, and if you are trying to work with computers in their own terms it doesn't relate to how they serve people. You're just trying to build an intelligent system. So a continuing theme, all the way from the late 1950s, is articles -- which I suppose with a little historical work I could dig them up -- that say, "I wish to build systems that aid the human in doing something," as opposed to these cats in AI, who just want to build intelligent systems.
54. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


"That's actually morally reprehensible." Mild, but that's the flavor. So this suspicion is always there. It was there at the opening, and it remains. And therefore, you get interesting little snipes all the way along from the programming community, and you get justificatory remarks from the AI community. At the same time, you get presumptions from the AI community that say, "I don't have to justify myself. Screw you." I mean, you get both kinds of things. Now, the peculiarities come from some of the great events that happened in computer science being sort of AI-like events. And some of its most visible.
55. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


NORBERG: Deeply important to what? To AI or the rest of computer science? NEWELL: No, no, the rest of computer science. The issue of functional languages and so forth. So it was done. So that when McCarthy gets the Kioto prize or something that he's gotten, sitting behind that is not AI. Sitting behind that is the role of LISP in the whole thing. Let's see, what else is to be said about that? There is a thing that exacerbates this, which comes about because ARPA sort of defines... The ARPA community defines computer science, not the total of computers or computer technology, or even all the supercomputing stuff, which lives a life of its own.
56. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


He didn't promise them right away. NEWELL: Right. But from my point of view, then, I haven't got the foggiest notion what construction is being made of this research from these guys with respect to the military. That's what I meant. NORBERG: Sure. Then from your point of view, looking at this operation now over the last 25 years or so, what do you perceive were the guiding principles of the IPTO office over time? They don't have to be constant. NEWELL: I believe the guiding principle started out to be the creation of computer science, called information processing, not called computer science.
57. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


.. NORBERG: But isn't it true that a lot of the increase above 50 million went to industrial firms, which participated in SCI? NEWELL: Right, and insofar as that happened then you don't expect this other transformation to occur. And it was not given that that would happen. I mean, it was certainly given that some of that would happen, but when Cooper 126 made these remarks he's talking out of this other view, absolutely. And the fact that it didn't happen... In fact, actually it has make a big difference. There are lots of things, lots of pretty fundamental research. One of the problems with computer science is you can't distinguish research from development from application very well.
58. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


And that's a character of the field. It's not a character of the guys who conceive of the field. It comes out of its inner nature, which is to say that everything in computer science is related to use. You think you're working on basic algorithms, you know, and as soon as you get something that's significant, it's significant in part because it relates to computing, which is how things can get done. So everybody in this game... There aren't any pure computer scientists who can make the statement that my physics professors made, which is, "If I can smell..." I had a professor by the name of Webster, who worked in x-rays.
59. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program

NORBERG: Well, he was at Berkeley when I was there and we got very friendly with him. NEWELL: Right, but he was back as a graduate student getting his Ph.D. having taught high school physics in Illinois and now was back. So Al was a graduate student. I somehow came on this project as an undergraduate. I don't think I ever got paid for it. NORBERG: Quite customary in those days. But let's go back to computer science here. NEWELL: Right, sorry. NORBERG: No, that's all right. You just raised a very interesting notion, which is troubling me, and that's the lack of a separation or lack of distinction among basic research, development and application in computer science.

60. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


NEWELL: ARPA community. No, this is not a unique point of view. If you can play that game then you can get the resources to do great science, because no one is going to give you the resources just to go do it. Now, maybe it's all our fault that we didn't sit back and say, "We refuse to do anything." Of course, it would have created a different computer science. And my belief is that computer science doesn't allow itself to be created as a basic field untied to applications. NORBERG: That gives purpose to a rather nebulous concept. NEWELL: If we try to describe the 1960s that way, what do you think was happening with ALGOL?
61. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


Because the Alto, in fact, was a very important thing for computer science. NORBERG: Incidentally, would you say that that was influenced by DARPA ideas and principles? NEWELL: Yes, absolutely. That's because Xerox PARC is an extrusion of DARPA. NORBERG: By accident? NEWELL: No, by design. NORBERG: Why do you say by design? 130 NEWELL: Because Bob Taylor went out there and hired all the people, and as far as Bob Taylor and his funny point of view, the only good people in the world to hire are ARPA people. The causal relationships run the other way, that you must know the counts of the number of CMU folk and MIT folk.
62. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


And where these notions of the DARPA community and so on begin to trouble me again as I try to rewrite that section, I can do this on e-mail, I think, to get clarification of that. I want to shift to two other, what I think are important areas. One of them has to do with the relation of AI to the rest of computer science over the last 25 years. Now, no need to do a detailed history of that, but my reason for asking the question is that one of the things that I have noticed in the literature is a frequent -- I don't know whether I could go so far as to call it a compulsion, but a frequent stance taken by people in AI justifying their field before their computer science colleagues.
63. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


NORBERG: Both geographically and topically? NEWELL: Yes. They don't know me and I don't know them, and they cover a whole range of things up and down the range of computer technology, computer science. They cover how to get seismic waves over from Norway - things like this, you know. And they're dealing with the geophysical community. And so, in fact, the ARPA community has grown too big to be an ARPA community. That does not mean that there are not some ARPA communities which represent the... NORBERG: Yes, I see. NEWELL: I can't guarantee this is right. I only have the sensation that there are all these other characters out there and I don't know them and they don't know me, and there isn't necessarily any reason for us to know each other.
64. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


It is certainly not the case that the ARPA community, I mean, the ARPA community now as a somewhat narrower cultural thing that comes up historically, owns and controls computer science. Computer science is its own thing now, in all kinds of ways. If you want to take measurements on this go look at how many people from the ARPA community are on the curriculum committees that the professional societies create. Ask how many people from the ARPA community are presidents of the ACM. And the answer is, "Once upon a time; not now." And that's exactly what's appropriate, you know. The control of the field finally goes to the department - an absolutely true statement of all sciences that gradually go to the departments - backed up a little bit by the professional societies.
65. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


122 TAPE 6/SIDE 1 NEWELL: It is the case that the premier computer science departments are still the ones that are DARPA-supported, and that the number 4 department became strongly DARPA-supported. NORBERG: Number 4? NEWELL: UC Berkeley. I'm not sure. I mean, who knows about these rankings? All I am saying is, you rank the departments, and there is Stanford and MIT and CMU still, as far as I can see, very solidly in there, in the saddle with respect to their excellence and so forth. NORBERG: How does one define excellence in this case? NEWELL: I don't know; you wait until Business Week ranks them.
66. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


[laughter] NORBERG: They only do that for management schools. [laugh] NEWELL: You wait until the National Academy does a ranking of departments -- I don't know. How do you define excellence? The answer is you define excellence fundamentally by who is producing the great results that push computer science. So you define it retrospectively by going back... I mean, that's not the way it's usually defined. It's usually defined by reputation measures. So you sort of say, "You can rank departments," or, "You can't rank computer science departments, but I can because I live here. So therefore, I should rank all the other departments except CMU, and so we can just play the ranking game.
67. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program

I mean, there isn't any question about this. It's perfect standard. It's just hard to measure. It's not too hard to measure looking backwards. It's not at all hard to measure what the great results of the 1920s were, the chaff falls away. NORBERG: We may be too soon to do that for computer science. NEWELL: Well, no. Why don't we ask on that same scale whether the ARPA community has done things. Then you put into the scale things like the ARPANET, because the ARPANET is not just a piece of technology. The ARPANET is a concept of packet switching. And it's not terribly... It's a little important from the standpoint of the historian.

68. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


NORBERG: Well taken; I accept the point. Let me go back then to SCI and the sense of this DARPA community if it existed in the 1980s. What changes were produced in computer science, so far as we can appreciate them at this 124 stage, due to the funding that came from SCI? Anything discernable yet? NEWELL: Well, you see, I don't separate the funding from SCI from anything else. So my view of the SCI funding is it provides part of this pool that this community lives off of. If you are a historian of SCI, which you are a little bit at the moment, then of course you are very interested in trying to play some of this tracking.
69. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program

There is always a very funny issue here for the field as a whole, which also was in my view replicated within the ARPA community in which the AI people are high status people. They contain some of the highest status people, yet the programming types remain deeply suspicious about whether AI ought to be a part. They'd kind of like to kick the whole part out. NORBERG: Well, does this say then that the IPTO community is just a subset of what we called the Computer Science community? And the only thing that distinguishes them is the fact that they have money from DARPA. NEWELL: The IPTO community would say it the other way.

70. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


They were the computer science community. NORBERG: But that's not fair, is it? NEWELL: Now we'll make some cuts in this. There is the supercomputing community. The LARC and Stretch. There is the DOE, the atomic energy building of high performance computers, which is controlled by the physicists and shows no sign, ever, even unto this day, of becoming a part of the computer science community. It is now called computing science rather than computer science. It is controlled by the applications people. And it's controlled under a piece of hubris, which is on the part of the physicists, there isn't anything to be known about that that they themselves don't know.
71. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


I was going to ask you, are you by any chance a physicist by training? 118 NORBERG: Yes. That's why I'm laughing. You're absolutely right. NEWELL: My bachelors is in physics. NORBERG: I have two degrees in physics and then I went back to graduate school in history. NEWELL: I identify myself as a physicist, so I know exactly where those guys come from. NORBERG: So the IPTO people were... NEWELL: So, this was a separate community, but this was not computer science. They existed all the way back. The coming of a real computer science community where there was concern with programming, programming constructs, AI and representation, all of these things, and then communication, mythology says, and so some of us say it with the mythology, was that, in fact, my standard view is, DARPA created computer science, meaning this institutional thing and therefore the collection of these characters.
72. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


" I mean, this wasn't sort of a legal statement, but, "We are the only..." And there was immense frustration in this community when we cast around -- guys like Raj and so forth -- and when we cast around for how to move, I mean, the opportunities that were sort of obviously apparent. And then, MOSIS... MOSIS is second, but the whole issue of trying to find a way, and then to produce. Things like MOSIS are community mechanisms, as well. NORBERG: Yes. NEWELL: It came along much later after the whole... NORBERG: But let's not lose this notion of community. Get back to this definition, because you just said that you believed that from IPTO's point of view the computer science community in the 1960s was the IPTO community.
73. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program

There wasn't anybody outside of that. But that leaves out a whole range of people in industry, for example. NEWELL: Right, who were not trying to make a computer science field. Almost none of them were. There is the creation of computer science, not just computers. And one of the peculiarities in the whole history of this thing is - well, you ought to know better than anybody else - is we start out with programming... Let's go back to day one. We start out with programming being something that little girls do. Then we get that programming is something that mathematicians do, but they don't make any science out of the program.

74. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


The only thing they do is numerical analysis, and then there is some programming. The mathematicians never get an image of computer science. The engineers never get an image of computer science. And it would never occur to them to. And so there isn't anybody building a science or envisioning a science of computer science. And that's what goes on in this community. 121 NORBERG: What distinguishes this community, this IPTO community, in the 1980s from the rest of computer science? Because now there is a much larger context that call themselves computer scientists. NEWELL: There sure is. I am not sure that there exists an ARPA community in the 1980s in the sense that I believe that there are 250 ARPA contractors that are spread all over hell and gone.
75. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program

Absolutely, they all know it now. I think every so often one thinks its not but its absolutely terminal and so then they retire out of DARPA and go off and do something else. So, then now for the last K years, and I think we would have to go back and see what K is, Dwayne has been essentially the main guy. We have now institutionalized this position, this sort of Associate Dean of Research, which we didn't have before. Raj sort of did it. NORBERG: That's because this is now a School of Computer Science rather than a department. NEWELL: No. School didn't make any difference. NORBERG: Well, then how do you get a Dean, if you didn't make it a school?

76. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program

I'll send you a copy. NEWELL: Anyway, at one stage of the game they created EAO. There is a pre-decision that happens, which is Cooper's decision and not Kahn's, which is for Congress, you gotta lay some applications on the line. This creates these three applications. You know why there are three - the Army, the Navy and the Air Force. NORBERG: Yes, right. NEWELL: The Marines never count in this kind of thing. The community created those. NORBERG: The community? Your community, computer science? NEWELL: Yes. Not totally, but, in fact, there were some intense 12-hour sessions down at DARPA where characters 107 were called in from the community to define this one or this one or this one.

77. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


Stanford came out of MIT, which is to say that John McCarthy came from MIT. The crazy thing that happened at Stanford was that McCarthy went out to Stanford and created the AI lab out there, which was independent of the Computer ScienceDepartment. Worst thing that could have ever happened to them. I mean, absolute organizational disaster, because it was a rich, in those days a really rich, AI lab that did it's own thing and as far as I could ever see not a single penny ever floated to the rest of the department. That was partly because they shoved it all out in the power lab out into the boonies.
78. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program

It had all kinds of positive effects, if you believe all these cultural growths were positive effects. Therefore, the cooperation between Stanford and MIT is very close. Decisions on machines and all kinds of things. They form a close-knit community, because John McCarthy came out of there. He and Marvin were in one sense a duo to try and make artificial intelligence happen. And so, the AI lab phenomenon occurs not here at all, but at those two places, and is joined then by the fourth one which is SRI, which is sort of an off-shoot of the Stanford situation. It's not really, because Charley Rosen, who created it, is a different kind of guy.

79. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


I think he is an MIT graduate. He knows all of those guys. He roomed with Ed David up there. So there is a level of communication, except that Perlis is focused on Computer Science. See, in again, this place is not an AI place. This place is a computer science place. And AI is a piece of it, but it's always a piece of the whole thing and the focus of the department is never on AI. The focus of the department is always on computer science of which AI is a part. So, we do in fact go our own way. The community, as it exists, as I see it, is sort of over there, with us sort of here and not strongly tied in and not isolated either.
80. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


You've got data structures people who are interested in how people are going to take the data in that representation. NEWELL: It seems to me to be a false picture, which is to say that, in fact, this community was dealing with the range of problems in computer science and a lot of the programming people were not very concerned with AI. The divisions which exist in the computer science world or in the forming computer science world, existed then still exist, which is on the part of the programming community a rather deep suspicion on whether AI is real and so on, and ought to be taken seriously and so on, was certainly evident there as well.
81. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


The outcome is that there was no AI lab here. There is just the computer science department, which is over all of computer science, so there are some theoreticians... Actually, Bob Floyd showed up in the mid '60s, now at Stanford. There was a guy that sort of did the first work on assigning meanings to programs, which later, not necessarily in the same form, was used in one of the more mature forms. There was actually a thesis by Jim King on program verification that used those ideas -- AI-ish like program. Bob himself was not at all AI oriented. He was program system oriented. As theoreticians, we had Al Meyer, now a full professor at MIT.
82. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


We 43 never had good theorists around here, relative to what we had in other areas. We had the start of a young, very good group of theoris ts. We had Al Meyer, Mike Fisher, who's a professor in theoretical computer science at Yale and Jim Standish, now out at Irvine -- was here as a student (these other guys weren't), and Bob Floyd, who was essentially on the theoretical side as well. That group was here in the late '60s and then blew apart in the course of a couple of years. Standish went to Harvard. Mike Fisher went to... So we lost 5 or 6 guys and we dropped to a faculty of around 7. So there really aren't many people by the '70s.
83. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


NEWELL: But observe that this is not built on AI only. A Center of Excellence is across all of computer science. So Al Perlis is here as well. NORBERG: Well, okay, but that's only 3 to 4 people that we're talking about in that period. Did you people have plans to expand this, and were they written in that 1964 proposal, if you remember it? NEWELL: Nope. NORBERG: They were not. NEWELL: Now...we could....let me see...so this is a yes and a no kind of thing. The answer is we had plans for doing all kinds of great things. They were not couched in terms of institutional plans for expansion. They were not couched into institutional terms at all, I think we'll find out.
84. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


Try to build a rational policy. All this was a part of a rational policy. We went out and endeavored to do this and we had a lot of good conversations with Cyert. Nothing fundamentally came from him. I'm not sure there wasn't a memo back, but... NORBERG: All I say is I didn't see it. All right, I will take up from there tomorrow when we get together. DATE: 11 June 1991 TAPE 3/SIDE 1 NORBERG: We are talking about the proposal for 1964. NEWELL: There is a funny contradiction in terms between this place growing and turning out to be a kind of key place in artificial intelligence and computer science and so forth, and yet, not being full of entrepreneur types who actually ever took that as their somehow goal in life, and that includes Herb, and Alan, and myself.
85. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


NORBERG: Now you were involved in some studies for the Jason Group, although you were not a member of the Jason Group. NEWELL: Right. Was not and am not. NORBERG: You did participate in some studies that they were interested in in computer science and it may even have been specifically in AI. Do you remember any of these? NEWELL: Let's see. More meetings. I don't know much about the Jasons. I'm not wired into those communities and never have been. By the way, it's conjecture, but this goes back to this issue I made with respect to Ruth Davis, having this kind of -- pick any word you want -- august position in the field, as well as the position of being a person with integrity.
86. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


No matter what els e you say, one must be sort of careful or you end up in Stanford's position. Very funny game. Everything is free and easy, but boy you really do better attend underneath at the next level to be sure you don't really screw things up because it may just hurt you at some point. So, in fact, we were acting quite clean on this. Dwayne, himself, is a Ph.D. from Stanford in Computer Science. He worked on DATAFLOW, the very early stuff on DATAFLOW SYSTEMS, although he was an Air Force Officer. He took the usual path. People flow into ARPA from 97 the military. It's always terminal for their careers.
87. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


But if you think about it, that is the only way you can run three administrative units is believe that administration does not count. Al Perlis and I ran this place together without, essentially without ever communicating with each other, because we always understood and believed in what the other was doing. NORBERG: What sorts of thing was he doing other than running these three organizations? NEWELL: He was creating computer science. NORBERG: What does that phrase mean? NEWELL: It turns out that Al Perlis' claim to fame... His technical claim to fame is fairly modest; he actually did a couple of things, in terms of algebraic compilers for small machines.
88. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


And he did a few other things. But fundamentally, it turns out that Allen Perlis epitomized, literally epitomized for the technical people in the field the nature of computer science. People would go to conferences - by people, I mean people like myself, people in the field - people would go to conferences where Al Perlis was and in essence listen to every word he said, because 33 every time he talked about a topic, which was full of these bonmots and epigrams and stuff like that, he was absolutely right about the way it should be. That's why he's the first Turing Award winner. Not at all for any technical contribution, some of course.
89. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program [Interview Details][Collection Details][Link to Text]

But not really, because in one sense he understood what computer science was supposed to be and he laid it out, not in a bunch of writings, in a sort of epi-grammatic way by personal interactions with all of the significant people in the field and they all believed him. They fundamentally believed him. So in one sense what he was doing was being a guru. What he was also doing was directing a bunch of graduate students, running research projects. He was running these organizations or non-running them. I think mostly the mathematics department was absolutely non-run during those years, but I don't know.
90. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


So there was essentially no friction in the organization. That's the other reputation that we have. NORBERG: As long as computer science is an area in which research problems define what people do and how they come together, then things can be run relatively smoothly. NEWELL: I think that that's an interesting remark. NORBERG: Between the two of you in respect to the major administration of this university. NEWELL: That's right. Remember the major administration isn't providing any bucks for us. And it isn't providing much space for us, because the space negotiations are really computation center negotiations.
91. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


NEWELL: Now be careful, because what I told you so far is that I never got interested in DARPA funding. NORBERG: Well, that's correct and what I'm beginning to interpret from those remarks is that in fact as the money comes in the research program doesn't change anyway. You're still doing the same things. NEWELL: I'm sure it expands, and the way it expands is there are more graduate students and these graduate students get supported and then there are more faculty and DARPA is supporting all the faculty that was associated with Computer Science -- up to some fraction -- but it is supporting people who I'm not doing joint research with at all.
92. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program

There was a guy by the name of Bill Watts, a computational linguist. Who else? NORBERG: Well, Feigenbaum must have been here somewhere around that time. NEWELL: He was a graduate student. NORBERG: Was Waterman here then? NEWELL: No, Waterman got his degree in 1969 and showed up here in '70. Gordon didn't show up until 1968, and doesn't make his presence felt for about a year or a year or two after that. TAPE 2/SIDE 2 NORBERG: The conclusion I'm drawing is that there wasn't a very significant group. NEWELL: In your terms, it was not a significant group. It was not AI. We didn't hire into AI. We hired into a computer science department.

93. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program

NEWELL: For all I know, he could have done so. I never knew that. I didn't even know of the existence of it. No, it didn't come to the psychology department, in fact, the people who got a hold of it were Al Perlis and myself, because it was computer science oriented... But the channel was through Burt. Now, there was an interdisciplinary program here called Systems and Communications Sciences. The people who made that up were Al Perlis, Herb Simon, Burt Green, myself, and a bunch of other characters. This was a real interdisciplinary program. That is, it had it's own 29 graduate students, probably had only about 15.

94. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


DARPA would pay 55%; the school would pay 45%. That's how we spent some of it. No questions asked. It was done because everyone believed that you ought to minimize the accounting. So there wouldn't be an accounting problem. Every member of the computer science faculty, and before that, the system was supported by DARPA automatically. There never was an AI lab. There just was the total faculty. So the theorists, the linguists, whoever was here - I mean not totally supported, there was the GO [general operations] [?] budget, but that budget was very small, because, in fact, the school never gave us a dime fundamentally.
95. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


But I do know that we never asked the question about how to go and do something new with that money, except to do what came naturally, and we were very un-entrepreneurial about it. I have an illustration of that for you. 1965, we got this 5 million dollar grant from the Mellon group, which was two things. It was finally advertised as a present upon Guy Stever's coming up here and becoming president. It actually started out being something quite different, but due to internal politics it was converted to be this thing. There was in that Herb's chair, a million bucks to buy a computer, 1 million bucks to buy a building for computer science.
96. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


We always used to brag that we the one place that actually paid our share of this building; no one else paid any money into this building. We did. We paid that 1 million bucks and 1.25 million bucks for 5 years of research money, an internal foundation. We looked around. We said that we've got so much money, we don't need that money. So we'll set up a little committee, but no one inside computer science will be able to use that money. We did it for the rest of 31 the university. People from inside computer science could submit proposals, but then we could probably find some other way to fund these.
97. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program

I don't know how much you've heard about the mythology of the computer science department. NORBERG: Not any. NEWELL: There was a lot of mythology about being one of the very cooperative schools; we ran everything jointly; people are all treated alike. There are no boundaries; there are no laboratories in this department. All of this comes out of the ARPA tradition, as it was evidenced in the school here and out of this communication sciences program, this interdisciplinary program that preceded the computer science, which was genuinely interdisciplinary without the kind of constraints that force all human beings into living the way you live in Minnesota, the way everybody lives everywhere.

98. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


They always do. But not very much. And not very much in the '60s. But we didn't do very much in the '60s. NORBERG: Tell me a little about Al Perlis and his style of running things, because I have the sense that Perlis was different than that. NEWELL: Nope. Perlis was one of the world's great non-administrators. He did not believe in administration. Perlis believed that you solve problems by making some simple decisions. That seems completely at variance with the fact that he was simultaneously the head of the math department, the head of the computer science department and head of the computation center.
99. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


Heuristic programming was the nickname, was the moniker for that. That got known all around, so heuristic programming was an alternative name to artificial intelligence. You could talk about applying heuristic programs. So that's where it came from in Lick's program. I am almost sure. Now, he didn't have it tied anything like so closely to management science. So in that respect that was my yes and no. NORBERG: My second question is, did you people, you and Herb, begin to notice in the late 1950s applications of the work that you and he had done in GPS, Logic theorist, and so on, in other people's work?
100. Interview of Newell, Allen 10-Jun-1991 in Charles Babbage Institute Oral History Program 


And so in the area of artificial intelligence, I knew every program that had been produced by everybody in whatever field. There was not a strong emphasis on fields here. I just knew everything that was done, and that comes from kind of being there first, and then it all happens naturally. So the answer is. For instance, we dug up various things like this one that Herb still loves to quote, this guy, Goodwin, out of Westinghouse doing electric motors, who couldn't give a rusty about us, didn't know anything about us, but was doing some rather interesting design of electric motors, doing some sort of generate with a bunch of programs.
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  1. Edwards, Harry (Biography)

    ... Edwards was appointed as cochair of the Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Sciences Community project committee established by the National ...

    Source:Encyclopedia of African American History, 1896 to the Present: From the Age of Segregation to the Twenty-first Century

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    ... , and Christopher Darden based its case largely on forensic evidence, especially blood, that they said linked O. J. Simpson ...

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    ... 2005 discussed the circumstances of Booker T. Washington's death, and medical andforensic personnel concluded that there was no basis for the claim of ...

    Source:Encyclopedia of African American History, 1896 to the Present: From the Age of Segregation to the Twenty-first Century

  4. Nina Rodrigues, Raimundo (Biography)

    ... anthropology, sociology, and criminology. He became a professor of general pathology andforensic medicine at the medical school in the early 1890s and was a ...

    Source:Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, Second Edition

  5. Harsh, Vivian Gordon (Biography) image available

    ... her education by matriculating at Simmons College Graduate School of Library andInformation Science (Boston). In 1921 she earned a degree in Library Science and ...

    Source:African American National Biography

  6. Jones, Virginia Lacy (Biography)

    ... the American Association of Library Schools (now the Association of Library and Information Science Education) in 1967.Jones was the recipient of numerous awards ...

    Source:African American National Biography

  7. Ramos, Arthur de Araójo Pereira (Biography)

    ... following year. He also worked at the Instituto Nina Rodrigues as a forensic doctor and at the Psychiatric Clinic of the Medical School ...

    Source:Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, Second Edition

  8. Shaw, Earl D. (Biography)

    ... D. Shaw obtained a Ph.D. in Computer Science from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1995.)Shaw returned ...

    Source:African American National Biography

  9. Bozeman, Sylvia Trimble (Biography)

    ... a summer research program at Harvard University, where she learned the early computer programming language FORTRAN. In 1968, after serving as student government ...

    Source:African American National Biography

  10. Moreira, Juliano (Biography)

    ... he founded the Medical Society of Bahia and advanced both psychiatric and forensicmedical studies.

    Source:Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, Second Edition

  11. Fredericks, Frankie (Biography)

    ... States, where he enrolled in 1987.At Brigham Young, Fredericks earned degrees incomputer science and business administration and also became the national collegiate ...

    Source:Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, Second Edition

  12. Granville, Evelyn Boyd (Biography)

    ... a good one and personally fulfilling. In addition to teaching classes in computer programming and numerical analysis at CSULA, Boyd worked with elementary ...

    Source:African American National Biography

  13. Llewellyn, James Bruce (Biography)

    ... to assist African American doctoral students in business, economics, engineering, mathematics, and computer science.Llewellyn died in Manhattan from renal failure at the age of ...

    Source:Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, Second Edition

  14. Fenton, Kevin Andrew (Biography)

    ... he enrolled at the University of the West Indies (UWI) as a computer science major, only to transfer to the Faculty of Medicine in 1985. ...

    Source:African American National Biography

  15. Shakur, Assata (Biography)

    ... after sustaining a gunshot wound to her upper right arm. In addition forensic evidence showed no fingerprints by Shakur on any weapon nor ...

    Source:African American National Biography


*

Oxford Art Online 
39 Results

Content Sample

  • Artificial Intelligence (Subject Entry) 
    This entry explains the meaning of artificial intelligence and how it both relates to traditional aesthetic theories and… 
    Source: Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

  • Price, Cedric (Biography) 
    ...Price carried his studies in supportive technology into the realm of artificial intelligence . His Generator project (unbuilt) proposed an intelligent building, a computerized… 
    Source: Grove Art Online

  • Science and contemporary art (Subject Entry) 
    ...research in how the human mind works and the study of artificial intelligence —the frontiers of knowledge pushed outward at an accelerated pace. In… 
    Source: Grove Art Online

  • Deleuze, Gilles (Biography) 
    See also Artificial Intelligence and Aesthetics; Expression Theory of Art; Film, article on Film… 
    Source: Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

  • Virtual Reality (Subject Entry) 
    ...draws its sustenance: Virtual Reality combines art with technology, psychology with computer science , and electrical engineering with metaphysics. Another related problem is how… 
    Source: Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

  • COHEN, Harold (Biography) 
    British, 20th century, male. 
    Source: Benezit Dictionary of Artists

  • Cognitive Science (Subject Entry) 
    Source: Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

  • Computer Art (Subject Entry) 
    See also Artificial Intelligence and Aesthetics; Cyberspace; Digital Media; Hypertext; Multimedia; and Virtual Reality. 
    Source: Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

  • Creativity (Subject Entry) 
    ...the treatment of creativity in psychology. For related discussion, see Appropriation; Artificial Intelligence; Artist, article on History of the Concept; Genius; and Originality. 
    Source: Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

  • Cyberspace (Subject Entry) 
    ...Previously, the debate centered on the computer as a locus of artificial intelligence . The artificial intelligence debate focused on the computer as a… 
    Source: Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

  • Multimedia (Subject Entry) 
    See also Artificial Intelligence and Aesthetics; Computer Art; Cyberspace; Digital Media; Hypertext; Medium; and… 
    Source: Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

  • Hypertext (Subject Entry) 
    See also Artificial Intelligence; Computer Art; Cyberspace; Digital Media; Multimedia; Text; and Virtual Reality. 
    Source: Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

  • Child art (Subject Entry) 
    Art produced by children. Interest in it started to develop in the West in the late 19th century: psychologists and psychiatrists became involved… 
    Source: Grove Art Online

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Oxford Bibliographies Online: Criminology and International Law
Search Results
49 Articles and 149 Citations

Content Sample

Forensic Science

Quentin Rossy, Joëlle Vuille

Subject: Criminology »

Date Added: 2014-01-30

Forensic Science Introduction Any science used to assist the adjudication of a civil litigation or a criminal case becomes, de facto, a forens...

Communicating Scientific Findings in the Courtroom

Joëlle Vuille, Nicole M. Egli Anthonioz

Subject: Criminology »

Date Added: 2016-05-26

forensic scientists learn to write more transparent statements. This ...

Criminal Investigation

Richard H. Ward

Subject: Criminology »

Date Added: 2011-04-14

... forensic accounting and fraud; cyber-crime, Internet stalking and child pornography; ...

Psychiatry, Psychology, and Crime: Historical and Current Aspects

Jennifer Brown

Subject: Criminology »

Date Added: 2016-02-25

... forensic,” meaning “of the courts” identifies that particular concern ...

Criminal Use of Technology

Richard K. Moule

Subject: Criminology »

Date Added: 2017-02-28

computer science, economics, and public policy. Further, the diverse nature ...

Wrongful Conviction

Marvin Zalman

Subject: Criminology »

Date Added: 2012-07-24

... forensic science, and adjudication. The subject also includes the consequences ...

Cyber Warfare

Marco Benatar

Subject: International Law »

Date Added: 2014-03-27

... network security. All these elements are thrown into the crucible to form a ...

Mental Health and Crime

Sarah Manchak, Samantha Henderson, Julia Mesler, Caravella McCuistian

Subject: Criminology »

Date Added: 2013-07-24

... Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology

Risk Assessment

Ashley A. Pritchard, Adam J. E. Blanchard, Kevin S. Douglas

Subject: Criminology »

Date Added: 2014-01-13

... forensic patients, and civil psychiatric patients. In each such context, ...

Technology and the Criminal Justice System

Thomas Holt

Subject: Criminology »

Date Added: 2013-05-28

... forensic investigation.

Social Networks

Peter J. Carrington

Subject: Criminology »

Date Added: 2013-04-22

... information science, etc. At the heart of SNA are three insights, or assumptions: ...

Psychology and Crime

David Canter

Subject: Criminology »

Date Added: 2014-01-13

... forensic psychology. Thus, any review of psychology and crime now overlaps ...

Police Effectiveness

Gary Cordner

Subject: Criminology »

Date Added: 2012-05-23

... forensic science, associated with clearances.

Eyewitness Testimony

Cara Laney, Elizabeth Loftus

Subject: Criminology »

Date Added: 2011-05-25

... forensic or legal psychologists. Witnessing a crime can be complicated, ...

Freedom of Expression

Mark J. Richards

Subject: International Law »

Date Added: 2014-07-30

... network security (

Discretion in the Criminal Justice System

Shawn D. Bushway, Brian Forst

Subject: Criminology »

Date Added: 2011-03-02

... forensic evidence. The other three articles focus on wrongful convictions: ...

Homicide Victimization

Marc Riedel, Gwen Hunnicutt

Subject: Criminology »

Date Added: 2012-04-24

... Forensic Sciences

Cybercrime

Thomas Holt

Subject: Criminology »

Date Added: 2009-12-14

... forensics and cybercrime: An introduction

Homicide

Marc Riedel

Subject: Criminology »

Date Added: 2011-05-25

... Forensic Sciences

Therapeutic Jurisprudence

Brianna Chesser

Subject: Criminology »

Date Added: 2016-07-27

... forensic psychologists.


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Oxford Handbooks Online: Law Collection

2,474 articles  for:

All : "computer science" OR "information science" OR "computer programming"
OR informatics OR "data management" OR "information security" OR
"network security" OR forensics OR "visual computing" OR "data mining"
OR "machine learning" OR "multimedia databases" OR "artificial intelligence"
x





Content Sample

Artificial Intelligence  

Diane Proudfoot and B. Jack Copeland

Print publication date:
Jan 2012
Online publication date:
May 2012
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

...—— . (1999). Alan Turing's forgotten ideas in computer science. Scientific American 280(4): 99–103. —— . (2004). The computer, Artificial Intelligence, and the Turing test. In C. Teuscher (ed.), Alan Turing: Life and Legacy of a Great Thinker . Berlin: Springer Verlag. —— . (2005). Turing and the computer. In B. J. Copeland (ed.), Alan Turing's Automatic Computing Engine: The Master Codebreaker's Struggle to Build the Modern Computer . Oxford: Oxford University Press. —— . (2006). Artificial Intelligence: History, Foundations, and Philosophical Issues...

Data Mining  

Carolin Strobl

Print publication date:
Mar 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013
Subject:
Psychology, Psychological Methods and Measurement

...popular data mining techniques as well as a short literature and software guide are given. Classification and regression trees CART Bagging Random forests Bootstrap sampling Subsampling Prediction Variable importance Introduction Data mining is an umbrella term for a variety of techniques that were developed in statistics and computer sciences for analyzing large amounts of data. Tantamount terms are pattern recognition, statistcal learning , and machine learning . Techniques referred to with the term data mining have...

Machine Learning of Inflection  

Katya Pertsova

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Jan 2016
Subject:
Linguistics, Morphology and Syntax, Computational Linguistics

... Chapter 13 Machine Learning of Inflection Katya Pertsova 13.1 Introduction The task of learning a natural language is an instance of inductive inference (making generalizations based on past observations to predict future ones) studied within several traditions in the sciences under such names as ‘machine learning’, ‘grammar induction’, and ‘computational learning theory’. In this chapter, I aim to introduce some of the concepts and approaches used in the formal study of learnability and the relevance of this field to theoretical linguistics...

Linguistic Data Management  

Nicholas Thieberger and Andrea L. Berez

Print publication date:
Nov 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Subject:
Linguistics, Documentary Linguistics

...analysis of field‐collected materials. The approach to data management presented here assumes that it is the professional responsibility of linguists to create long‐lasting, archivable primary data and to then situate any subsequent analyses in that data. We advocate the use of appropriate technologies to record, manage, and annotate linguistic data, in order not only to create good records of the languages we study but to also provide access to the data upon which we make generalizations. Good data management includes the use of specific software tools (e.g. Toolbox...

Data Mining as Global Governance  

Fleur Johns

Print publication date:
Jul 2017
Online publication date:
Jan 2017
Subject:
Law, IT and Communications Law, Law and Society

...forays from a range of fields (exemplified by the Brandeis brief), opportunities along these lines seem far more limited in the field of data mining (on the Brandeis brief, see Doro 1958 ). Describing data mining as ‘interdisciplinary’, one popular data mining textbook explained as follows the discipline’s narrow sense of that term: ‘Statistics, database technology, machine learning, pattern recognition, artificial intelligence, and visualization, all play a role’ ( Hand, Mannila, and Smyth 2001 : 4). Third, the influence of taste, disposition, culture, style, faith...

Virtual Musicians and Machine Learning  

Nick Collins

Print publication date:
May 2014
Online publication date:
Jul 2014
Subject:
Music, Applied Music

...arises, someone will attempt to apply it in computer music. Applications often follow trends in general engineering and computer science, for example, the boom in connectionist methods like neural nets in the 1990s, genetic algorithms over the same period, or the growth of data mining and Bayesian statistical approaches in to the 2000s. 21.2 Musical-learning Examples Three examples of the sorts of musical task enabled by machine learning are: • Learning from a corpus of musical examples, to train a composing mechanism for the generation of new musical...

Statistical data mining procedures in generalized cox regressions  

Zhen Wei

Print publication date:
Jan 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics, Econometrics, Experimental and Quantitative Methods

...the hazard rates ( Cox 1972 ) and extends the model within a general framework of statistical data miningprocedures. Traditionally, these models are calibrated using the martingale approach, which is based on theories in counting processes, for example, see Anderson and Gill ( 1982 ) . In contrast, this chapter presents a various pool of procedures that are based solely on maximum (partial) likelihoods without using the martingale properties. Moreover, the data mining procedures described in this chapter can also be employed to solve other regression/classification...

Machine Learning for Affective Computing: Challenges and Opportunities  

Ashish Kapoor

Print publication date:
Jan 2015
Online publication date:
Aug 2014
Subject:
Psychology, Affective Science

...Kapoor, Burleson, and Picard (2007) for details of the relevance determination procedure. Machine Learning: An Affective Computing Perspective Whereas at the core of an affect recognition system lies a machine learning system, there are significant additional considerations from the perspective of affective computing. One of the most important aspects is how to measure the effectiveness of an affect recognition system. Although almost all machine learningsystems focus on maximizing recognition accuracy, there are many examples in affective computing where...

Trade Secrets and Information Security in the Age of Sports Analytics  

Roger Allan Ford

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property Law, Law and Society

...prosecution do not outweigh the costs, weakening the deterrent effect of criminal prosecution in the first place. 7.Information Security Most of the time, the legal remedies discussed previously are not perfect solutions; indeed, in many cases they may be effectively worthless. That leaves, then, the option of preventing secrets from being taken in the first place. To do this, teams should implement effective information-security measures to protect their secrets. There are two components of an effective security system: technical measures and human factors...

The Miracle of the Septuagint and the Promise of Data Mining in Economics  

Stan du Plessis

Print publication date:
Mar 2009
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Epistemology

...are relevant to data mining: First, the layers of testing in this explicitly iterative modeling strategy has exposed the G–S method to the suspicion of unwarranted data mining (Faust & Whiteman 1997a) . Proponents of the G–S method have answered these concerns by, first, distinguishing warranted from unwarranted data mining (Spanos 2000) or distinguishing constructive from pejorative data mining (Campos & Ericsson 1999) and, second, arguing that the data mining in G–S is warranted or constructive. The G–S argument that the form of data mining implicit in the...


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Oxford Journals Online 
567647 results

*

Oxford Music Online 
74 Results

Content Sample

  • Smith, Leland C. (Biography) 
    Smith carried out leading research into computer programming for music composition and printing. He was one of the… 
    Source: Grove Music Online

  • Computers and music (Subject Entry) 
    ...as a whole. Composer and scientist david Cope, applying research in artificial intelligence , has created software, titled Experiments in Musical Intelligence, that composes… 
    Source: Grove Music Online - The Grove Dictionary of American Music, 2nd edition

  • Analysis, §II: History (Subject Entry) 
    ...of methods, but with a significant shift from the model of forensic examination towards the construction of interpretations. 
    Source: Grove Music Online

  • Computers and music (Subject Entry)  
    ...others. Advances in the cognitive sciences, notably in the field of artificial intelligence , have led to progress in the construction of analysis software… 
    Source: Grove Music Online

  • Strange, Allen (Biography) 
    ...university. In 1973 he attended Chowning’s music seminar at Stanford University’s Artificial Intelligence Center. Strange was one of the leading authorities on analogue… 
    Source: Grove Music Online

  • Cope, David Howell (Biography) 
    Cope’s later research and teaching have focused on artificial intelligence and music; he has developed a software program called EMI… 
    Source: Grove Music Online - Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments

  • Stroppa, Marco (Biography) 
    ...was at MIT, where he pursued graduate studies in cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence and computer music. From 1977 onwards he has taught and… 
    Source: Grove Music Online

  • Electro-acoustic music (Subject Entry) 
    ...music departments, and some developed strong links with engineering and, later, computer science and artificial intelligence departments. In several cases strong entrepreneurial relationships… 
    Source: Grove Music Online

  • Information theory (Subject Entry) 
    A theory which seeks to describe, by means of mathematical equations, the properties and behaviour of systems for storing, processing and transmitting information.… 
    Source: Grove Music Online

  • Brothomstates (Biography) 
    ...tense, emotive tracks that have obvious precursors in Warp Records iconic Artificial Intelligence series and in the work of Autechre and Plaid. Brothomstates… 
    Source: Encyclopedia of Popular Music

  • Aphex Twin (Biography) 
    ...Records included his ‘Polygon Window’, credited to the Diceman, on their Artificial Intelligence compilation. This track opened Surfing On Sine Waves which James… 
    Source: Encyclopedia of Popular Music

  • Bola (Biography) 
    ...released music on Warp Records, on the electronica label’s epochal 1995 Artificial Intelligence II compilation. Endearingly, his contribution to the phone code-inspired collection… 
    Source: Encyclopedia of Popular Music

  • Cale, John (Biography) 
    b. 9 March 1942, Garnant, Carmarthenshire, Wales. Cale was a student of viola and keyboards at London’s Goldsmith’s college when introduced to electronic… 
    Source: Encyclopedia of Popular Music

  • Hawtin, Richie (Biography) 
    ...F.U.S.E. album Dimension Intrusion, part of Warp Records ’ highly collectable Artificial Intelligence series. 
    Source: Encyclopedia of Popular Music

  • Speedy J (Biography) 
    ...Shamen and Björk he released 1993’s Ginger as part of the Artificial Intelligence series on Warp Records. The single ‘Pepper’ also proved to… 
    Source: Encyclopedia of Popular Music

  • Lewin, David (Biography) 
    (b New York, 2 July 1933; d Boston, 5 May 2003). American theorist. He studied mathematics at Harvard, then composition with Sessions and… 
    Source: Grove Music Online

  • Cale, John (Biography) 
    (b Garnant, South Glamorgan, 9 March 1942). Welsh composer, singer-songwriter, producer and arranger. His father was a coal miner and his mother a… 
    Source: Grove Music Online

  • Young, Michael (Biography) 
    (b South Shields, Tyne and Wear, 15 August 1968). English composer. He studied at the University of Oxford and with john Casken at… 
    Source: Grove Music Online

  • Brain-computer music interface (Subject Entry) 
    ...2007 uses information from EEG power spectrum analysis to direct an artificial intelligence system that sends continuous MIDI information online to a MIDI-enabled… 
    Source: Grove Music Online - Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments

  • Congress reports: 2002 (Subject Entry) 
    Music and Artificial Intelligence , Intl Conference on Music and Artificial Intelligence II, ed. A.… 
    Source: Grove Music Online

  • Theory, theorists (Subject Entry) 
    ...the ‘arithmetical’ ought to include mathematics in general, communications theory and artificial intelligence ; ‘natural’ theory should include psychological and physiological as well as… 
    Source: Grove Music Online

  • Analysis: Bibliography (Subject Entry) 
    Source: Grove Music Online

  • Autechre (Subject Entry) 
    ...debut Incunabula was one of the most effective releases on Warp’s Artificial Intelligence series. 
    Source: Encyclopedia of Popular Music

  • Black Dog (Subject Entry) 
    ...Dog Productions released their debut album, Bytes, as part of Warp’s Artificial Intelligence series. Certainly one of the highlights of the series, the… 
    Source: Encyclopedia of Popular Music

  • Our Lady Peace (Subject Entry) 
    ...excellent fourth outing, which drew inspiration from Ray Kurzweil’s book about artificial intelligence, revealed a new creative maturity. 
    Source: Encyclopedia of Popular Music



















































































































*


Oxford Reference Online 
8,555 Results

Content Sample

computer programing language  Quick reference

A Dictionary of Travel and Tourism

Reference type: 
Subject Reference
Current Version: 
2012
Subject: 
Social sciences
Length: 
79 words

The codes used to design a software program for a computer, so that when the operator gives instructions to the ...

artificial intelligence

artificial intelligence  Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

Reference type: 
Subject Reference
Current Version: 
2016
Subject: 
Science and technology, Mathematics and Computer Science
Length: 
267 words

...intelligence ( AI ) A discipline concerned with the building of computer programs that perform tasks requiring intelligence when done by humans. However, intelligent tasks for which a decision procedure is known (e.g. inverting matrices) are generally excluded, whereas perceptual tasks that might seem not to involve intelligence (e.g. seeing) are generally included. For this reason, AI is better defined by indicating its range. Examples of tasks tackled within AI are: game playing, automated reasoning , machine learning , natural-language...

data mining

data mining  Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

Reference type: 
Subject Reference
Current Version: 
2016
Subject: 
Science and technology, Mathematics and Computer Science
Length: 
87 words

...mining The nontrivial explication or extraction of information from data, in which the information is implicit and previously unknown; an example is identification of the pattern of use of a credit card to detect possible fraud. The data is normally accessed from one or more databases, so the technique is also known as knowledge discovery in databases ( KDD ). It involves a number of different methods from artificial intelligence such as neural networks and machine induction, together with statistical methods such as cluster analysis and data...

computer science

computer science  Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

Reference type: 
Subject Reference
Current Version: 
2016
Subject: 
Science and technology, Mathematics and Computer Science
Length: 
161 words

...science The study of computers, their underlying principles and use. It comprises topics such as: programming; information structures; software engineering; programming languages; compilers and operating systems; hardware design and testing; computer system architecture; computer networks and distributed systems; systems analysis and design; theories of information, systems, and computation; applicable mathematics and electronics; computing techniques (e.g. graphics, simulation, artificial intelligence, and neural networks); applications; social,...

machine learning

machine learning  Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

Reference type: 
Subject Reference
Current Version: 
2016

...learning A branch of artificial intelligence concerned with the construction of programs that learn from experience. Learning may take many forms, ranging from learning from examples and learning by analogy to autonomous learning of concepts and learning by discovery. Incremental learning involves continuous improvement as new data arrives while one-shot or batch learning distinguishes a training phase from the application phase. Supervised learning occurs when the training input has been explicitly labelled with the classes to be learned. Most...

distributed artificial intelligence

distributed artificial intelligence  Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

Reference type: 
Subject Reference
Current Version: 
2016

...artificial intelligence ( DAI ) An approach to artificial intelligence in which processing takes place not in a single algorithm but is distributed across a number of agents, possibly many. Each agent is autonomous, with its own actions and belief space, and the behaviour of the whole system, which may or may not solve a particular problem, is characterized by its emergent...

information science

information science  Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

Reference type: 
Subject Reference
Current Version: 
2016

...science The branch of knowledge concerned with the storage, organization, retrieval, processing, and dissemination of information. The term was coined in the aftermath of the spread of computers and the corresponding revolution in information-handling techniques. Information science therefore inevitably pays substantial attention to, but is not confined to, what can be achieved with...

data management

data management  Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

Reference type: 
Subject Reference
Current Version: 
2016

...management A term normally used to refer to systems that offer users an interface that screens them from the majority of the details of the physical handling of the files, leaving them free to concentrate on the logical properties of the...

data management system

data management system  Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

Reference type: 
Subject Reference
Current Version: 
2016

...management system A class of software systems that includes database management systems and file management systems...

informatics

informatics  Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

Reference type: 
Subject Reference
Current Version: 
2016

... The use of computers to maintain and analyse large amounts of data. The term is applied particularly with respect to databases of chemical compounds or reactions ( chemoinformatics ) or databases in biochemistry or cell biology ( bioinformatics...




*

Oxford Reports on International Law 

416 results


Content Sample

Gemplus SA and ors v Mexico, Award, ICSID Case Nos ARB(AF)/04/3, ARB(AF)/04/4, IIC 488 (2010), despatched 16th June 2010, International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes [ICSID] »

Original Source PDF
Despatched
16 June 2010
Content type
Arbitral awards
Product
Oxford Reports on International Law [ORIL]
Module
International Investment Claims [IIC]
Jurisdiction
International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes [ICSID]
Subject(s)
Jurisdiction of arbitral tribunals — Expropriation — Investor — Fair and equitable treatment standard — Full protection and security — Most-favoured-nation treatment (MFN) — National treatment — Compensation

Beganović v Croatia, Merits and just satisfaction, App no 46423/06, IHRL 3672 (ECHR 2009), 25th June 2009, European Court of Human Rights [ECHR] »

Date
25 June 2009
Content type
International court decisions
Product
Oxford Reports on International Law [ORIL]
Module
International Human Rights Law [IHRL]
Jurisdiction
European Court of Human Rights [ECHR]
Subject(s)
Freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment — Right to effective remedy — Right to non-discrimination — Duty to investigate — Obligation to prosecute

Case of Alfonso Martín del Campo Dodd v United Mexican States, del Campo Dodd v Mexico, Preliminary objections, IACHR Series C No 113, [2004] IACHR 9, IHRL 1496 (IACHR 2004), 3rd September 2004, Inter-American Court of Human Rights [IACtHR] »

Date
03 September 2004
Content type
International court decisions
Product
Oxford Reports on International Law [ORIL]
Module
International Human Rights Law [IHRL]
Jurisdiction
Inter-American Court of Human Rights [IACtHR]
Subject(s)
Freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment — Right to effective remedy — Right to fair trial — International courts and tribunals, jurisdiction

Nikolic and Nikolic (on behalf of NN) v Serbia and Montenegro, Merits, UN Doc CAT/C/35/D/174/2000, IHRL 2891 (UNCAT 2005), 9th December 2005, United Nations General Assembly [UNGA]; Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights [OHCHR]; Committee Against Torture [CAT] »

Date
09 December 2005
Content type
International court decisions
Product
Oxford Reports on International Law [ORIL]
Module
International Human Rights Law [IHRL]
Jurisdiction
Committee Against Torture [CAT]
Subject(s)
Torture — Duty to investigate

Case of Ríos et al v Venezuela, Ríos and ors v Venezuela, Preliminary objections, merits, reparations and costs, IACHR Series C no 194, IHRL 3065 (IACHR 2009), 28th January 2009, Inter-American Court of Human Rights [IACtHR] »

Date
28 January 2009
Content type
International court decisions
Product
Oxford Reports on International Law [ORIL]
Module
International Human Rights Law [IHRL]
Jurisdiction
Inter-American Court of Human Rights [IACtHR]
Subject(s)
Freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment — Freedom of expression — Right to effective remedy — Right to fair trial — Responsibility of states

Ristic (on behalf of Ristic) v Yugoslavia, Merits, UN Doc CAT/C/26/D/113/1998, Communication No 113/1998, IHRL 1804 (UNCAT 2001), 11th May 2001, United Nations General Assembly [UNGA]; Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights [OHCHR]; Committee Against Torture [CAT] »

Date
11 May 2001
Content type
International court decisions
Product
Oxford Reports on International Law [ORIL]
Module
International Human Rights Law [IHRL]
Jurisdiction
Committee Against Torture [CAT]
Subject(s)
Torture — Right to effective remedy — Duty to investigate — Due process

Gongadze v Ukraine, Merits and just satisfaction, App no 34056/02, ECHR 2005-X, (2006) 43 EHRR 44, IHRL 3208 (ECHR 2005), 8th November 2005, European Court of Human Rights [ECHR] »

Date
08 November 2005
Content type
International court decisions
Product
Oxford Reports on International Law [ORIL]
Module
International Human Rights Law [IHRL]
Jurisdiction
European Court of Human Rights [ECHR]
Subject(s)
Access to information — Freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment — Right to effective remedy — Right to life — Disappearances — Exhaustion of local remedies — Duty to investigate — Obligation to prosecute — Compensation — Damages

RSK, Prosecutor v Martić (Milan), Decision on Ivan Čermac's and Mladen Markač's joint motion for access to confidential testimony and documents in Prosecutor v Milan Martić case, Case No IT-95-11-T, ICL 511 (ICTY 2007), 1st March 2007, United Nations Security Council [UNSC]; International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia [ICTY]; Trial Chamber I [ICTY] »

Date
01 March 2007
Content type
International court decisions
Product
Oxford Reports on International Law [ORIL]
Module
International Criminal Law [ICL]
Jurisdiction
Trial Chamber I [ICTY]
Subject(s)
Evidence — International criminal law, evidence — Procedure — Torture — Fact-finding and inquiry

Litvin (on behalf of Shchetka) v Ukraine, Admissibility, UN Doc CCPR/C/102/D/1535/2006, IHRL 1828 (UNHRC 2011), 19th July 2011, United Nations General Assembly [UNGA]; Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights [OHCHR]; United Nations Human Rights Committee [UNHRC] »

Date
19 July 2011
Content type
International court decisions
Product
Oxford Reports on International Law [ORIL]
Module
International Human Rights Law [IHRL]
Jurisdiction
United Nations Human Rights Committee [UNHRC]
Subject(s)
Freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment — Right to fair trial — Duty to investigate — Judicial review

Eshonov (on behalf of Eshonov) v Uzbekistan, Merits, UN Doc CCPR/C/99/D/1225/2003, IHRL 3647 (UNHRC 2010), 22nd July 2010, United Nations General Assembly [UNGA]; Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights [OHCHR]; United Nations Human Rights Committee [UNHRC] »

Date
22 July 2010
Content type
International court decisions
Product
Oxford Reports on International Law [ORIL]
Module
International Human Rights Law [IHRL]
Jurisdiction
United Nations Human Rights Committee [UNHRC]
Subject(s)
Freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment — Right to effective remedy — Right to life — Evidence — International criminal law, evidence — Duty to investigate

*

Oxford Scholarship Online
243 Books

Content Sample

Harboring Data: Information Security, Law, and the Corporation

Andrea M. Matwyshyn (ed.)

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804760089
eISBN:
9780804772594
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804760089.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

As identity theft and corporate data vulnerability continue to escalate, corporations must protect both the valuable consumer data they collect and their own intangible assets. Both Congress and the ... More


Statistics and Informatics in Molecular Cancer Research

Carsten Wiuf and Claus L. Andersen (eds)

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199532872
eISBN:
9780191714467
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199532872.001.0001
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics, Biostatistics

This book discusses novel advances in informatics and statistics in molecular cancer research. Through eight chapters it discusses specific topics in cancer research, talks about how the topics give ... More


Machine Learning in Non-Stationary Environments: Introduction to Covariate Shift Adaptation

Masashi Sugiyama and Motoaki Kawanabe

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780262017091
eISBN:
9780262301220
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262017091.001.0001
Subject:
Computer Science, Machine Learning

As the power of computing has grown over the past few decades, the field of machine learning has advanced rapidly in both theory and practice. Machine learning methods are usually based on the ... More


Passionate Engines: What Emotions Reveal about the Mind and Artificial Intelligence

Craig DeLancey

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195142716
eISBN:
9780199833153
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195142713.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Passionate Engines shows that our best understanding of emotion has important implications for understanding intentionality, rationality, phenomenal consciousness, artificial ... More


Clinical Data-Mining: Integrating Practice and Research

Irwin Epstein

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195335521
eISBN:
9780199777433
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335521.001.0001
Subject:
Social Work, Research and Evaluation

Clinical data-mining (CDM) involves the conceptualization, extraction, analysis, and interpretation of available clinical data for practice knowledge-building, clinical decision-making, and ... More


Forensic Mental Health Assessments in Death Penalty Cases

David DeMatteo, Daniel C. Murrie, Natalie M. Anumba, and Michael E. Keesler

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195385809
eISBN:
9780199895311
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385809.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Forensic Psychology

The continuing development of forensic psychology and psychiatry, combined with several recent decisions from the United States Supreme Court addressing various aspects of the death penalty, has ... More


Psychological Injuries: Forensic Assessment, Treatment, and Law

William J. Koch, Kevin S. Douglas, Tonia L. Nicholls, and Melanie L. O'Neill

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195188288
eISBN:
9780199870486
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195188288.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Human emotional suffering has been studied for centuries, but the significance of psychological injuries within legal contexts has only recently been recognized. As the public becomes increasingly ... More


Image to Interpretation: An Intelligent System to Aid Historians in Reading the Vindolanda Texts

Melissa Terras

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199204557
eISBN:
9780191708121
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199204557.001.0001
Subject:
Classical Studies, British and Irish History: BCE to 500CE

The ink and stylus tablets discovered at the Roman fort of Vindolanda are a unique resource for scholars of ancient history. However, the stylus tablets in particular are extremely difficult to read. ... More


The Violence of Care: Rape Victims, Forensic Nurses, and Sexual Assault Intervention

Sameena Mulla

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9781479800315
eISBN:
9781479878901
Item type:
book
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9781479800315.001.0001
Subject:
Anthropology, Medical Anthropology

Every year in the United States, thousands of women and hundreds of men participate in sexual assault forensic examinations. Drawing on four years of participatory research in a Baltimore emergency ... More


Apocalyptic AI: Visions of Heaven in Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, and Virtual Reality

Robert Geraci

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195393026
eISBN:
9780199777136
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195393026.001.0001
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

The hope that we might one day upload our minds into robots and, eventually, cyberspace has become commonplace and now affects life across a broad spectrum of western culture. Popular science books ... More








David Dillard


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Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (Eds),

Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,

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Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay

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